Notes

Sex, Power, and Partisanship: How Evolutionary Science Makes Sense of Our Political Divide - Hector A. Garcia 2019


Notes

CHAPTER 1: EVOLUTIONARY POLITICS

1. Christopher Matthews, “Mommy's Love and Daddy's Protection,” Baltimore Sun, May 14, 1991, http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1991-05-14/news/1991134061_1_liberal-democrats-gulf-war-mommy.

2. Bob Burnett, “Republicans Are from Mars; Democrats Are from Venus,” Huffington Post, December 10, 2016, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/bob-burnett/republicans-are-from-mars_1_b_8770824.html.

3. “Ann Coulter on Her Feud with Elizabeth Edwards,” Fox News, June 29, 2007, https://www.foxnews.com/story/ann-coulter-on-her-feud-with-elizabeth-edwards.

4. Monika L. McDermott, Masculinity, Femininity, and American Political Behavior (repr.; New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).

5. Steve Sailer, “Q&A: Steven Pinker of ’Blank Slate,’” United Press International, October 30, 2002, https://www.upi.com/QA-Steven-Pinker-of-Blank-Slate/26021035991232/.

6. Ibid.

7. L. Cosmides and J. Tooby, “Beyond Intuition and Instinct Blindness: Toward an Evolutionarily Rigorous Cognitive Science,” Cognition 50, no. 1—3 (June 1994): 41—77.

8. William James, The Principles of Psychology, vol. 1, rev. ed. (New York: Dover Publications, 1950).

9. John R. Alford, Carolyn L. Funk, and John R. Hibbing, “Are Political Orientations Genetically Transmitted?” American Political Science Review 99, no. 2 (May 2005): 153—67, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055405051579.

10. Robert Altemeyer, The Authoritarian Specter, 1st ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996).

11. Thomas J. Bouchard and Matt McGue, “Genetic and Environmental Influences on Human Psychological Differences,” Journal of Neurobiology 54, no. 1 (January 2003): 4—45; Thomas J. Bouchard et al., “Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart,” Science 250, no. 4798 (1990): 223—28.

12. John R. Alford and John R. Hibbing, “The Origin of Politics: An Evolutionary Theory of Political Behavior,” Perspectives on Politics 2, no. 4 (2004): 707—23, https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/perspectives-on-politics/article/origin-of-politics-an-evolutionary-theory-of-political-behavior/0A5EDA700EE2022AC9DFB5AE1CAA7C4D; Peter K. Hatemi et al., “Genetic Influences on Political Ideologies: Twin Analyses of 19 Measures of Political Ideologies from Five Democracies and Genome-Wide Findings from Three Populations,” Behavior Genetics 44, no. 3 (May 2014): 282—94, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10519-014-9648-8.

13. John T. Jost, “The End of the End of Ideology.,” American Psychologist 61, no. 7 (2006): 651—70, https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.61.7.651.

14. Peter Mair, “Left—Right Orientations,” in Oxford Handbook or Political Behavior, ed. Russell J Dalton and Hans-Dieter Klingemann (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2007), 206—22, http://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199270125.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199270125-e-011.

CHAPTER 2: LEFT, RIGHT, AND MOTHER NATURE

1. K. L. Jang, W. J. Livesley, and P. A. Vernon, “Heritability of the Big Five Personality Dimensions and Their Facets: A Twin Study,” Journal of Personality 64, no. 3 (September 1996): 577—91.

2. Robert R. McCrae and Antonio Terracciano, “Universal Features of Personality Traits from the Observer's Perspective: Data from 50 Cultures,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 88, no. 3 (March 2005): 547—61, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.88.3.547.

3. Anton Aluja, Óscar García, and Luis F. García, “A Comparative Study of Zuckerman's Three Structural Models for Personality through the NEO-PI-R, ZKPQ-III-R, EPQ-RS and Goldberg's 50-Bipolar Adjectives,” Personality and Individual Differences 33, no. 5 (October 5, 2002): 713—25, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00186-6.

4. Marvin Zuckerman, Behavioral Expressions and Biosocial Bases of Sensation Seeking, 1st ed. (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994).

5. Ronnie L. McGhee et al., “The Relation between Five-Factor Personality Traits and Risk-Taking Behavior in Preadolescents,” Psychology 3, no. 8 (August 23, 2012): 558, https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2012.38083.

6. Jack Block and Jeanne H. Block, “Nursery School Personality and Political Orientation Two Decades Later,” Journal of Research in Personality 40, no. 5 (October 2006): 734—49, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.09.005.

7. Dana R. Carney et al., “The Secret Lives of Liberals and Conservatives: Personality Profiles, Interaction Styles, and the Things They Leave Behind,” Political Psychology 29, no. 6 (December 1, 2008): 807—40, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2008.00668.x; John T. Jost and David M. Amodio, “Political Ideology as Motivated Social Cognition: Behavioral and Neuroscientific Evidence,” Motivation and Emotion 36, no. 1 (March 2012): 55—64, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11031-011-9260-7; Samuel D. Gosling, Peter J. Rentfrow, and William B. Swann, “A Very Brief Measure of the Big-Five Personality Domains,” Journal of Research in Personality 37, no. 6 (December 1, 2003): 504—28, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00046-1; Alain Van Hiel and Ivan Mervielde, “Openness to Experience and Boundaries in the Mind: Relationships with Cultural and Economic Conservative Beliefs,” Journal of Personality 72, no. 4 (August 2004): 659—86, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00276.x; Alain van Hiel, Malgorzata Kossowska, and Ivan Mervielde, “The Relationship between Openness to Experience and Political Ideology,” Personality and Individual Differences 28, no. 4 (April 1, 2000): 741—51, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00135-X.

8. Alan S. Gerber et al., “Personality and Political Attitudes: Relationships across Issue Domains and Political Contexts,” American Political Science Review 104, no. 1 (February 2010): 111—33, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055410000031.

9. Ibid.

10. Carney et al., “Secret Lives of Liberals and Conservatives.”

11. Time Staff, “Here's Donald Trump's Presidential Announcement Speech,” Time, June 16, 2015, http://time.com/3923128/donald-trump-announcement-speech/.

12. Nina Totenburg, “Who Is Judge Gonzalo Curiel, the Man Trump Attacked for His Mexican Ancestry?” NPR, June 7, 2016, http://www.npr.org/2016/06/07/481140881/who-is-judge-gonzalo-curiel-the-man-trump-attacked-for-his-mexican-ancestry.

13. Jessica Taylor, “Trump Calls For ’Total and Complete Shutdown of Muslims Entering’ US,” NPR, December 7, 2015, https://www.npr.org/2015/12/07/458836388/trump-calls-for-total-and-complete-shutdown-of-muslims-entering-u-s.

14. Maggie Haberman and Richard Pérez-Peña, “Donald Trump Sets Off a Furor with Call to Register Muslims in the US,” New York Times, November 20, 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/21/us/politics/donald-trump-sets-off-a-furor-with-call-to-register-muslims-in-the-us.html.

15. John R. O'Donnell and James Rutherford, Trumped! The Inside Story of the Real Donald Trump—His Cunning Rise and Spectacular Fall (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991).

16. Mark Bowden, “The Art of the Donald,” Playboy, May 1997.

17. Holly Yan, Kristina Sgueglia, and Kylie Walker, “’Make America White Again’: Hate Speech and Crimes Post-Election,” CNN.com, December 22, 2016, https://www.cnn.com/2016/11/10/us/post-election-hate-crimes-and-fears-trnd/index.html.

18. “British PM Cameron Stands by ’Divisive, Stupid and Wrong’ Comment on Trump: Spokesman,” Reuters, May 16, 2016, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-election-trump-britain-cameron-idUSKCN0Y7116.

19. Adam Taylor, “61 Not-Very-Positive Things Foreign Leaders Have Said about Donald Trump,” Washington Post, July 19, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/05/06/47-not-very-positive-things-foreign-leaders-have-said-about-donald-trump/.

20. David O. Sears, James Sidanius, and Lawrence Bobo, eds., Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America, Studies in Communication, Media, and Public Opinion (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), http://www.press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/R/bo3617330.html.

21. Agustín Echebarria-Echabe and Emilia Fernández Guede, “A New Measure of Anti-Arab Prejudice: Reliability and Validity Evidence,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 37, no. 5 (May 1, 2007): 1077—91, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00200.x.

22. Thomas Pettigrew, “Systematizing the Predictors of Prejudice,” in Racialized Politics: The Debate about Racism in America, ed. David O. Sears, Jim Sidanius, and Lawrence Bobo (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), pp. 280—301.

23. Avi Tuschman, Our Political Nature: The Evolutionary Origins of What Divides Us (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2013).

24. Richard E. Green et al., “A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome,” Science 328, no. 5979 (May 7, 2010): 710—22, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1188021.

25. Nancy Wilmsen Thornhill, ed., The Natural History of Inbreeding and Outbreeding: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives, 1st ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993).

26. Eric M. Poolman and Alison P. Galvani, “Evaluating Candidate Agents of Selective Pressure for Cystic Fibrosis,” Journal of The Royal Society Interface 4, no. 12 (February 22, 2007): 91—98, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2006.0154.

27. Simone Sommer, “The Importance of Immune Gene Variability (MHC) in Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation,” Frontiers in Zoology 2, no. 16 (October 20, 2005), https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-9994-2-16.

28. Ann Gibbons, “A Denisovan Legacy in the Immune System?” Science 333, no. 6046 (August 26, 2011): 1086, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.333.6046.1086.

29. John R. Hibbing, Kevin B. Smith, and John R. Alford, Predisposed: Liberals, Conservatives, and the Biology of Political Differences (New York: Routledge, 2013).

30. A. C. Stevenson et al., “Aspects of Pre-Eclamptic Toxaemia of Pregnancy, Consanguinity, Twinning in Ankara,” Journal of Medical Genetics 13, no. 1 (February 1976): 1—8, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1013340/.

31. Eva Bianconi et al., “An Estimation of the Number of Cells in the Human body,” Annals of Human Biology 40, no. 6 (2013), https://doi.org/10.3109/03014460.2013.807878.

32. A. Souther, “Warfare Analogy to Virus Infection,” Artificial Intelligence Center,” http://www.ai.sri.com/~rkf/designdoc/souther-analogy.txt.

33. Carlos David Navarrete and Daniel M.T. Fessler, “Disease Avoidance and Ethnocentrism: The Effects of Disease Vulnerability and Disgust Sensitivity on Intergroup Attitudes,” Evolution and Human Behavior 27, no. 4 (July 2006): 270—82, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2005.12.001.

34. Jason Faulkner et al., “Evolved Disease-Avoidance Mechanisms and Contemporary Xenophobic Attitudes,” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 7, no. 4 (October 2004): 333—53, https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430204046142.

35. Justin H. Park, Mark Schaller, and Christian S. Crandall, “Pathogen-Avoidance Mechanisms and the Stigmatization of Obese People,” Evolution and Human Behavior 28, no. 6 (November 1, 2007): 410—14, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2007.05.008.

36. Yoel Inbar et al., “Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Intuitive Disapproval of Gays,” Emotion (Washington, DC) 9, no. 3 (June 2009): 435—39, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015960.

37. Yoel Inbar, David A. Pizarro, and Paul Bloom, “Conservatives Are More Easily Disgusted than Liberals,” Cognition & Emotion 23, no. 4 (June 2009): 714—25, https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930802110007; John A. Terrizzi, Natalie J. Shook, and W. Larry Ventis, “Disgust: A Predictor of Social Conservatism and Prejudicial Attitudes toward Homosexuals,” Personality and Individual Differences 49, no. 6 (October 1, 2010): 587—92, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.05.024; Yoel Inbar et al., “Disgust Sensitivity, Political Conservatism, and Voting,” Social Psychological and Personality Science 3, no. 5 (September 2012): 537—44, https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550611429024.

38. Inbar et al., “Disgust Sensitivity, Political Conservatism, and Voting.”

39. Gordon Hodson and Kimberly Costello, “Interpersonal Disgust, Ideological Orientations, and Dehumanization as Predictors of Intergroup Attitudes,” Psychological Science 18, no. 8 (August 1, 2007): 691—98, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01962.x.

40. Inbar et al., “Disgust Sensitivity, Political Conservatism, and Voting”; Kevin B. Smith et al., “Disgust Sensitivity and the Neurophysiology of Left-Right Political Orientations,” PLOS ONE 6, no. 10 (October 19, 2011): e25552, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025552.

41. Jüri Allik and Robert R. McCrae, “Toward a Geography of Personality Traits: Patterns of Profiles across 36 Cultures,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 35, no. 1 (January 1, 2004): 13—28, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022103260382.

42. Ibid.

43. Douglas R. Oxley et al., “Political Attitudes Vary with Physiological Traits,” Science 321, no. 5896 (September 19, 2008): 1667—70, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1157627.

44. Ryota Kanai et al., “Political Orientations Are Correlated with Brain Structure in Young Adults,” Current Biology 21, no. 8 (April 26, 2011): 677—80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2011.03.017.

45. Jacob M. Vigil, “Political Leanings Vary with Facial Expression Processing and Psychosocial Functioning,” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 13, no. 5 (September 1, 2010): 547—58, https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430209356930.

46. Andreas Olsson et al., “The Role of Social Groups in the Persistence of Learned Fear,” Science (New York) 309, no. 5735 (July 29, 2005): 785—87, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1113551.

47. S. Agras, D. Sylvester, and D. Oliveau, “The Epidemiology of Common Fears and Phobia,” Comprehensive Psychiatry 10, no. 2 (March 1969): 151—56.

48. Navarrete and Fessler, “Disease Avoidance and Ethnocentrism.”

49. Daniel Lieberman, The Story of the Human Body: Evolution, Health, and Disease (repr.; New York: Vintage, 2014).

CHAPTER 3: IS CONSERVATISM AN EXTREME FORM OF THE MALE BRAIN?

1. W. Rodzinski, A History of China (Oxford: Pergamon, 1979), p. 165.

2. Aaron Sell, Liana S. E. Hone, and Nicholas Pound, “The Importance of Physical Strength to Human Males,” Human Nature (Hawthorne, NY) 23, no. 1 (March 2012): 30—44, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-012-9131-2.

3. Nicholas J. G. Winter, “Masculine Republicans and Feminine Democrats: Gender and Americans’ Explicit and Implicit Images of the Political Parties,” Political Behavior 32, no. 4 (December 2010): 587—618, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11109-010-9131-z.

4. Ibid.

5. Monika L. McDermott, Masculinity, Femininity, and American Political Behavior (repr.; New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).

6. Ibid.

7. B. Sinervo and C. M. Lively, “The Rock-Paper-Scissors Game and the Evolution of Alternative Male Strategies,” Nature 380, no. 6571 (March 21, 1996): 240—43, https://doi.org/10.1038/380240a0.

8. B. Sinervo et al., “Testosterone, Endurance, and Darwinian Fitness: Natural and Sexual Selection on the Physiological Bases of Alternative Male Behaviors in Side-Blotched Lizards,” Hormones and Behavior 38, no. 4 (December 2000): 222—33, https://doi.org/10.1006/hbeh.2000.1622.

9. Sinervo and Lively, “Rock-Paper-Scissors Game.”

10. Simon Baron-Cohen, “The Extreme Male Brain Theory of Autism,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6, no. 6 (June 1, 2002): 248—54.

11. Simon Baron-Cohen, Leda Cosmides, and John Tooby, Mindblindness: An Essay on Autism and Theory of Mind, rev. ed. (Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books, 1997).

12. Tony Charman, Ted Ruffman, and Wendy Clements, “Is There a Gender Difference in False Belief Development?” Social Development 11, no. 1 (January 1, 2002): 1—10, https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00183; Sue Walker, “Gender Differences in the Relationship between Young Children's Peer-Related Social Competence and Individual Differences in Theory of Mind,” Journal of Genetic Psychology 166, no. 3 (September 2005): 297—312, https://doi.org/10.3200/GNTP.166.3.297-312.

13. Mita Banerjee, “Hidden Emotions: Preschoolers’ Knowledge of Appearance-Reality and Emotion Display Rules,” Social Cognition 15, no. 2 (June 1, 1997): 107—32, https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.1997.15.2.107.

14. R. Hatcher et al., “Psychological Mindedness and Abstract Reasoning in Late Childhood and Adolescence: An Exploration Using New Instruments,” Journal of Youth and Adolescence 19, no. 4 (August 1990): 307—26, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01537075.

15. Agustin Ibanez et al., “Empathy, Sex and Fluid Intelligence as Predictors of Theory of Mind,” Personality and Individual Differences 54, no. 5 (April 1, 2013): 616—21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.11.022.

16. Francesca G. E. Happé, “The Role of Age and Verbal Ability in the Theory of Mind Task Performance of Subjects with Autism,” Child Development 66, no. 3 (1995): 843—55, https://doi.org/10.2307/1131954.

17. S. Baron-Cohen et al., “Another Advanced Test of Theory of Mind: Evidence from Very High Functioning Adults with Autism or Asperger Syndrome,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 38, no. 7 (October 1997): 813—22.

18. Ryota Kanai et al., “Political Orientations Are Correlated with Brain Structure in Young Adults,” Current Biology 21, no. 8 (April 26, 2011): 677—80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2011.03.017.

19. K. Vogeley et al., “Mind Reading: Neural Mechanisms of Theory of Mind and Self-Perspective,” NeuroImage 14, no. 1 (July 2001): 170—81, https://doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2001.0789.

20. Darren Schreiber et al., “Red Brain, Blue Brain: Evaluative Processes Differ in Democrats and Republicans,” PLoS ONE 8, no. 2 (February 13, 2013): e52970, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052970.

21. M. L. Hoffman, “Sex Differences in Empathy and Related Behaviors,” Psychological Bulletin 84, no. 4 (July 1977): 712—22; Michele Volbrecht et al., “Examining the Familial Link between Positive Affect and Empathy Development in the Second Year,” Journal of Genetic Psychology 168, no. 2 (June 2007): 105—29, https://doi.org/10.3200/GNTP.168.2.105-130.

22. Mark H. Davis, Empathy: A Social Psychological Approach (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996).

23. Baron-Cohen, “Extreme Male Brain Theory.”

24. Clifford P. McCue and J. David Gopoian, “Dispositional Empathy and the Political Gender Gap,” Women & Politics 21, no. 2 (May 25, 2000): 1—20, https://doi.org/10.1300/J014v21n02_01.

25. Judith A. Hall, “Gender Effects in Decoding Nonverbal Cues,” Psychological Bulletin 85, no. 4 (1978): 845—57.

26. Jennifer Connellan et al., “Sex Differences in Human Neonatal Social Perception,” Infant Behavior and Development 23, no. 1 (January 1, 2000): 113—18, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383(00)00032-1.

27. Ofer Golan, Simon Baron-Cohen, and Jacqueline Hill, “The Cambridge Mindreading (CAM) Face-Voice Battery: Testing Complex Emotion Recognition in Adults with and without Asperger Syndrome,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36, no. 2 (February 2006): 169—83, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-005-0057-y; Barbara Montagne et al., “Sex Differences in the Perception of Affective Facial Expressions: Do Men Really Lack Emotional Sensitivity?” Cognitive Processing 6, no. 2 (June 1, 2005): 136—41, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10339-005-0050-6; Qazi Rahman, Glenn D. Wilson, and Sharon Abrahams, “Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Identification of Positive and Negative Facial Affect,” Brain and Cognition 54, no. 3 (April 2004): 179—85, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2004.01.002.

28. Ryan McBain, Dan Norton, and Yue Chen, “Females Excel at Basic Face Perception,” Acta Psychologica 130, no. 2 (February 2009): 168—73, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2008.12.005.

29. C. Jacobs et al., “Carrying Your Heart (and Your Politics) on Your Face: Ideology and Facial Muscle Responses” (paper presented at the Midwest Political Science Association Meeting, Bloomington, IN, 2012).

30. Ibid.

31. James J. Gross and Oliver P. John, “Facets of Emotional Expressivity: Three Self-Report Factors and Their Correlates,” Personality and Individual Differences 19, no. 4 (October 1, 1995): 555—68, https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(95)00055-B.

32. Svetlana Lutchmaya, Simon Baron-Cohen, and Peter Raggatt, “Foetal Testosterone and Vocabulary Size in 18- and 24-Month-Old Infants,” Infant Behavior and Development 24, no. 4 (April 18, 2001): 418—24, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383(02)00087-5.

33. Alejandro Portes and Lingxin Hao, “The Price of Uniformity: Language, Family and Personality Adjustment in the Immigrant Second Generation,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 25, no. 6 (2002): 889—912, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0141987022000009368; Yvette Lapayese, Karen Huchting, and Olga Grimalt, “Gender and Bilingual Education: An Exploratory Study of the Academic Achievement of Latina and Latino English Learners,” Journal of Latinos and Education 13, no. 2 (2014): 152—60.

34. Douglas D. Burman, Tali Bitan, and James R. Booth, “Sex Differences in Neural Processing of Language among Children,” Neuropsychologia 46, no. 5 (April 2008): 1349—62, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.12.021.

35. David J. Martin and H. D. Hoover, “Sex Differences in Educational Achievement: A Longitudinal Study,” Journal of Early Adolescence 7, no. 1 (March 1, 1987): 65—83, https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431687071007; Johan Olav Undheim and Hilmar Nordvik, “Socio-Economic Factors and Sex Differences in an Egalitarian Educational System: Academic Achievement in 16-Year-Old Norwegian Students,” Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 36, no. 2 (January 1, 1992): 87—98, https://doi.org/10.1080/0031383920360201.

36. M. L. Bleecker et al., “Age-Related Sex Differences in Verbal Memory,” Journal of Clinical Psychology 44, no. 3 (May 1988): 403—11; R. Portin et al., “Education, Gender and Cognitive Performance in a 62-Year-Old Normal Population: Results from the Turva Project,” Psychological Medicine 25, no. 6 (November 1995): 1295—98.

37. M. F. Elias et al., “Role of Age, Education, and Gender on Cognitive Performance in the Framingham Heart Study: Community-Based Norms,” Experimental Aging Research 23, no. 3 (September 1997): 201—35, https://doi.org/10.1080/03610739708254281.

38. Chris McComb, “About One in Four Americans Can Hold a Conversation in a Second Language,” Gallup, Washington, DC, April 6, 2001, http://www.gallup.com/poll/1825/About-One-Four-Americans-Can-Hold-Conversation-Second-Language.aspx.

39. Markus Kemmelmeier, “Is There a Relationship between Political Orientation and Cognitive Ability? A Test of Three Hypotheses in Two Studies,” Personality and Individual Differences 45, no. 8 (December 1, 2008): 767—72, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.08.003.

40. Gerhard Meisenberg, “Verbal Ability as a Predictor of Political Preferences in the United States, 1974—2012,” Intelligence 50 (May 1, 2015): 135—43, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2015.03.004.

41. Peter Leeson, Patrick C. L. Heaven, and Joseph Ciarrochi, “Revisiting the Link between Low Verbal Intelligence and Ideology,” Intelligence 40, no. 2 (March 1, 2012): 213—16, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2011.11.006.

42. Andrew P. Bayliss, Giuseppe di Pellegrino, and Steven P. Tipper, “Sex Differences in Eye Gaze and Symbolic Cueing of Attention,” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 58, no. 4 (May 1, 2005): 631—50, https://doi.org/10.1080/02724980443000124.

43. Kåre S. Olafsen et al., “Joint Attention in Term and Preterm Infants at 12 Months Corrected Age: The Significance of Gender and Intervention Based on a Randomized Controlled Trial,” Infant Behavior & Development 29, no. 4 (December 2006): 554—63, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2006.07.004.

44. S. Lutchmaya, S. Baron-Cohen, and P. Raggatt, “Foetal Testosterone and Eye Contact in 12-Month Old Infants,” Infant Behavior and Development 25 (2002): 327—35.

45. Simon Baron-Cohen et al., “Are Children with Autism Blind to the Mentalistic Significance of the Eyes?” British Journal of Developmental Psychology 13, no. 4 (November 1, 1995): 379—98, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-835X.1995.tb00687.x; H. Roeyers, P. Van Oost, and S. Bothuyne, “Immediate Imitation and Joint Attention in Young Children with Autism,” Development and Psychopathology 10, no. 3 (1998): 441—50.

46. Michael D. Dodd, John R. Hibbing, and Kevin B. Smith, “The Politics of Attention: Gaze-Cuing Effects Are Moderated by Political Temperament,” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 73, no. 1 (January 2011): 24—29, https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-010-0001-x.

47. Luciano Carraro, Mario Dalmaso, Luigi Castelli, and Giovanni Galfano, “The Politics of Gaze Cuing Contextualized: Gaze but Not Arrow Cuing of Attention Is Moderated by Political Temperament,” Cognitive Processing 16, no. 3 (2015): 309—14.

48. W. R. Charlesworth and C. Dzur, “Gender Comparisons of Preschoolers’ Behavior and Resource Utilization in Group Problem Solving,” Child Development 58, no. 1 (February 1987): 191—200.

49. E. E. Maccoby, “Gender and Relationships: A Developmental Account,” American Psychologist 45, no. 4 (April 1990): 513—20.

50. Ibid.; Penelope Brown and Stephen C. Levinson, Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).

51. Joyce F. Benenson and Henry Markovits, Warriors and Worriers: The Survival of the Sexes (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2014).

52. Ibid.

53. Janet Lever, “Sex Differences in the Games Children Play,” Social Problems, 1976; Janet Lever, “Sex Differences in the Complexity of Children's Play and Games,” American Sociological Review 43, no. 4 (1978): 471—83, https://doi.org/10.2307/2094773.

54. Costas Panagopoulos, “Occupy Wall Street Survey Results October 2011,” Fordham University, October 14—18, 2011, https://www.fordham.edu/download/downloads/id/2538/occupy_wall_street_survey.pdf.

55. Jesse Graham et al., “Mapping the Moral Domain,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101, no. 2 (2011): 366—85, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021847.

56. John T. Jost et al., “Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition,” Psychological Bulletin 129, no. 3 (May 2003): 339—75.

57. S. M. Lindberg, J. S. Hyde, et al., “New Trends in Gender and Mathematics Performance: A Meta-Analysis,” Psychological Bulletin 136, no. 6 (2010): 1123—35, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021276; Diane F. Halpern, Camilla P. Benbow, David C. Geary, et al., “The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics,” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 8, no. 1 (August 2007): 1—51, doi: 10.1111/j.1529-1006.2007.00032.x.

58. Simon Baron-Cohen et al., “Is There a Link between Engineering and Autism?” Autism 1, no. 1 (July 1, 1997): 101—109, https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361397011010; Kinga Morsanyi et al., “Are Systemizing and Autistic Traits Related to Talent and Interest in Mathematics and Engineering? Testing Some of the Central Claims of the Empathizing-Systemizing Theory,” British Journal of Psychology (London, England) 103, no. 4 (November 2012): 472—96, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.2011.02089.x; Emily Ruzich et al., “Sex and STEM Occupation Predict Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) Scores in Half a Million People,” PLoS ONE 10, no. 10 (October 21, 2015), https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141229.

59. Baron-Cohen, “Extreme Male Brain Theory.”

60. Stanley Rothman, S. Robert Lichter, and Neil Nevitte, “Politics and Professional Advancement among College Faculty,” Forum 3, no. 1 (2005); Ingrid Nilsson, Bo Ekehammar, and Jim Sidanius, “Education and Sociopolitical Attitudes,” Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 29, no. 1 (March 1, 1985): 1—15, https://doi.org/10.1080/0031383850290101.

61. John T. Jost et al., “Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition,” Psychological Bulletin 129, no. 3 (May 2003): 339—75; Samuel D Gosling, Peter J Rentfrow, and William B Swann, “A Very Brief Measure of the Big-Five Personality Domains,” Journal of Research in Personality 37, no. 6 (December 1, 2003): 504—28, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00046-1; Alain Van Hiel and Ivan Mervielde, “Openness to Experience and Boundaries in the Mind: Relationships with Cultural and Economic Conservative Beliefs,” Journal of Personality 72, no. 4 (August 2004): 659—86, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00276.x; Alain van Hiel, Malgorzata Kossowska, and Ivan Mervielde, “The Relationship between Openness to Experience and Political Ideology,” Personality and Individual Differences 28, no. 4 (April 1, 2000): 741—51, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00135-X.

62. Dana R. Carney et al., “The Secret Lives of Liberals and Conservatives: Personality Profiles, Interaction Styles, and the Things They Leave Behind,” Political Psychology 29, no. 6 (December 1, 2008): 807—40, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2008.00668.x.

63. Alain Van Hiel, Emma Onraet, and Sarah De Pauw, “The Relationship between Social-Cultural Attitudes and Behavioral Measures of Cognitive Style: A Meta-Analytic Integration of Studies,” Journal of Personality 78, no. 6 (December 2010): 1765—99, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00669.x; Jost et al., “Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition.”

64. Lever, “Sex Differences in the Games Children Play”; Lever, “Sex Differences in the Complexity of Children's Play and Games.”

65. Beverly I. Fagot, “Beyond the Reinforcement Principle: Another Step Toward Understanding Sex Role Development,” Developmental Psychology 21, no. 6 (1985): 1097—1104.

66. Joyce F. Benenson and Henry Markovits, Warriors and Worriers: The Survival of the Sexes (Oxford University Press, 2014).

67. Hulda Thorisdottir et al., “Psychological Needs and Values Underlying Left-Right Political Orientation: Cross-National Evidence from Eastern and Western Europe,” Public Opinion Quarterly 71, no. 2 (January 1, 2007): 175—203, https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfm008.

68. Carney et al., “Secret Lives of Liberals and Conservatives.”

69. John T. Jost, “The End of the End of Ideology,” American Psychologist 61, no. 7 (2006): 651—70, https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.61.7.651; Jost et al., “Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition.”

70. Stanley Feldman and Karen Stenner, “Perceived Threat and Authoritarianism,” Political Psychology 18, no. 4 (1997): 741—70, https://doi.org/10.2307/3792208; Stewart J. H. McCann, “Societal Threat, Authoritarianism, Conservatism, and U.S. State Death Penalty Sentencing (1977-2004),” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94, no. 5 (May 2008): 913—23, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.94.5.913.

71. Thomas G. Power, “Mother- and Father-Infant Play: A Developmental Analysis,” Child Development 56, no. 6 (1985): 1514—24, https://doi.org/10.2307/1130470.

72. Dave Grossman, On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society, rev. ed. (New York: Back Bay Books, 2009).

73. Patricia A. Resick, Candice M. Monson, and Kathleen M. Chard, Cognitive Processing Therapy for PTSD: A Comprehensive Manual, 1st ed. (New York: Guilford Press, 2016).

74. Irwin Silverman, Jean Choi, and Michael Peters, “The Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Sex Differences in Spatial Abilities: Data from 40 Countries,” Archives of Sexual Behavior 36, no. 2 (April 2007): 261—68, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-006-9168-6.

75. Jonathan Wai, David Lubinski, and Camila Person Benbow, “Spatial Ability for STEM Domains: Aligning Over 50 Years of Cumulative Psychological Knowledge Solidifies Its Importance - Semantic Scholar,” Journal of Educational Psychology 101, no. 4 (2009): 817—35, /paper/Spatial-Ability-for-STEM-Domains%3A-Aligning-Over-50-Wai-Lubinski/ca3d6205ffb8cab6724fb0828634826e2e87ead7.

76. Donald Kolakowski and Robert M. Malina, “Spatial Ability, Throwing Accuracy and Man's Hunting Heritage,” Nature 251, no. 5474 (October 1974): 410—12, https://doi.org/10.1038/251410a0.

77. Rosemary Jardine and N. G. Martin, “Spatial Ability and Throwing Accuracy,” Behavior Genetics 13, no. 4 (July 1, 1983): 331—40, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01065771; Neil Watson and Doreen Kimura, “Nontrivial Sex Differences in Throwing and Intercepting: Relation to Psychometrically-Defined Spatial Functions,” Personality and Individual Differences 12, no. 5 (1991): 375—85.

78. J. R. Thomas and K. E. French, “Gender Differences across Age in Motor Performance a Meta-Analysis,” Psychological Bulletin 98, no. 2 (September 1985): 260—82.

CHAPTER 4: EQUALITY VERSUS HIERARCHY

1. Mike Allen and Edward Walsh, “Presidential Rivals Feast on Jokes, Jabs,” Washington Post, October 20, 2000, https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2000/10/20/presidential-rivals-feast-on-jokes-jabs/aab5a86a-28f2-4ab7-b1db-85716c55fe68/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.ca2256ce215e.

2. Christopher Boehm, Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior, rev. ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001).

3. Richard Borshay Lee, The !Kung San: Men, Women and Work in a Foraging Society, 1st ed. (Cambridge, England; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979).

4. Boehm, Hierarchy in the Forest.

5. Napoleon A. Chagnon, Yanomamo: The Fierce People, 3rd ed. (New York: Holt McDougal, 1984).

6. Raymond Hames, “Costs and Benefits of Monogamy and Polygyny for Yanomamö Women,” Ethology and Sociobiology 17 (1996): 181—99.

7. Jared M. Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, 1st edition (New York: W. W. Norton, 1999).

8. Monika Karmin et al., “A Recent Bottleneck of Y Chromosome Diversity Coincides with a Global Change in Culture,” Genome Research 25, no. 4 (April 2015): 459—66, https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.186684.114.

9. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, The First New Chronicle and Good Government on the History of the World and the Incas up to 1615, trans. and ed. Roland Hamilton (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2009), https://utpress.utexas.edu/books/guafir.

10. Thomas Jefferson, “To George Washington from Thomas Jefferson, 16 April 1784,” Founders Online, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/04-01-02-0215.

11. James Madison, “From James Madison to Jacob De La Motta, [Post—7] August 1820,” Founders Online, http://founders.archives.gov/documents/Madison/04-02-02-0089.

12. Lyndon B. Johnson (speech, US House of Representatives, Washington, DC, November 26, 1963), https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/resources/pdf/JointSession1963.pdf. Italics author's.

13. David P. Watts and John C. Mitani, “Boundary Patrols and Intergroup Encounters in Wild Chimpanzees,” Behaviour 138, no. 3 (2001): 299—327, https://doi.org/10.1163/15685390152032488.

14. Jane Goodall, The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1986); Watts and Mitani, “Boundary Patrols and Intergroup Encounters.”

15. Toshisada Nishida et al., “Group Extinction and Female Transfer in Wild Chimpanzees in the Mahale National Park, Tanzania,” Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 67, no. 1—4 (January 12, 1985): 284—301, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0310.1985.tb01395.x; Jennifer M. Williams et al., “Why Do Male Chimpanzees Defend a Group Range?” Animal Behaviour 68, no. 3 (September 1, 2004): 523—32, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2003.09.015.

16. J. C. Mitani and D. P. Watts, “Demographic Influences on the Hunting Behavior of Chimpanzees,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 109, no. 4 (August 1999): 439—54, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199908)109:4<439::AID-AJPA2>3.0.CO;2-3.

17. Martin N. Muller and John C. Mitani, “Conflict and Cooperation in Wild Chimpanzees,” Advances in the Study of Behavior 35 (January 1, 2005): 275—331, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-3454(05)35007-8.

18. Michael Greshko, “In Rare Killing, Chimpanzees Cannibalize Former Leader,” National Geographic, January 30, 2017, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/01/chimpanzees-murder-cannibalism-senegal/.

19. Dale Peterson and Richard Wrangham, Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence, October 15, 1997 ed. (Boston: Mariner, 1997).

20. Lawrence H. Keeley, “War Before Civilization—15 Years On,” in The Evolution of Violence, ed. Todd K. Shackelford and Ranald D. Hansen (New York: Springer New York, 2014), pp. 23—31, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9314-3_2.

21. US Census Bureau, “21.3 Percent of US Participates in Government Assistance Programs Each Month,” press release, May 28, 2015, https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2015/cb15-97.html; Rich Morin, “The Politics and Demographics of Food Stamp Recipients,” Pew Research Center, Washington, DC, July 12, 2013, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/07/12/the-politics-and-demographics-of-food-stamp-recipients/.

22. Martin Gilens, “Racial Attitudes and Opposition to Welfare,” Journal of Politics 57, no. 4 (1995): 994—1014, https://doi.org/10.2307/2960399; Martin Gilens, “’Race Coding’ and White Opposition to Welfare,” American Political Science Review 90, no. 3 (1996): 593—604, https://doi.org/10.2307/2082611.

23. David M. Buss, The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating, 3rd ed. (New York: Basic Books, 2003).

24. Ibid.

25. Russell D. Clark and Elaine Hatfield, “Gender Differences in Receptivity to Sexual Offers,” Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality 2, no. 1 (August 7, 1989): 39—55, https://doi.org/10.1300/J056v02n01_04.

26. Glenn D. Wilson, “Gender Differences in Sexual Fantasy: An Evolutionary Analysis,” Personality and Individual Differences 22, no. 1 (January 1, 1997): 27—31, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(96)00180-8.

27. Bruce J. Ellis and Donald Symons, “Sex Differences in Sexual Fantasy: An Evolutionary Psychological Approach,” Journal of Sex Research 27, no. 4 (1990): 527—55, https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499009551579.

28. Buss, Evolution of Desire; Rosemary L. Hopcroft, “Sex, Status, and Reproductive Success in the Contemporary United States,” Evolution and Human Behavior 27, no. 2 (March 1, 2006): 104—20, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2005.07.004.

29. M. Teschler-Nicola et al., “Evidence of Genocide 7000 BP--Neolithic Paradigm and Geo-Climatic Reality,” Collegium Antropologicum 23, no. 2 (December 1999): 437—50.

30. Will Durant, The Story of Civilization, vol. 4, The Age of Faith: A History of Medieval Civilization—Christian, Islamic, and Judaic—From Constantine to Dante: A.D. 325—1300 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1950).

31. Dominick Busnot, History of the Reign of Muley Ismael, the Present King of Morocco (Bronx, NY: Ishi Press, 2015).

32. Elisabeth Oberzaucher and Karl Grammer, “The Case of Moulay Ismael: Fact or Fancy?” PLOS ONE 9, no. 2 (February 14, 2014): e85292, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085292.

33. Laura L. Betzig, ed., Despotism and Differential Reproduction: A Darwinian View of History, 1st ed. (Piscataway, NJ: Routledge, 2008).

34. Janine di Giovanni, Leah McGrath Goodman, and Damien Sharkov, “How Does ISIS Fund Its Reign of Terror?” Newsweek, November 6, 2014, http://www.newsweek.com/2014/11/14/how-does-isis-fund-its-reign-terror-282607.html.

35. Rukmini Callimachi, “ISIS Enshrines a Theology of Rape,” New York Times, August 13, 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/14/world/middleeast/isis-enshrines-a-theology-of-rape.html.

36. Atika Shubert and Bharati Naik, “ISIS ’Forced Pregnant Yazidi Women to Have Abortions,’” CNN.com, October 6, 2015, https://www.cnn.com/2015/10/06/middleeast/pregnant-yazidis-forced-abortions-isis/index.html.

37. Lei Chang et al., “The Face That Launched a Thousand Ships: The Mating-Warring Association in Men,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37, no. 7 (July 2011): 976—84, https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167211402216.

38. Michael E. Price et al., “Muscularity and Attractiveness as Predictors of Human Egalitarianism,” Personality and Individual Differences 50, no. 5 (April 2011): 636—40, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.12.009.

39. Samuel Bendahan et al., “Leader Corruption Depends on Power and Testosterone,” Leadership Quarterly 26, no. 2 (April 1, 2015): 101—22, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.07.010.

40. Paul J. Zak et al., “Testosterone Administration Decreases Generosity in the Ultimatum Game,” PloS One 4, no. 12 (December 16, 2009): e8330, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008330.

41. Raphael S. Ezekiel, The Racist Mind: Portraits of American Neo-Nazis and Klansmen (repr.; New York: Penguin, 1996).

42. Niambi M. Carter, “The Curious Case of Judge Aaron: The Race, the Law, and the Protection of White Supremacy,” Politics, Groups, and Identities 1, no. 3 (September 1, 2013): 370—79, https://doi.org/10.1080/21565503.2013.820137.

43. David A. Graham, “Paul LePage's Racist Fearmongering on Drugs,” Atlantic, January 8, 2016, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/01/racial-dogwhistling-with-paul-lepage-still-americas-most-outlandish-governor/423246/. Italics author's.

44. Felicia Pratto et al., “Social Dominance Orientation: A Personality Variable Predicting Social and Political Attitudes,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67, no. 4 (1994): 741—63, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.4.741.

45. Ibid.

46. Jim Sidanius and James H. Liu, “The Gulf War and the Rodney King Beating: Implications of the General Conservatism and Social Dominance Perspectives,” Journal of Social Psychology 132, no. 6 (December 1, 1992): 685—700, https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1992.9712099; Jim Sidanius, Felicia Pratto, and Joshua L. Rabinowitz, “Gender, Ethnic Status, and Ideological Asymmetry: A Social Dominance Interpretation,” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 25, no. 2 (June 1, 1994): 194—216, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022194252003; Bob Altemeyer, “The Other ’Authoritarian Personality,’” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 30 (January 1, 1998): 47—92, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60382-2; Jim Sidanius, Felicia Pratto, and Lawrence Bobo, “Social Dominance Orientation and the Political Psychology of Gender: A Case of Invariance?,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67, no. 6 (1994): 998—1011, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.6.998.

47. Jim Sidanius, Shana Levin, James Lui, and Felicia Pratto, “Social Dominance Orientation, Anti- Egalitarianism and the Political Psychology of Gender: An Extension and Cross-Cultural Replication,” European Journal of Social Psychology 30 (2000): 41—67.

48. Sam G. McFarland, “On the Eve of War: Authoritarianism, Social Dominance, and American Students’ Attitudes toward Attacking Iraq,” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 31, no. 3 (March 2005): 360—67, https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204271596; Felicia Pratto et al., “Social Dominance Orientation: A Personality Variable Predicting Social and Political Attitudes.,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67, no. 4 (1994): 741—63, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.4.741; J. Christopher Cohrs et al., “Personal Values and Attitudes Toward War,” Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 11, no. 3 (September 1, 2005): 293—312, https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327949pac1103_5.

49. Pratto et al., “Social Dominance Orientation.”

50. Ibid.; Patrick C. L. Heaven, “Attitudes toward Women's Rights: Relationships with Social Dominance Orientation and Political Group Identities,” Sex Roles 41, no. 7—8 (October 1, 1999): 605—14, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018851606423.

51. R. I. M. Dunbar, “Coevolution of Neocortical Size, Group Size and Language in Humans,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16, no. 4 (December 1993): 681—94, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00032325.

52. Chris Cantor, Evolution and Posttraumatic Stress: Disorders of Vigilance and Defence, 1st ed. (Hove, East Sussex; New York: Routledge, 2005).

53. Dunbar, “Coevolution of Neocortical Size.”

54. I.-Ching Lee, Felicia Pratto, and Blair T. Johnson, “Intergroup Consensus/Disagreement in Support of Group-Based Hierarchy: An Examination of Socio-Structural and Psycho-Cultural Factors,” Psychological Bulletin 137, no. 6 (November 2011): 1029—64, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025410.

55. George A. Bonanno and John T. Jost, “Conservative Shift among High-Exposure Survivors of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks,” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 28, no. 4 (December 1, 2006): 311—23, https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp2804_4.

56. Yesilernis Peña and Jim Sidanius, “US Patriotism and Ideologies of Group Dominance: A Tale of Asymmetry,” Journal of Social Psychology 142, no. 6 (December 2002): 782—90, https://doi.org/10.1080/00224540209603936.

57. Carroll Doherty, “Who Flies the Flag? Not Always Who You Might Think,” Pew Research Center, Washington, DC, June 27, 2007, http://www.pewresearch.org/2007/06/27/who-flies-the-flag-not-always-who-you-might-think/; “American Values Survey: Question Database; 40i I Am Very Patriotic,” Pew Research Center, Washington, DC, 2013, http://www.people-press.org/values-questions/q40i/i-am-very-patriotic/#party.

58. Arnold K. Ho et al., “Social Dominance Orientation: Revisiting the Structure and Function of a Variable Predicting Social and Political Attitudes,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 38, no. 5 (May 1, 2012): 583—606, https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167211432765.

59. Jane Goodall, The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1986).

60. Margo Wilson and Martin Daly, Homicide (New York: Aldine Transaction, 1988); Peterson and Wrangham, Demonic Males.

61. Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene: 40th Anniversary Edition, 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016).

62. Jennifer Ackerman, Chance in the House of Fate: A Natural History of Heredity, 1st ed. (Boston: Mariner, 2002).

63. George Peter Murdock, Atlas of World Cultures (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1981).

64. Peterson and Wrangham, Demonic Males.

65. William Tulio Divale and Marvin Harris, “Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex,” American Anthropologist 78, no. 3 (September 1, 1976): 521—38, https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1976.78.3.02a00020.

66. Peterson and Wrangham, Demonic Males.

67. John C. Mitani, David P. Watts, and Martin N. Muller, “Recent Developments in the Study of Wild Chimpanzee Behavior,” Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 11, no. 1 (January 1, 2002): 9—25, https://doi.org/10.1002/evan.10008.

68. UNODC Research and Trend Analysis Branch, Division of Policy Analysis and Public Affairs, The Global Study on Homicide 2013 (Vienna, Austria: United Nations, 2013), http://www.unodc.org/documents/gsh/pdfs/2014_GLOBAL_HOMICIDE_BOOK_web.pdf.

69. Lawrence Keeley, War before Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).

70. Dave Grossman, On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society, rev. ed. (New York: Back Bay Books, 2009).

71. Mark Van Vugt, David De Cremer, and Dirk P. Janssen, “Gender Differences in Cooperation and Competition: The Male-Warrior Hypothesis,” Psychological Science 18, no. 1 (January 1, 2007): 19—23, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01842.x.

CHAPTER 5: ON BIG APES AND PRESIDENTS

1. Associated Press, “Leaked DNC Emails Reveal Details of Anti-Sanders Sentiment,” Guardian, July 24, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jul/23/dnc-emails-wikileaks-hillary-bernie-sanders.

2. Adam Taylor, “61 Not-Very-Positive Things Foreign Leaders Have Said about Donald Trump,” Washington Post, July 19, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/05/06/47-not-very-positive-things-foreign-leaders-have-said-about-donald-trump/; Patrick Wintour, “’A Revolting Slug’: What Politicians Said before Trump Got Elected,” Guardian, November 9, 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/nov/09/a-revolting-slug-what-politicians-said-before-trump-got-elected.

3. Taylor, “61 Not-Very-Positive Things.”

4. Aaron Blake, “19 Things Donald Trump Knows Better than Anyone Else, According to Donald Trump,” Washington Post, October 4, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/10/04/17-issues-that-donald-trump-knows-better-than-anyone-else-according-to-donald-trump/?utm_term=.72e843f55ce7; Oliver Noble, “24 Things Nobody Does Better than Trump (According to Trump),” Vice News, February 22, 2017, https://news.vice.com/en_us/article/nedxnm/24-things-nobody-does-better-than-trump-according-to-trump.

5. Charles Krauthammer, “It's Not the ’Locker-Room’ Talk. It's the ’Lock Her up’ Talk,” Washington Post, October 13, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/its-not-the-locker-room-talk-its-the-lock-her-up-talk/2016/10/13/9dd5fbea-9172-11e6-9c85-ac42097b8cc0_story.html.

6. John W. L. Berry, “Donald Trump: On the Road to War,” Patheos: Progressive American, March 1, 2017, http://www.patheos.com/blogs/progressiveamerican/2017/03/donald-trump-road-war/.

7. Jonathan Haidt, “Trump Calls for ’Hell of a Lot Worse than Waterboarding,’” The Hill, February 6, 2016, http://thehill.com/blogs/ballot-box/gop-primaries/268530-trump-calls-for-hell-of-a-lot-worse-than-waterboarding.

8. Taylor, “61 Not-Very-Positive Things.”

9. “Pope Francis Warns against Rise in Populism,” BBC News, January 22, 2017, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-38708485.

10. Jessica Taylor, “Trump Gets Mixed Response from Conservative Liberty University,” NPR, January 18, 2016, http://www.npr.org/2016/01/18/463503852/trump-gets-mixed-response-from-conservative-liberty-university.

11. “Transcript: Donald Trump's Taped Comments about Women,” New York Times, October 8, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/08/us/donald-trump-tape-transcript.html.

12. J. Antonakis and O. Dalgas, “Predicting Elections: Child's Play!” Science 323, no. 5918 (February 27, 2009): 1183, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1167748.

13. Fred H. Willhoite, “Primates and Political Authority: A Biobehavioral Perspective,” American Political Science Review 70, no. 4 (1976): 1110—26, https://doi.org/10.2307/1959377; Julie A. Johnson, “Dominance Rank in Juvenile Olive Baboons, Papio anubis: The Influence of Gender, Size, Maternal Rank and Orphaning,” Animal Behaviour 35, no. 6 (December 1, 1987): 1694—708, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(87)80062-3; Frans de Waal, Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex among Apes, 25th anniversary ed. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007).

14. Gregg R. Murray and J. David Schmitz, “Caveman Politics: Evolutionary Effects on Political Preferences” (paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the MPSA Annual National Conference, Chicago IL, April 4—7, 2008).

15. Gregg R. Murray and J. David Schmitz, “Caveman Politics: Evolutionary Leadership Preferences and Physical Stature: Evolutionary Leadership Preferences and Physical Stature,” Social Science Quarterly, 92, no. 5 (October 2011): 1215—35, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2011.00815.x.

16. Anne Case and Christina Paxson, “Stature and Status: Height, Ability, and Labor Market Outcomes,” Journal of Political Economy 116, no. 3 (2008): 499—532, https://doi.org/10.1086/589524.

17. M. Vaz, S. Hunsberger, and B. Diffey, “Prediction Equations for Handgrip Strength in Healthy Indian Male and Female Subjects Encompassing a Wide Age Range,” Annals of Human Biology 29, no. 2 (January 1, 2002): 131—41, https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460110058962.

18. Christopher Von Rueden, Michael Gurven, and Hillard Kaplan, “The Multiple Dimensions of Male Social Status in an Amazonian Society,” Evolution and Human Behavior: Official Journal of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society 29, no. 6 (November 2008): 402—15, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2008.05.001.

19. B. Pawlowski, R. I. Dunbar, and A. Lipowicz, “Tall Men Have More Reproductive Success,” Nature 403, no. 6766 (January 13, 2000): 156, https://doi.org/10.1038/35003107.

20. Melissa Fares, “Canadian PM Trudeau Slips from Political Ring to Boxing Ring,” Reuters, April 21, 2016, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-canada-trudeau-gym/canadian-pm-trudeau-slips-from-political-ring-to-boxing-ring-idUSKCN0XI2RL.

21. Heather Saul, “Democratic Debate: Jim Webb Gives the Most Awkward Answer of the Evening,” Independent, October 14, 2015, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/democratic-debate-jim-webb-gives-the-most-awkward-answer-of-the-evening-a6693361.html.

22. Eric Bradner, “Ben Carson's Violent Past: Bricks, Bats, Hammers,” CNN, October 26, 2015, http://www.cnn.com/2015/10/25/politics/ben-carson-violent-past-donald-trump/index.html.

23. Nick Corasaniti and Maggie Haberman, “Donald Trump on Protester: ’I'd Like to Punch Him in the Face,’” New York Times, February 23, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/politics/first-draft/2016/02/23/donald-trump-on-protester-id-like-to-punch-him-in-the-face/.

24. Sebastian Junger, “How Donald Trump Could Stop Being a Coward: There Is a Simple Reason Trump Is Placating Putin Even as He Has Attacked Assad,” Vanity Fair, April 25, 2007, https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2017/04/donald-trump-putin-sebastian-junger.

25. Ben Jacobs, “Trump Repeats Crowd Member's ’Pussy’ Insult as New Hampshire Votes,” Guardian, February 9, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/feb/08/trump-repeats-insult-from-crowd-member-calling-cruz-a-pussy.

26. “Donald Trump Running for President,” Fox News, June 17, 2015, http://www.foxnews.com/transcript/2015/06/17/donald-trump-running-for-president.html. Italics author's.

27. Aaron Sell, Liana S. E. Hone, and Nicholas Pound, “The Importance of Physical Strength to Human Males,” Human Nature (Hawthorne, NY) 23, no. 1 (March 2012): 30—44, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-012-9131-2.

28. Jonathan Chait, “Mike Pence Strongly Believes Donald Trump's Shoulder Width Guarantees His Foreign-Policy Acumen,” Daily Intelligencer, August 22, 2017, http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2017/08/12-times-mike-pence-praised-donald-trumps-shoulders.html.

29. James Fallows, “When Donald Meets Hillary: Who Will Win the Debates? Trump's Approach Was an Important Part of His Strength in the Primaries. But Will It Work When He Faces Clinton Onstage?” Atlantic, October 2016, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2016/10/who-will-win/497561/.

30. Ian S. Penton-Voak and Jennie Y. Chen, “High Salivary Testosterone Is Linked to Masculine Male Facial Appearance in Humans,” Evolution and Human Behavior 25, no. 4 (July 1, 2004): 229—41, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2004.04.003.

31. Alexander Todorov et al., “Social Attributions from Faces: Determinants, Consequences, Accuracy, and Functional Significance,” Annual Review of Psychology 66 (January 3, 2015): 519—45, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143831.

32. Ulrich Mueller and Allan Mazur, “Facial Dominance of West Point Cadets as a Predictor of Later Military Rank,” Social Forces 74, no. 3 (1996): 823—50, https://doi.org/10.2307/2580383.

33. Daniel E. Re et al., “Facial Cues to Perceived Height Influence Leadership Choices in Simulated War and Peace Contexts,” Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior 11, no. 1 (January 31, 2013): 89—103.

34. Ibid.; Anthony C. Little et al., “Facial Appearance Affects Voting Decisions,” Evolution and Human Behavior 28, no. 1 (January 1, 2007): 18—27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2006.09.002.

35. Brian R. Spisak et al., “Facing the Situation: Testing a Biosocial Contingency Model of Leadership in Intergroup Relations Using Masculine and Feminine Faces,” Leadership Quarterly, Biology of Leadership, 23, no. 2 (April 1, 2012): 273—80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.08.006.

36. Mark Van Vugt and Brian R. Spisak, “Sex Differences in the Emergence of Leadership during Competitions within and between Groups,” Psychological Science 19, no. 9 (September 2008): 854—58, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02168.x.

37. Gregory A. Smith and Jessica Martínez, “How the Faithful Voted: A Preliminary 2016 Analysis,” Pew Research Center, Washington, DC, November 9, 2016, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/11/09/how-the-faithful-voted-a-preliminary-2016-analysis/.

38. Exod. 15:3 (International Standard Version).

39. Hector A. Garcia, Alpha God: The Psychology of Religious Violence and Oppression (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2015).

40. Exod. 34:24 (New International Version).

41. Exod. 16:4 (King James Version).

42. Ps. 111:5 (King James Version).

43. Ps. 22:19—21 (New International Version).

44. Harriet Sinclair, “Trump Has Authority from God to Wage War with North Korea, His Religious Adviser Claims’,” Newsweek, August 9, 2017, http://www.newsweek.com/trumps-religious-adviser-says-god-has-given-president-authority-take-north-648974.

45. Julian Borger, “How Born-Again George Became a Man on a Mission,” Guardian, October 7, 2005, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2005/oct/07/usa.georgebush.

46. “With God on Our Side,” Washington Post, October 18, 2003, https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/opinions/2003/10/18/with-god-on-our-side/d918315c-eaab-41c2-af73-6fa27b556c9e/.

47. Case and Paxson, “Stature and Status.”

48. Avi Tuschman, Our Political Nature: The Evolutionary Origins of What Divides Us (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2013).

49. “Profile: Kim Jong-Il,” BBC News, January 16, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1907197.stm.

50. Jim Powell, Wilson's War: How Woodrow Wilson's Great Blunder Led to Hitler, Lenin, Stalin, and World War II (New York: Crown, 2007).

51. Edgar Snow, “A Conversation with Mao Tse-Tung,” LIFE, April 30, 1971.

52. Tang Tsou, The Cultural Revolution and Post-Mao Reforms: A Historical Perspective (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999).

53. Frederic Wakeman, History and Will: Philosophical Perspectives of Mao Tse-Tung's Thought (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973).

54. Frank Dikötter, Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958—1962 (London: Bloomsbury, 2011).

55. Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined (New York: Viking, 2011).

56. Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and Stalin. (New York: Basic Books, 2010).

57. Harrison E. Salisbury, The New Emperors: China in the Era of Mao and Deng (Boston: Little, Brown, 1992).

58. Juan Reinaldo Sanchez and Axel Gyldén, The Double Life of Fidel Castro: My 17 Years as Personal Bodyguard to El Lider Maximo, trans. Catherine Spencer (repr.; New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2016).

59. Ann Louise Bardach, Without Fidel: A Death Foretold in Miami, Havana and Washington, 1st ed. (New York: Scribner, 2009).

60. Kenji Fujimoto, “I Was Kim Jong Il's Cook,” Atlantic, February 2004, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2004/01/i-was-kim-jong-ils-cook/308837/.

61. Inside North Korea, dir. Peter Jost, featuring Lisa Ling (Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2006).

62. Peter Singer, A Darwinian Left: Politics, Evolution, and Cooperation (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000).

63. Robert Altemeyer, The Authoritarian Specter, 1st ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996).

64. Sam G. McFarland, Vladimir S. Ageyev, and Mariana A. Abalakina-Paap, “Authoritarianism in the Former Soviet Union,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63, no. 6 (1992): 1004—10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.63.6.1004; Sam G. McFarland, Vladimir S. Ageyev, and Mariana Abalakina, “The Authoritarian Personality in the United States and the Former Soviet Union: Comparative Studies,” in Strength and Weakness: The Authoritarian Personality Today, ed. W.F. Stone, G. Lederer, and R. Christie (New York: Springer, 1993).

65. Bob Altemeyer, The Authoritarians, unabridged ed. (Ramona, CA: Cherry Hill, 2008).

66. Joachim C. Fest, Hitler, 1st ed. (San Diego: Mariner, 2002).

67. Josh Aronson and Denise George, Orchestra of Exiles: The Story of Bronislaw Huberman, the Israel Philharmonic, and the One Thousand Jews He Saved from Nazi Horrors, 1st ed. (New York: Berkley, 2016).

68. Fest, Hitler.

69. Bob Altemeyer, Right-Wing Authoritarianism (Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1981), p. 148.

70. J. Christopher Cohrs and Frank Asbrock, “Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation and Prejudice against Threatening and Competitive Ethnic Groups,” European Journal of Social Psychology 39, no. 2 (March 1, 2009): 270—89, https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.545; Bernard E. Whitley Jr., “Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Social Dominance Orientation, and Prejudice,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77, no. 1 (1999): 126—34, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.1.126.

71. Bill E. Peterson and Marian D. Lane, “Implications of Authoritarianism for Young Adulthood: Longitudinal Analysis of College Experiences and Future Goals,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 27, no. 6 (June 1, 2001): 678—90, https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167201276004.

72. John T. Jost et al., “Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition,” Psychological Bulletin 129, no. 3 (May 2003): 339—75.

73. Bob Altemeyer, “The Other ’Authoritarian Personality,’” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 30 (January 1, 1998): 47—92, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60382-2.

74. Whitley, “Right-Wing Authoritarianism.”

75. Altemeyer, “Other ’Authoritarian Personality.’”

76. Jost et al., “Political Conservatism.”

77. Altemeyer, “Other ’Authoritarian Personality’”; Alain Van Hiel, Mario Pandelaere, and Bart Duriez, “The Impact of Need for Closure on Conservative Beliefs and Racism: Differential Mediation by Authoritarian Submission and Authoritarian Dominance,” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 30, no. 7 (July 2004): 824—37, https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204264333; John Duckitt, “A Dual-Process Cognitive-Motivational Theory of Ideology and Prejudice,” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 33 (January 1, 2001): 41—113, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(01)80004-6.

78. John L. Genz and David Lester, “Military Service, Education and Authoritarian Attitudes of Municipal Police Officers,” Psychological Reports 40, no. 2 (April 1977): 402, https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1977.40.2.402; Sharon E. Robinson Kurpius and A. Leigh Lucart, “Military and Civilian Undergraduates: Attitudes toward Women, Masculinity, and Authoritarianism,” Sex Roles 43, no. 3—4 (August 1, 2000): 255—65, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007085015637.

79. Bert Hölldobler and Edward O. Wilson, Journey to the Ants: A Story of Scientific Exploration, rev. ed. (London: Belknap Press, 1994).

80. Ibid.

81. E. O. Wilson, Success and Dominance in Ecosystems: The Case of the Social Insects (Oldendorf, Germany: Ecology Institute, 1990), https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19920232190.

82. Hölldobler and Wilson, Journey to the Ants.

83. Anna Maria Manganelli Rattazzi, Andrea Bobbio, and Luigina Canova, “A Short Version of the Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scale,” Personality and Individual Differences 43, no. 5 (October 1, 2007): 1223—34, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.03.013.

84. Tom Vanden Brook, “Army Demotes ’Swinging General’ after Investigation into Affairs, Lifestyle,” USA Today, December 16, 2016, https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2016/12/16/army-demotes-swinging-general-david-haight/95493058/.

85. B. Smuts, “Male Aggression against Women: An Evolutionary Perspective,” Human Nature (Hawthorne, NY) 3, no. 1 (March 1992): 1—44, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02692265.

86. Kevin B. Smith et al., “Political Orientations May Vary with Detection of the Odor of Androstenone” (paper presented at annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL, 2011).

87. John D. Wagner, Mark V. Flinn, and Barry G. England, “Hormonal Response to Competition among Male Coalitions,” Evolution and Human Behavior 23, no. 6 (November 1, 2002): 437—42, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-5138(02)00100-9.

88. Mark V. Flinn, Davide Ponzi, and Michael P. Muehlenbein, “Hormonal Mechanisms for Regulation of Aggression in Human Coalitions,” Human Nature 23, no. 1 (March 1, 2012): 68—88, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-012-9135-y.

89. Deut. 20:13—15 (New International Version).

90. Matt. 12:25 (New International Version).

91. Sebastian Junger, Tribe: On Homecoming and Belonging, 1st ed. (New York: Twelve, 2016).

92. George A. Bonanno and John T. Jost, “Conservative Shift among High-Exposure Survivors of the September 11th Terrorist Attacks,” Basic and Applied Social Psychology 28, no. 4 (December 1, 2006): 311—23, https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp2804_4.

93. John T. Jost and Jim Sidanius, eds., Political Psychology (Key Readings in Social Psychology) (New York: Psychology Press; 2004).

94. De Waal, Chimpanzee Politics.

CHAPTER 6: THE POLITICS OF SEXUAL CONTROL

1. David M. Buss, The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating, 3rd ed. (New York: Basic Books, 2003).

2. Ibid.

3. Martin N. Muller and Richard W. Wrangham, eds., Sexual Coercion in Primates and Humans: An Evolutionary Perspective on Male Aggression against Females, 1st ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009).

4. D. Singh and P. M. Bronstad, “Female Body Odour Is a Potential Cue to Ovulation,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 268, no. 1469 (April 22, 2001): 797—801, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2001.1589.

5. Steven W. Gangestad, Randy Thornhill, and Christine E Garver, “Changes in Women's Sexual Interests and Their Partners’ Mate-Retention Tactics across the Menstrual Cycle: Evidence for Shifting Conflicts of Interest,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 269, no. 1494 (May 7, 2002): 975—82, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2001.1952.

6. Buss, Evolution of Desire.

7. Ibid.

8. Donatella Barazzetti, Franca Garreffa, and Rosaria Marsico, Daphne Project Proposing New Indicators: Measure Violence's Effects. GVEI (Rende, Italy: University of Calabria, Centre Women's Studies, July 2007), http://www.surt.org/gvei/docs/national_report_italy.pdf.

9. United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women Combined Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Periodic Reports of States Parties Uruguay, https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N07/408/93/PDF/N0740893.pdf?OpenElement.

10. Ronald F. Inglehart, “The Worldviews of Islamic Publics in Global Perspective,” in Values and Perceptions of the Islamic and Middle Eastern Publics, ed. Mansoor Moaddel (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), pp. 25—46, https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230603332_2.

11. M. Steven Fish, “Islam and Authoritarianism,” World Politics 55, no. 1 (October 2002): 4—37, https://doi.org/10.1353/wp.2003.0004.

12. The Global Gender Gap Report 2016 (Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum, 2016), http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/.

13. Elham Manea, “Yemen,” in Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa: Progress Amid Resistance, ed. Sanja Kelly and Julia Breslin (New York: Lanham MD: Freedom House/Rowman & Littlefield, 2010).

14. Kristine Beckerle, Boxed In: Women and Saudi Arabia's Male Guardianship System (New York: Human Rights Watch, July 16, 2016), https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/07/16/boxed/women-and-saudi-arabias-male-guardianship-system.

15. Samuel Osborne, “Saudi Arabia Jails Man for a Year after He Publically Called for End of Male Control over Women,” Independent, December 30, 2016, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/saudi-arabia-jail-man-public-call-for-end-of-male-dominance-women-misogyny-sexism-a7501651.html.

16. Courtney Howland, ed., Religious Fundamentalisms and the Human Rights of Women (1999; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2001).

17. Manea, “Yemen.”

18. UNICEF, Regional Overview for the Middle East and North Africa: MENA Gender Equality Profile, October 2011, https://www.unicef.org/gender/files/REGIONAL-Gender-Eqaulity-Profile-2011.pdf.

19. Sūrat l-nisāa 4:34.

20. United Nations, “World Population Prospects 2017 Revision,” Sex Ratio by Region, Subregion, and Country, 1950—2100, https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Download/Standard/Population/.

21. 2002 Women of Our World (Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau, 2002), http://www.onlinewomeninpolitics.org/womenofworld02.pdf.

22. Laura K. Weir, James W. A. Grant, and Jeffrey A. Hutchings, “The Influence of Operational Sex Ratio on the Intensity of Competition for Mates,” American Naturalist 177, no. 2 (February 2011): 167—76, https://doi.org/10.1086/657918.

23. Hector A. Garcia, Alpha God: The Psychology of Religious Violence and Oppression (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2015).

24. Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Norris, “The True Clash of Civilizations,” Foreign Policy, no. 135 (2003): 63—70, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3183594.

25. Global Gender Gap Report 2016.

26. Buss, Evolution of Desire.

27. Geoffrey R. Stone, Sex and the Constitution: Sex, Religion, and Law from America's Origins to the Twenty-First Century, 1st ed. (New York: Liveright, 2017).

28. Ibid.

29. Ibid.

30. Elaine Tyler May, “Promises the Pill Could Never Keep,” New York Times, April 24, 2010, https://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/25/opinion/25may.html.

31. Lucy Madison, “Foster Friess: In My Day, Women ’Used Bayer Aspirin for Contraceptives,’” CBS News, February 17, 2012, https://www.cbsnews.com/news/foster-friess-in-my-day-women-used-bayer-aspirin-for-contraceptives/.

32. Kyle Munzenrieder, “Rep. Allen West: Activist Women Are ’Neutering American Men,’” Miami New Times, April 26, 2011, http://www.miaminewtimes.com/news/rep-allen-west-activist-women-are-neutering-american-men-6553902.

33. Joe Anderson et al., “Gun Owners, Ethics, and the Problem of Evil: A Response to the Las Vegas Shooting,” HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 7, no. 3 (December 22, 2017): 39—65, https://doi.org/10.14318/hau7.3.003.

34. John Ingold, “Senator Doesn't Regret Comments on HIV,” Denver Post, February 26, 2009, https://www.denverpost.com/2009/02/26/senator-doesnt-regret-comments-on-hiv/.

35. “Public Divided over Birth Control Insurance Mandate,” Pew Research Center, Washington, DC, February 14, 2012, http://www.people-press.org/2012/02/14/public-divided-over-birth-control-insurance-mandate/.

36. Russell Shorto, “Contra-Contraception,” New York Times, May 7, 2006, https://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/07/magazine/07contraception.html.

37. 1 Cor. 6:13.

38. 1 Cor. 7—9.

39. Col. 3:18.

40. Jeffrey F. Peipert et al., “Preventing Unintended Pregnancies by Providing No-Cost Contraception,” Obstetrics and Gynecology 120, no. 6 (December 2012): 1291—97, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4000282/.

41. Malcolm Potts and Thomas Hayden, Sex and War: How Biology Explains Warfare and Terrorism and Offers a Path to a Safer World (Dallas, TX: BenBella Books, 2008).

42. Conservapedia, s.v. “Abortion and Promiscuity,” last modified July 11, 2016, http://www.conservapedia.com/Abortion_and_promiscuity.

43. Hosea 5:3.

44. Hosea 7:4.

45. Hosea 9:16.

46. Hosea 13:16.

47. Stone, Sex and the Constitution.

48. Charlie Savage, “Nixon Comments Disclosed on Abortion and Watergate,” New York Times, June 23, 2009, https://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/24/us/politics/24nixon.html.

49. Sarah R. Hayford and S. Philip Morgan, “Religiosity and Fertility in the United States: The Role of Fertility Intentions,” Social Forces: A Scientific Medium of Social Study and Interpretation 86, no. 3 (2008): 1163—88, https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.0.0000; Nitzan Peri-Rotem, “Religion and Fertility in Western Europe: Trends across Cohorts in Britain, France and the Netherlands,” European Journal of Population 32 (2016): 231—65, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10680-015-9371-z.

50. Gen. 38: 8—10.

51. Gen. 1:28. Italics author's.

52. Conrad Hackett and David McClendon, “Christians Remain World's Largest Religious Group, but They Are Declining in Europe,” Pew Research Center, Washington, DC, April 5, 2017, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/05/christians-remain-worlds-largest-religious-group-but-they-are-declining-in-europe/.

53. Conrad Hackett and David McClendon, “The Changing Global Religious Landscape,” Pew Research Center, April 5, 2017, http://www.pewforum.org/2017/04/05/the-changing-global-religious-landscape/.

54. John T. Noonan Jr., Contraception: A History of Its Treatment by the Catholic Theologians and Canonists, enlarged ed. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986).

55. Merry Wiesner-Hanks, Christianity and Sexuality in the Early Modern World: Regulating Desire, Reforming Practice, 2nd ed. (London; New York: Routledge, 2010).

56. “The Global Catholic Population,” Pew Research Center’, Washington, DC, February 13, 2013, http://www.pewforum.org/2013/02/13/the-global-catholic-population/.

57. Ibid.

58. Julian R. Homburger et al., “Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America,” PLOS Genetics 11, no. 12 (December 4, 2015): e1005602, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005602; Katarzyna Bryc et al., “Genome-Wide Patterns of Population Structure and Admixture among Hispanic/Latino Populations,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, supp. 2 (May 11, 2010): 8954—61, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914618107.

59. “1976: Government Admits Forced Sterilization of Indian Women,” US National Library of Medicine, https://www.nlm.nih.gov/nativevoices/timeline/543.html.

60. P. 127: 3—5.

61. Barbara B. Hagerty, “In Quiverfull Movement, Birth Control Is Shunned,” NPR, March 5, 2009, https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=102005062.

62. Margaret Sanger, Woman and the New Race (New York: Brentano's Publishers, 1920).

63. Potts and Hayden, Sex and War.

64. Theodore Schleifer, “King Doubles down on Controversial ’Babies’ Tweet,” CNN, March 14, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2017/03/13/politics/steve-king-babies-tweet-cnntv/index.html.

65. Potts and Hayden, Sex and War.

66. Christian G. Mesquida and Neil I. Wiener, “Male Age Composition and Severity of Conflicts,” Politics and the Life Sciences 18, no. 2 (September 1999): 181—89, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0730938400021158.

67. Lawrence E. Cohen and Kenneth C. Land, “Age Structure and Crime: Symmetry versus Asymmetry and the Projection of Crime Rates through the 1990s,” American Sociological Review 52, no. 2 (1987): 170—83, https://doi.org/10.2307/2095446.

68. John Bock, “Evolutionary Demography and Intrahousehold Time Allocation: School Attendance and Child Labor among the Okavango Delta Peoples of Botswana,” American Journal of Human Biology: The Official Journal of the Human Biology Council 14, no. 2 (April 2002): 206—21, https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.10040.

69. Vladas Griskevicius et al., “The Financial Consequences of Too Many Men: Sex Ratio Effects on Saving, Borrowing, and Spending,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102, no. 1 (January 2012): 69—80, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024761.

70. Margo Wilson and Martin Daly, “Competitiveness, Risk Taking, and Violence: The Young Male Syndrome,” Ethology and Sociobiology 6, no. 1 (January 1, 1985): 59—73, https://doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095(85)90041-X.

71. Ellis Lee and Anthony Walsh, Criminology: A Global Perspective, 1st ed. (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2000).

72. Wilson and Daly, “Competitiveness, Risk Taking, and Violence.”

73. Anindya Sen, “Does Increased Abortion Lead to Lower Crime? Evaluating the Relationship between Crime, Abortion, and Fertility,” B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 7, no. 1 (2007), https://doi.org/10.2202/1935-1682.1537; Hans Forssman and Inga Thuwe, “One Hundred and Twenty Children Born after Application for Therapeutic Abortion Refused: Their Mental Health, Social Adjustment and Educational Level up to the Age of 21,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 42, no. 1 (March 1, 1966): 71—88, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1966.tb01915.x; John J. Donohue and Steven D. Levitt, “The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 116, no. 2 (May 1, 2001): 379—420, https://doi.org/10.1162/00335530151144050.

74. Conservapedia, s.v. “Population Control,” last modified December 1, 2017, http://www.conservapedia.com/Population_control.

75. Andrew C. Revkin, “C.I.A. Chief Lists Population as a Top Concern,” Dot Earth (blog), New York Times, May 1, 2018, https://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/01/cia-chief-lists-population-as-a-top-concern/.

76. Potts and Hayden, Sex and War.

77. Ibid.

78. Ibid.

79. Prescott Bush, “To Preserve Peace Let's Show Russia How Strong We Are,” Readers Digest, July 1959, pp. 25—30.

80. Potts and Hayden, Sex and War.

81. Thomas H. Kean and Lee H. Hamilton, The 9/11 Report: The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (New York: St. Martin's, 2004).

CHAPTER 7: WOMEN, SEX, AND POLITICS

1. Ashley Montagu, Touching: The Human Significance of the Skin, 3rd ed. (New York: William Morrow Paperbacks, 1986).

2. David M. Buss, The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating, 3rd ed. (New York: Basic Books, 2003).

3. M. D. Botwin, D. M. Buss, and T. K. Shackelford, “Personality and Mate Preferences: Five Factors in Mate Selection and Marital Satisfaction,” Journal of Personality 65, no. 1 (March 1997): 107—36; Pat Barclay, “Altruism as a Courtship Display: Some Effects of Third-Party Generosity on Audience Perceptions,” British Journal of Psychology (London, England) 101, no. 1 (February 2010): 123—35, https://doi.org/10.1348/000712609X435733.

4. Kristen Hawkes and Rebecca Bliege Bird, “Showing off, Handicap Signaling, and the Evolution of Men's Work,” Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 11, no. 2 (January 1, 2002): 58—67, https://doi.org/10.1002/evan.20005.

5. Daniel Farrelly, Paul Clemson, and Melissa Guthrie, “Are Women's Mate Preferences for Altruism Also Influenced by Physical Attractiveness?” Evolutionary Psychology 14, no. 1 (February 24, 2016): 147470491562369, https://doi.org/10.1177/1474704915623698.

6. A. C. Little et al., “Partnership Status and the Temporal Context of Relationships Influence Human Female Preferences for Sexual Dimorphism in Male Face Shape,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 269, no. 1496 (June 7, 2002): 1095—100, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2002.1984.

7. D. I. Perrett et al., “Effects of Sexual Dimorphism on Facial Attractiveness,” Nature 394, no. 6696 (August 27, 1998): 884—87, https://doi.org/10.1038/29772.

8. Victor S. Johnston et al., “Male Facial Attractiveness: Evidence for Hormone-Mediated Adaptive Design,” Evolution and Human Behavior 22, no. 4 (July 1, 2001): 251—67, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-5138(01)00066-6.

9. Lee T. Gettler et al., “Longitudinal Evidence That Fatherhood Decreases Testosterone in Human Males,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, no. 39 (September 27, 2011): 16194—99, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1105403108; Anne E. Storey et al., “Hormonal Correlates of Paternal Responsiveness in New and Expectant Fathers,” Evolution and Human Behavior 21, no. 2 (March 1, 2000): 79—95, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-5138(99)00042-2.

10. Samuele Zilioli et al., “Interest in Babies Negatively Predicts Testosterone Responses to Sexual Visual Stimuli among Heterosexual Young Men,” Psychological Science 27, no. 1 (2016): 114—18, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0956797615615868.

11. J. S. Mascaro, P. D. Hackett, and J. K. Rilling, “Testicular Volume Is Inversely Correlated with Nurturing-Related Brain Activity in Human Fathers,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 39 (September 24, 2013): 15746—51, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1305579110.

12. Alison S. Fleming et al., “Testosterone and Prolactin Are Associated with Emotional Responses to Infant Cries in New Fathers,” Hormones and Behavior 42, no. 4 (December 1, 2002): 399—413, https://doi.org/10.1006/hbeh.2002.1840.

13. Paul J. Zak et al., “Testosterone Administration Decreases Generosity in the Ultimatum Game,” PloS One 4, no. 12 (December 16, 2009): e8330, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0008330.

14. Kathryn Kopinak, “Gender Differences in Political Ideology in Canada,” Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie 24, no. 1 (February 1, 1987): 23—38, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-618X.1987.tb01069.x; Riane Eisler and David Loye, “The ’Failure’ of Liberalism: A Reassessment of Ideology from a New Feminine-Masculine Perspective,” Political Psychology 4, no. 2 (June 1983): 375, https://doi.org/10.2307/3790946; Jim Sidanius, B. J. Cling, and Felicia Pratto, “Ranking and Linking as a Function of Sex and Gender Role Attitudes,” Journal of Social Issues 47, no. 3 (October 1, 1991): 131—49, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1991.tb01827.x.

15. Robert Y. Shapiro and Harpreet Mahajan, “Gender Differences in Policy Preferences: A Summary of Trends from the 1960s to the 1980s,” Public Opinion Quarterly 50, no. 1 (1986): 42—61, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/268958.

16. Richard L. Fox and Zoe Oxley M., “Women's Support for an Active Government,” in Minority Voting in the United States, ed. Thomas J. Kreider and Thomas J. Baldino (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2016).

17. Rebecca L. Warner and Brent S. Steel, “Child Rearing as a Mechanism for Social Change: The Relationship of Child Gender to Parents’ Commitment to Gender Equity,” Gender & Society 13, no. 4 (1999): 503—17, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/089124399013004005.

18. Andrew J. Oswald and Nattavudh Powdthavee, “Daughters and Left-Wing Voting,” Review of Economics and Statistics 92, no. 2 (2010): 213—27, http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/rest.2010.11436.

19. Ebonya L. Washington, “Female Socialization: How Daughters Affect Their Legislator Fathers’ Voting on Women's Issues,” American Economic Review 98, no. 1 (February 2008): 311—32, https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.98.1.311.

20. S. W. Gangestad and J. A. Simpson, “The Evolution of Human Mating: Trade-Offs and Strategic Pluralism,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23, no. 4 (August 2000): 573—87; discussion 587—644.

21. Buss, Evolution of Desire.

22. Michael E. Price, Nicholas Pound, and Isabel M. Scott, “Female Economic Dependence and the Morality of Promiscuity,” Archives of Sexual Behavior 43, no. 7 (October 2014): 1289—301, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-014-0320-4.

23. David P. Schmitt, “Sociosexuality from Argentina to Zimbabwe: A 48-Nation Study of Sex, Culture, and Strategies of Human Mating,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28, no. 2 (2005): 247—75, https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences/article/sociosexuality-from-argentina-to-zimbabwe-a-48-nation-study-of-sex-culture-and-strategies-of-human-mating/E6442571B8E524AE8CAF7613BD4CECC8.

24. M. D. Jennions and M. Petrie, “Why Do Females Mate Multiply? A Review of the Genetic Benefits,” Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 75, no. 1 (February 2000): 21—64.

25. Joanna E. Scheib, “Context-Specific Mate Choice Criteria: Women's Trade-Offs in the Contexts of Long-Term and Extra-Pair Mateships,” Personal Relationships 8, no. 4 (December 1, 2001): 371—89, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2001.tb00046.x.

26. I. S Penton-Voak and D. I Perrett, “Female Preference for Male Faces Changes Cyclically,” Evolution and Human Behavior 21, no. 1 (January 1, 2000): 39—48, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-5138(99)00033-1; Anthony C. Little, Benedict C. Jones, and Robert P. Burriss, “Preferences for Masculinity in Male Bodies Change across the Menstrual Cycle,” Hormones and Behavior 51, no. 5 (May 1, 2007): 633—39, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.03.006.

27. Dario Maestripieri, Macachiavellian Intelligence: How Rhesus Macaques and Humans Have Conquered the World, 1st ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007).

28. Elham Manea, “Yemen,” in Sanja Kelly and Julia Breslin, eds., Women's Rights in the Middle East and North Africa: Progress Amid Resistance (New York: Freedom House; Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2010).

29. Sandra L. Vehrencamp, “A Model for the Evolution of Despotic versus Egalitarian Societies,” Animal Behaviour 31, no. 3 (August 1, 1983): 667—82, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(83)80222-X.

30. F. Pratto, L. M. Stallworth, and J. Sidanius, “The Gender Gap: Differences in Political Attitudes and Social Dominance Orientation,” British Journal of Social Psychology 36 (March 1997): 49—68, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9114484; J. Sidanius, F. Pratto, and L. Bobo, “Social Dominance Orientation and the Political Psychology of Gender: A Case of Invariance?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67 (1994): 998—1011.

31. S. Ansar Ahmed and N. Talal, “Sex Hormones and the Immune System—Part 2. Animal Data,” Baillière's Clinical Rheumatology 4, no. 1 (April 1, 1990): 13—31, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3579(05)80241-9.

32. Ivar Folstad and Andrew John Karter, “Parasites, Bright Males, and the Immunocompetence Handicap,” American Naturalist 139, no. 3 (1992): 603—22, https://doi.org/10.1086/285346.

33. Steven W. Gangestad and David M. Buss, “Pathogen Prevalence and Human Mate Preferences,” Ethology and Sociobiology 14, no. 2 (March 1, 1993): 89—96, https://doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095(93)90009-7.

34. S. W. Gangestad, “Sexual Selection and Physical Attractiveness: Implications for Mating Dynamics,” Human Nature 4 (1993): 205—35.

35. Bobbi S. Low, “Marriage Systems and Pathogen Stress in Human Societies,” American Zoologist 30, no. 2 (1990): 325—39, https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/30.2.325.

36. Gangestad and Simpson, “Evolution of Human Mating.”

37. Lisa M. DeBruine, Benedict C. Jones, et al., “The Health of a Nation Predicts Their Mate Preferences: Cross-Cultural Variation in Women's Preferences for Masculinized Male Faces,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277, no. 1692 (2010): 2405—10, http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2010/03/13/rspb.2009.2184#sec-2.

38. Buss, Evolution of Desire.

39. Colleen M. Carpinella and Kerri L. Johnson, “Appearance-Based Politics: Sex-Typed Facial Cues Communicate Political Party Affiliation,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 49, no. 1 (January 1, 2013): 156—60, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2012.08.009.

40. David Wagner, “The ’Michele Bachmann’ Effect; Curiosity Finds a Streambed on Mars,” Atlantic, September 27, 2012, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/09/michele-bachmann-effect-curiosity-finds-streambed-mars/323139/.

41. Paul K. Piff et al., “Having Less, Giving More: The Influence of Social Class on Prosocial Behavior,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 99, no. 5 (November 2010): 771—84, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020092; Michael W. Kraus and Dacher Keltner, “Social Class Rank, Essentialism, and Punitive Judgment,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 105, no. 2 (August 2013): 247—61, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032895; I.-Ching Lee, Felicia Pratto, and Blair T. Johnson, “Intergroup Consensus/Disagreement in Support of Group-Based Hierarchy: An Examination of Socio-Structural and Psycho-Cultural Factors,” Psychological Bulletin 137, no. 6 (November 2011): 1029—64, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025410.

42. Serge Guimond and Michaël Dambrun, “When Prosperity Breeds Intergroup Hostility: The Effects of Relative Deprivation and Relative Gratification on Prejudice,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28, no. 7 (July 1, 2002): 900—12, https://doi.org/10.1177/014616720202800704.

43. Daniel S. Hamermesh, Beauty Pays: Why Attractive People Are More Successful (Princeton, NJ; Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2013).

44. Peter Belmi and Margaret Neale, “Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, Who's the Fairest of Them All? Thinking That One Is Attractive Increases the Tendency to Support Inequality,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 124, no. 2 (July 1, 2014): 133—49, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2014.03.002; Lee, Pratto, and Johnson, “Intergroup Consensus/Disagreement.”

45. Niclas Berggren, Henrik Jordahl, and Panu Poutvaara, “The Right Look: Conservative Politicians Look Better and Voters Reward It,” Journal of Public Economics 146 (February 2017): 79—86, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2016.12.008.

46. Belmi and Neale, “Mirror, Mirror on the Wall.”

47. Paul William Kingston and Steven E. Finkel, “Is There a Marriage Gap in Politics?” Journal of Marriage and Family 49, no. 1 (1987): 57—64, https://doi.org/10.2307/352669.

48. “Presidential Race: 2012 Election Center,” CNN, last updated December 10, 2012, http://www.cnn.com/election/2012/results/race/president; “2016 Election Results: Exit Polls,” CNN, last updated November 23, 2016, http://www.cnn.com/election/results/exit-polls; “Election Center 2008: President National Exit Poll,” CNN, 2008, http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2008/results/polls/#val=USP00p3.

49. Christopher T. Stout, Kelsy Kretschmer, and Leah Ruppanner, “Gender Linked Fate, Race/Ethnicity, and the Marriage Gap in American Politics,” Political Research Quarterly 70, no. 3 (September 1, 2017): 509—22, https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912917702499.

50. Arwa Mahdawi, “This Is What Rape Culture Looks Like—In the Words of Donald Trump,” Guardian, October 15, 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/oct/15/donald-trump-words-what-rape-culture-looks-like.

51. Rachael Revesz, “Donald Trump Boasted about Meeting Semi-Naked Teenagers in Beauty Pageants,” Independent, October 12, 2016, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/donald-trump-former-miss-arizona-tasha-dixon-naked-undressed-backstage-howard-stern-a7357866.html.

52. Revesz.

53. Janell Ross, “Alicia Machado, the Woman Trump Called Miss Housekeeping, Is Ready to Vote against Donald Trump,” Washington Post, September 27, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/09/27/alicia-machado-the-woman-trump-called-miss-housekeeping-is-ready-to-vote-against-donald-trump/.

54. Alec Tyson and Shiva Maniam, “Behind Trump's Victory: Divisions by Race, Gender, Education,” Pew Research Center, November 9, 2016, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/11/09/behind-trumps-victory-divisions-by-race-gender-education/.

55. “At Rally ’Trumpettes’ Talk Machado, Taxes and More,” NBC News, September 30, 2016, https://www.nbcnews.com/video/at-rally-trumpettes-talk-machado-taxes-and-more-776866371522.

56. R. A. Fisher, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, ed. J. H. Bennett, 1st ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).

57. Steven W. Gangestad et al., “Women's Preferences for Male Behavioral Displays Change across the Menstrual Cycle,” Psychological Science 15, no. 3 (March 2004): 203—207, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.01503010.x.

58. Ryan Teague Beckwith, “Read the Full Transcript of the Sixth Republican Debate in Charleston,” Time, January 15, 2016, http://time.com/4182096/republican-debate-charleston-transcript-full-text/; Ben Jacobs, “Trump Repeats Crowd Member's ’Pussy’ Insult as New Hampshire Votes,” Guardian, February 9, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/feb/08/trump-repeats-insult-from-crowd-member-calling-cruz-a-pussy; “The Fox News GOP Debate Transcript, Annotated,” Washington Post, March 3, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/03/03/the-fox-news-gop-debate-transcript-annotated/?utm_term=.85fb2d30134c.

59. Jan Havlicek, S. Craig Roberts, and Jaroslav Flegr, “Women's Preference for Dominant Male Odour: Effects of Menstrual Cycle and Relationship Status,” Biology Letters 1, no. 3 (September 22, 2005): 256—59, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2005.0332.

60. David A. Puts et al., “Men's Masculinity and Attractiveness Predict Their Female Partners Reported Orgasm Frequency and Timing,” Evolution and Human Behavior 33, no. 1 (2012): 1—9, http://www.academia.edu/6514194/Mens_masculinity_and_attractiveness_predict_their_female_partners_reported_orgasm_frequency_and_timing.

61. Randy Thornhill, Steven W Gangestad, and Randall Comer, “Human Female Orgasm and Mate Fluctuating Asymmetry,” Animal Behaviour 50, no. 6 (1995).

62. Lee Alan Dugatkin, “Sexual Selection and Imitation: Females Copy the Mate Choice of Others,” American Naturalist 139, no. 6 (1992): 1384—89, https://doi.org/10.1086/285392; Klaudia Witte and Kirsten Ueding, “Sailfin Molly Females (Poecilia latipinna) Copy the Rejection of a Male,” Behavioral Ecology 14, no. 3 (May 1, 2003): 389—95, https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/14.3.389.

63. D. Waynforth, “Mate Choice Copying in Humans,” Human Nature (Hawthorne, NY) 18, no. 3 (September 2007): 264—71, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-007-9004-2.

64. Jessica L. Yorzinski and Michael L. Platt, “Same-Sex Gaze Attraction Influences Mate-Choice Copying in Humans,” PLOS ONE 5, no. 2 (February 9, 2010): e9115, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009115.

65. Sarah E. Hill and David M. Buss, “The Mere Presence of Opposite-Sex Others on Judgments of Sexual and Romantic Desirability: Opposite Effects for Men and Women,” Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 34, no. 5 (May 2008): 635—47, https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167207313728.

66. Waynforth, “Mate Choice Copying in Humans.”

67. Martin L. Lalumiére et al., The Causes of Rape: Understanding Individual Differences in Male Propensity for Sexual Aggression (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2005).

68. Tyson and Maniam, “Behind Trump's Victory.”

69. Hilda M. Bruce, “An Exteroceptive Block to Pregnancy in the Mouse,” Nature 184, no. 4680 (July 11, 1959): 105, https://doi.org/10.1038/184105a0.

70. E. K. Roberts et al., “A Bruce Effect in Wild Geladas,” Science 335, no. 6073 (March 9, 2012): 1222—25, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1213600.

71. Sarah Blaffer Hrdy, “Infanticide among Animals: A Review, Classification, and Examination of the Implications for the Reproductive Strategies of Females,” Ethology and Sociobiology 1, no. 1 (October 1, 1979): 13—40, https://doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095(79)90004-9; P. L. Schwagmeyer, “The Bruce Effect: An Evaluation of Male/Female Advantages,” American Naturalist 114, no. 6 (1979): 932—38, https://doi.org/10.1086/283541.

72. Ralph A. Catalano, “Sex Ratios in the Two Germanies: A Test of the Economic Stress Hypothesis,” Human Reproduction (Oxford, England) 18, no. 9 (September 2003): 1972—75; Ralph A. Catalano and Tim Bruckner, “Economic Antecedents of the Swedish Sex Ratio,” Social Science & Medicine 60, no. 3 (February 2005): 537—43, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.06.008; Branko Zorn et al., “Decline in Sex Ratio at Birth after 10-Day War in Slovenia: Brief Communication,” Human Reproduction (Oxford, England) 17, no. 12 (December 2002): 3173—77; Jan Graffelman and Rolf F. Hoekstra, “A Statistical Analysis of the Effect of Warfare on the Human Secondary Sex Ratio,” Human Biology 72, no. 3 (2000): 433—45, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10885189.

73. Tim A. Bruckner, Ralph Catalano, and Jennifer Ahern, “Male Fetal Loss in the U.S. Following the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001,” BMC Public Health 10, no. 1 (2010): 273, https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-10-273.

74. Tara J. Chavanne and Gordon G. Gallup, “Variation in Risk Taking Behavior among Female College Students as a Function of the Menstrual Cycle,” Evolution and Human Behavior 19, no. 1 (1998): 27—32, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090513898000166.

75. Carlos David Navarrete et al., “Prejudice at the Nexus of Race and Gender: An Outgroup Male Target Hypothesis,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 98, no. 6 (2010): 933—45, https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017931.

76. Carlos David Navarrete et al., “Race Bias Tracks Conception Risk across the Menstrual Cycle,” Psychological Science 20, no. 6 (June 2009): 661—65, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02352.x.

77. Melissa M. McDonald et al., “Mate Choice Preferences in an Intergroup Context: Evidence for a Sexual Coercion Threat-Management System among Women,” Evolution and Human Behavior 36, no. 6 (November 2015): 438—45, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.04.002.

78. Jonah Goldberg, “L'Affaire Coulter,” National Review, October 2, 2001, http://www.nationalreview.com/article/220676/laffaire-coulter-jonah-goldberg.

79. Ann Coulter, In Trump We Trust: E Pluribus Awesome! (New York: Sentinel, 2016).

80. Michelle Cottle, “The Queen of Trump Conservatives,” Atlantic, September 16, 2016, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/09/dont-count-out-coulter/500237/.

81. Ann Coulter, Adios, America: The Left's Plan to Turn Our Country into a Third World Hellhole (repr.; Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, 2016).

82. Frans de Waal, Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex among Apes, 25th anniversary ed. (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007).

83. Barbara B. Smuts, Sex and Friendship in Baboons, 1st ed. (New Brunswick: Routledge, 2007).

84. Boguslaw Pawlowski and Grazyna Jasienska, “Women's Preferences for Sexual Dimorphism in Height Depend on Menstrual Cycle Phase and Expected Duration of Relationship,” Biological Psychology 70, no. 1 (September 1, 2005): 38—43, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2005.02.002.

85. Robert P. Burriss, Hannah M. Rowland, and Anthony C. Little, “Facial Scarring Enhances Men's Attractiveness for Short-Term Relationships,” Personality and Individual Differences 46, no. 2 (January 1, 2009): 213—17, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.09.029.

86. Hannes Rusch, Joost M. Leunissen, and Mark van Vugt, “Historical and Experimental Evidence of Sexual Selection for War Heroism,” Evolution and Human Behavior 36, no. 5 (September 2015): 367—73, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.02.005.

87. Pamela Johnston Conover and Virginia Sapiro, “Gender, Feminist Consciousness, and War,” American Journal of Political Science 37, no. 4 (1993): 1079—99, https://doi.org/10.2307/2111544; Richard C. Eichenberg, “Gender Differences in Public Attitudes toward the Use of Force by the United States, 1990—2003,” International Security 28, no. 1 (2003): 110—41, https://doi.org/10.1162/016228803322427992; Shapiro and Mahajan, “Gender Differences in Policy Preferences”; Clyde Wilcox, Lara Hewitt, and Dee Allsop, “The Gender Gap in Attitudes toward the Gulf War: A Cross-National Perspective,” Journal of Peace Research 33, no. 1 (1996): 67—82, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343396033001005.

88. Mary Caprioli, “Gendered Conflict,” Journal of Peace Research 37, no. 1 (2000): 51—68, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022343300037001003; Mary Caprioli and Mark A. Boyer, “Gender, Violence, and International Crisis,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 45, no. 4 (August 1, 2001): 503—18, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002701045004005.

89. Michael T. Koch and Sarah A. Fulton, “In the Defense of Women: Gender, Office Holding, and National Security Policy in Established Democracies,” Journal of Politics 73, no. 1 (January 2011): 1—16, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022381610000824.

90. “Rwanda Genocide: 100 Days of Slaughter,” BBC, April 7, 2014, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-26875506.

91. Stephanie McCrummen, “Women Run the Show in a Recovering Rwanda,” Washington Post, October 27, 2008, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/10/26/AR2008102602197.html.

92. Swanee Hunt and Laura Heaton, “Women in Post-Genocide Rwanda Have Helped Heal Their Country,” National Geographic News, April 4, 2014, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/04/140404-rwanda-genocide-parliament-kigali-rwandan-patriotic-front-world-women-education/.

93. The Global Gender Gap Report 2016 (Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum, 2016), http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/.

94. United Nations Development Programme, ed., Human Development Report 2016: Human Development for Everyone (New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2016).

95. P. Zuckerman, Society without God (New York: New York University Press, 2008).

CHAPTER 8: ON BLIND TRIBES AND BECOMING SIGHTED

1. David P. Redlawski, “Motivated Reasoning, Affect, and the Role of Memory in Voter Decision Making,” in Feeling Politics (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), pp. 87—107, https://doi.org/10.1057/9781403983114_6; John T. Jost et al., “Political Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition,” Psychological Bulletin 129, no. 3 (May 2003): 339—75.

2. Steve Holland and Ginger Gibson, “Confident Trump Says Could ’Shoot Somebody’ and Not Lose Voters,” Reuters, January 23, 2016, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-election/confident-trump-says-could-shoot-somebody-and-not-lose-voters-idUSMTZSAPEC1NFEQLYN.

3. Drew Westen et al., “Neural Bases of Motivated Reasoning: An FMRI Study of Emotional Constraints on Partisan Political Judgment in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18, no. 11 (November 2006): 1947—58, https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2006.18.11.1947.

4. Eugene Scott, “’You Get a Do-Over Here’: Evangelical Leaders’ Apparent Double-Standard on the Alleged Trump-Daniels Affair,” Washington Post, January 23, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2018/01/23/you-get-a-do-over-here-evangelical-leaders-apparent-double-standard-on-the-alleged-trump-daniels-affair/.

5. Nancy Gibbs, “Defusing the War over the ’Promiscuity’ Vaccine,” Time, June 21, 2006, http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1206813,00.html.

6. Amy Clark, “Hotels Pressured To Halt Porn,” CBS News, August 22, 2006, https://www.cbsnews.com/news/hotels-pressured-to-halt-porn/.

7. Scott, “’You Get a Do-Over Here.’”

8. S. E. Asch, “Effects of Group Pressure upon the Modification and Distortion of Judgments,” in Groups, Leadership and Men; Research in Human Relations, ed. H. Guetzkow (Oxford, England: Carnegie Press, 1951).

9. Geoffrey L. Cohen, “Party over Policy: The Dominating Impact of Group Influence on Political Beliefs,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85, no. 5 (November 2003): 808—22, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.5.808.

10. “A Deeper Partisan Divide over Global Warming,” Pew Research Center, May 8, 2008, http://www.people-press.org/2008/05/08/a-deeper-partisan-divide-over-global-warming/.

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