The Psychology of Women and Gender: Half the Human Experience + - Nicole M. Else-Quest, Janet Shibley Hyde 2018
A multidimensional process of psychological and behavioral change one undergoes as a result of long-term contact with another culture, including the adoption of that culture’s values, customs, norms, attitudes, and behaviors.
Specific stress of the acculturation process.
Speech that demonstrates affiliation or connection to the listener and may include praise, agreement, support, and/or acknowledgment.
Americans of African descent.
Negative attitudes toward older adults.
Behavior intended to harm another person.
A psychological disorder characterized by excessive alcohol use and associated failure to fulfill major role obligations (e.g., work, school, home).
Difficulty identifying and describing the emotions of oneself and others.
The absence of menstrual periods.
The indigenous peoples of North America. Also called Native Americans.
Male centered; the belief that the male is the norm.
Androgen-insensitivity syndrome (AIS):
A genetic condition in which the cells of the body are unresponsive to androgens. In genetic males (XY chromosomes), the result is genitals that appear female (complete AIS) or intersex, somewhere in between typical males and typical females (partial AIS).
A group of “male” sex hormones, including testosterone, produced more abundantly in men than in women.
The combination of masculine and feminine psychological characteristics in an individual.
A time of declining testosterone levels in middle- and older-age men.
An eating disorder characterized by over-control of eating for purposes of weight reduction, sometimes to the point of starvation.
The inability to have an orgasm; also called orgasmic disorder.
Negative attitudes and behaviors toward gay men and lesbians. Also called sexual prejudice.
Rigid adherence to gender norms in appearance, such as wearing highly masculine or feminine clothing and avoiding clothes typical of another gender.
A lack of interest in or desire for sex.
Americans of Asian descent.
Speech that aims to influence the listener and may include providing instructions, information, suggestions, criticism, and/or disagreement.
Beliefs about women that seem to be kind or benevolent; women are seen as pure and morally superior beings who should be protected and adored.
A person who is erotically and emotionally attracted to both women and men.
A romantic but asexual lesbian relationship.
An eating disorder in which the person binges on food and then purges the body of the calories by vomiting, using laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessively exercising.
According to Gilligan, an approach to moral reasoning that emphasizes relationships between people and caring for others and the self.
The lower part of the uterus, forming a passageway to the vagina.
Selection of different toys, activities, and so on for boys and girls; also called shaping.
Child sexual abuse (CSA):
Behavior that includes the use, coercion, or forcing of a child to engage in sexual acts or imitate sexual acts.
Surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis, usually done within a few days of birth.
A person whose gender identity matches the gender they were assigned at birth.
Prejudice against people who are outside the gender binary; also refers to bias that recognizes a person’s birth-assigned gender but not their gender identity. Also termed anti-trans prejudice.
Behaviors intended to monitor and control or threaten an intimate partner.
A system of psychotherapy that combines behavior therapy and restructuring of dysfunctional thought patterns.
The process of acknowledging to others that one is lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer.
The principle that people should be paid equally for work that is comparable in responsibility, educational requirements, and so forth.
A process in which positive feelings or rewards from one role compensate or make up for stresses or costs in another role.
In multicultural research, the construct measured by a scale has the same meaning in all cultures being studied.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH):
A rare genetic condition that causes the fetus’s adrenals to produce unusually large amounts of androgens. In XX individuals, the result may be a girl born with masculinized genitals so that she has an intersex condition.
Sitting or standing with legs together and arms close to the body.
A set of behaviors and scripts for Black men that developed in response to racial oppression and that emphasize the expression of pride, strength, and control.
A theoretical perspective that seeks to redress power inequalities and achieve equity and equality.
A state in which a person has become anonymous and has therefore lost their individual identity—and therefore the pressure to conform to gender roles.
Different cultures hypothesis:
Tannen’s perspective that gender differences in communication are so different that it is as though women and men come from different linguistic cultures.
The extent to which parents and others behave differently toward boys and girls.
Telling boys and girls to behave in different ways.
Phrases such as “I may be wrong, but . . .”
Discrepancy of sexual desire:
A sexual disorder in which the partners have considerably different levels of sexual desire.
A culture’s rules for which emotions can be expressed or displayed.
The evaluation of male behavior and female behavior according to different standards, including tolerance of male promiscuity and disapproval of female promiscuity; used specifically to refer to holding more conservative, restrictive attitudes toward female sexuality.
Double standard of aging:
Cultural norms by which men’s status increases with age but women’s decreases.
A trained professional who provides continuous physical, emotional, and informational support to a woman before, during, and shortly after childbirth.
Dual control model:
A model that two basic processes underlie human sexual response: excitation and inhibition.
Painful menstruation; cramps.
In psychoanalytic theory, a girl’s sexual attraction to and intense love for her father.
The ability to perceive, appraise, and express emotions accurately and clearly; to understand, analyze, and use knowledge about emotions to think and make decisions; and to regulate the emotions of oneself and others.
The phase of the family life cycle following the departure of adult children from the family home; also known as the postparental period.
Chemicals in the environment that affect the endocrine system as well as other aspects of biological functioning and behavior in animals, including humans.
An individual’s sense of what they should receive (e.g., pay) based on who they are or what they’ve done.
Changes in gene expression caused by factors other than DNA.
Areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to sexual stimulation.
A sex hormone produced by the ovaries; also produced by the testes.
Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT):
Doses of estrogen given to some women to treat menopausal symptoms.
A group of people who share a common culture and language.
The tendency to regard one’s own ethnic group as superior to others and to believe that its customs and way of life are the standards by which other cultures should be judged.
The tendency to view the world from a European American point of view and to evaluate other ethnic groups in reference to European Americans.
White Americans of European descent; an alternative to the term Whites. Also, Euro-Americans.
In evolutionary theory, an animal’s relative contribution of genes to the next generation.
A theory that humans’ complex psychological mechanisms are the result of evolutionary selection.
In research on women and multiple roles, the hypothesis that multiple roles are good for mental health because they provide more opportunities for stimulation, self-esteem, and so on.
Sitting or standing with limbs extended away from the body; also referred to as power posing.
A theory of motivation that posits that a person will take on a challenging achievement task if they expect that they can succeed at it and if they value it (find it useful or interesting).
When some characteristics of the experimenter affect the way participants behave and therefore affect the research outcome.
In Latinx culture, a sense of obligation and connectedness with both one’s immediate and extended family.
Female deficit model:
A theory or interpretation of research in which women’s behavior is seen as deficient.
Female sexual arousal disorder:
A lack of response to sexual stimulation, including a lack of lubrication.
If a category is considered normatively male and there is a female example of the category, gender is noted because the female is the exception; a by-product of androcentrism.
The belief that women are the source of evil or immorality in the world, as in the Adam and Eve story.
A person who favors political, economic, and social equality of all people, regardless of gender, and therefore favors the legal and social changes necessary to achieve gender equality.
Research growing out of feminist theory, which seeks radical reform of traditional research methods.
A system of therapy informed by feminist theory.
Feminization of poverty:
The increasing trend over time for women to be overrepresented among the poor in the United States.
The capsule of cells surrounding an egg in the ovary.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH):
A hormone secreted by the pituitary that stimulates follicle and egg development.
The first phase of the menstrual cycle, beginning just after menstruation.
The state of being male, female, both male and female, or neither male nor female.
Medical care designed to assist individuals in adjusting their primary and secondary sex characteristics to align with their gender identity. May include hormonal therapy, surgical therapy, or both.
Forms of violence in which women are the predominant victims and men are the predominant perpetrators; transgender individuals are also overrepresented among victims.
A system of conceptualizing gender as having two distinct and opposing groups or kinds (i.e., male and female).
The third stage of gender constancy development, in which children understand that gender remains consistent despite superficial changes in appearance.
The understanding that gender is a stable and consistent part of oneself.
Differences between genders.
Discomfort or distress related to incongruence between a person’s gender identity, sex assigned at birth, and/or primary and secondary sex characteristics.
Research that is free of gender bias.
The first stage of gender constancy development, in which children can identify and label their own gender and the gender of others.
Increased pressures for gender role conformity, beginning in adolescence.
Gender role identity:
The psychological structure representing the individual’s identification with their own gender role; it demonstrates itself in the individual’s gender-appropriate behavior, attitudes, and feelings.
Gender role identity paradigm (GRIP):
Traditional psychology’s perspective that optimal personality development depends on a gender role identity that matches the gender assigned at birth, consistent with the traditional masculinity ideology.
Gender role strain paradigm (GRSP):
A feminist theory that gender roles are socially constructed by gender ideologies, which grow out of and support gender inequality, and that gender roles are a source of strain for individuals.
A person’s general knowledge framework about gender; it processes and organizes information on the basis of gender-linked associations.
Gender self-socialization model:
A theoretical model that children’s gender identification makes them want to adopt gender-stereotyped behaviors.
Similarities among genders.
Gender similarities hypothesis:
The hypothesis that men and women are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables.
The second stage of gender constancy development, in which children understand that gender is stable over time.
A set of shared cultural beliefs about men’s and women’s behavior, appearance, interests, personality, and so on.
The acquisition of gender-typed behaviors and learning of gender roles.
A form of oppression and bias based simultaneously on both gender and race/ethnicity.
A type of language in which gender is expressed only lexically and neither personal nouns or pronouns are differentiated for gender; examples include Finnish, Mandarin, and Turkish.
A gender category that is not exclusively male or female and therefore is not captured by the gender binary.
Invisible barriers to the promotion of women and ethnic minorities into upper management and executive levels.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH):
A hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that regulates the pituitary’s secretion of hormones.
Grammatical gender language:
A type of language in which parts of speech (including nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.) are gender-inflected; examples include Spanish, German, Hindi, and Hebrew.
G-spot (Gräfenberg spot):
A small gland on the front wall of the vagina, emptying into the urethra, which may be responsible for female ejaculation.
Phrases such as “sort of” that weaken or soften a statement.
The belief that heterosexuality is the norm.
Discrimination or bias against people based on their nonheterosexual orientation.
People of Spanish descent, whether from Mexico, Puerto Rico, or elsewhere.
Cumulative psychological wounding over generations resulting from massive group trauma.
A strong, irrational fear of sexual minority persons.
Casual sexual contact between two people, ranging from making out to intercourse.
A vulnerability-stress theory that a negative cognitive style makes a person vulnerable to depression.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT):
Doses of estrogen and progesterone and possibly testosterone given to some women to treat menopausal symptoms.
Negative, hostile attitudes toward women and adversarial beliefs about gender relations.
The acquisition of people by improper means such as force, fraud, or deception, with the aim of exploiting them, most often for sexual services and forced labor or slavery.
A condition in which the body produces very high levels of androgens. Typically, it is noticed only in women. It can result from a variety of medical conditions, including polycystic ovary syndrome and Cushing syndrome.
Hypoactive sexual desire:
A sexual disorder in which there is a lack of interest in sexual activity; also termed inhibited sexual desire or low sexual desire.
A part of the brain that is important in regulating certain body functions, including sex hormone production.
Surgical removal of the uterus.
People doing what they see others doing.
Learned, automatic associations between social categories (e.g., female) and other attributes (e.g., nurse but not mathematician).
Treating people—for example, women—as if they were children or babies.
Not getting pregnant despite having carefully timed, unprotected sex for one year.
Adverbs such as very, really, and vastly.
A feminist approach that simultaneously considers the meaning and consequences of multiple categories of identity, difference, and disadvantage.
A variety of conditions in which a person is born with genitals or reproductive anatomy that is not typical of females or males. Also termed disorders of sex development in the DSM-5 and differences of sex development or genital diversity.
Intimate partner violence (IPV):
Aggressive behaviors directed toward an intimate partner, including sexual violence, physical violence, stalking or harassment, verbal aggression, coercive control, and control of reproductive or sexual health.
According to Gilligan, an approach to moral reasoning that emphasizes fairness and the rights of the individual.
Exercises to strengthen the muscles surrounding the vagina; also called pubococcygeal muscle exercises.
The extent to which one hemisphere of the brain organizes a particular mental process or behavior.
A Latin American girl or woman.
Latin American people; also refers specifically to Latin American men.
A Latin American person, unmarked by gender.
A woman whose sexual orientation is toward other women.
A surgical treatment for breast cancer in which only the lump and a small bit of surrounding tissue are removed.
The third phase of the menstrual cycle, after ovulation.
Luteinizing hormone (LH):
A hormone secreted by the pituitary that triggers ovulation.
The ideal of manliness in Latinx culture.
Male as normative:
A model in which the male is seen as the norm for all humans and the female is seen as a deviation from the norm.
The ideal of womanliness in Latinx culture.
The common usage of masculine forms (e.g., he, his, him) as generic for all people.
The desire to experience pain.
The process by which normal life events or situations are defined and treated as medical conditions in need of diagnosis and treatment.
The cessation of menstruation.
A bloody discharge of the lining of the uterus; the fourth phase of the menstrual cycle.
A statistical technique that allows a researcher to combine the results of multiple research studies on a particular question.
During men’s midlife, the phenomenon of personal turmoil and sudden changes in lifestyle, touched off by a realization of aging, physical decline, and being trapped in tired roles.
Spontaneous demise of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy.
A form of sexist language in which gendered language that does not match a person’s gender identity is used or when a person’s gender identity is misidentified by some other means.
Research methods that involve both quantitative and qualitative methods.
Demonstrating gendered behavior for children; also refers to the child’s imitation of the behavior.
Subtle prejudiced beliefs about women; also termed neosexism.
A cultural belief that women must become mothers.
The reduction in women’s lifetime earnings that result from having children.
Feminism rooted in the lived experience of Latinas; Latina womanism.
A personality trait characterized by an excessive focus on oneself, along with a grandiose, exaggerated sense of one’s own talents, an extreme need for admiration, and a lack of empathy for others.
The indigenous peoples of North America.
Natural gender language:
A type of language in which most personal nouns are gender-neutral (e.g., student) but pronouns are differentiated for gender; examples include English and Swedish.
According to Darwin, the process by which the fittest animals survive, reproduce, and pass on their genes to the next generation, whereas animals that are less fit do not reproduce and therefore do not pass on their genes.
Negative cognitive style:
A tendency to attribute negative life events to internal, global, and stable causes.
Changes in the brain in response to experience.
Claims that there are fixed differences between male and female brains and that these differences explain women’s deficits in performance or why they should occupy certain roles and not others.
Objectified body consciousness:
The experience of one’s own body as an object to be viewed and evaluated; includes components of surveillance, body shame, and control beliefs.
Observing someone doing something and then doing it at a later time.
When the researcher’s expectations affect their observations and recording of the data; also called rater bias.
In psychoanalytic theory, a boy’s sexual attraction to and intense love for his mother and his desire to do away with his father.
Open or overt prejudice against women.
An intense sensation that occurs at the peak of sexual arousal and is followed by the release of sexual tensions.
A research error in which the results are said to apply to a broader group than the one sampled, for example, saying that results from an all-male sample are true for all people.
Release of an egg from an ovary.
A set of beliefs, underlying assumptions, values, and techniques shared by a particular community of scientists.
In sociobiology, behaviors or other investments in the offspring by the parent that increase the offspring’s chance of survival.
The idea that gender and sexual orientation are constructed through a constant set of performances by people (actors).
The third stage of development in psychoanalytic theory, around 3 to 6 years of age, during which, for boys, the pleasure zone is the penis and sexual feelings arise toward the mother and, for girls, sexual feelings arise toward the father.
Male centered or, specifically, penis centered.
Positive life changes following highly stressful experiences.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD):
A disorder that develops in some people after experiencing a terrifying event. Symptoms include reexperiencing symptoms (e.g., flashbacks, bad dreams), reactivity symptoms (e.g., easily startled, trouble sleeping), and cognition and mood symptoms (e.g., distorted feelings of guilt, loss of enjoyment in activities).
The theory that manhood is an elusive and achieved social status that is hard-won and yet easily lost, and that requires constant public proof.
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS):
A combination of severe physical and psychological symptoms (such as depression) occurring in some women for a few days before menstruation.
A sex hormone produced by the ovaries; also produced by the testes.
Hormone-like biochemicals that stimulate the muscles of the uterus to contract.
A system of therapy based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory in which the analyst attempts to bring repressed, unconscious material into consciousness.
A psychological theory originated by Sigmund Freud; its basic assumption is that part of the human psyche is unconscious.
The processes of assigning numbers to people’s characteristics, such as aggressiveness or intelligence; essential to quantitative methods.
Medical suppression of endogenous pubertal changes in adolescents; also called puberty blockers.
Qualitative research methods:
Research methods that do not use numbers or statistics, but may analyze text, in-depth interviews, participant observations, or focus groups for themes and meaning.
Quantitative research methods:
Research methods that involve psychological measurement and the use of statistics to analyze data, often with the goal of generalizing from a sample to a population.
A research design that compares two or more groups but is not a true experiment because participants are not randomly assigned to groups; an example is a study comparing men and women.
An epithet that has been reappropriated by gay activists and theorists to refer to sexual minorities.
Queer of color critique:
An approach that brings together queer theory, feminist theory, and women of color feminism.
A theoretical perspective that one’s gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation are not stable, fixed, biologically based characteristics, but rather fluid and dynamic aspects of individuals shaped by culture.
A socially constructed system of human classification, once considered a biological concept referring to discrete and exclusive groups of people with common physical features.
Subtle insults directed at people of color, consciously or nonconsciously.
A surgical treatment for breast cancer in which the entire breast, as well as underlying muscle and lymph nodes, is removed.
Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim.
A set of cultural attitudes and beliefs about gender and sexuality, e.g., that it is natural and normal for men to be sexually aggressive and that rape is inevitable.
False beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, which support rape culture (e.g., victim precipitation, victim fabrication, victim masochism).
A period of time following orgasm, during which one cannot be restimulated to orgasm.
Behavior intended to hurt others by damaging their peer relationships. Also termed indirect aggression.
An alternative approach to the treatment of both rapists and victims, with the basic premise that harm has been done and that someone is responsible for repairing it.
Role congruity theory:
A theory that holds that people tend to perceive an incongruity between leadership behaviors and the female role, and therefore are prejudiced against female leaders.
The tendency to think repetitively about one’s depressed mood or about the causes and consequences of negative life events.
In research on women and multiple roles, the hypothesis that adding a role (e.g., worker) creates stress, which has negative consequences for mental health and physical health.
In cognitive psychology, a general knowledge framework that a person has about a particular topic; the schema then processes and organizes new information on that topic.
A person’s belief that they can be successful at a particular task or in a particular domain such as athletics or academics.
Emotions about the self, which often have to do with morality or adhering to social norms; includes guilt, shame, pride, and embarrassment.
A person’s belief in their ability to accomplish a particular task.
The level of global positive regard that one has for oneself.
Perceiving and valuing oneself as an object to be viewed and evaluated.
A trait controlled by a gene on the X chromosome (and occasionally on the Y chromosome).
Discrimination or bias against other people based on their gender; also termed gender bias or sex bias.
A problem with sexual responding that causes a person mental distress; examples are erection problems in men and orgasm problems in women.
Situation-dependent flexibility in women’s sexual responsiveness to women or men.
An umbrella term for all people with a sexual orientation other than heterosexual.
A person’s erotic and emotional orientation toward members of their own gender or members of another gender.
According to Darwin, the processes by which members of one gender (usually males) compete with each other for mating privileges with members of another gender (usually females), who, in turn, choose to mate only with certain preferred members of the first gender (males).
The process of valuing a person only for their sex appeal, sexually objectifying a person, or inappropriately imposing sexuality on a person.
Negative evaluation of someone for violating the norms of their gender role.
A theoretical viewpoint that humans do not discover reality directly; rather, they construct meanings for events in the environment based on their own prior experiences and beliefs.
Social role theory:
A theory of the origin of psychological gender differences that focuses on the social structure, particularly the division of labor between men and women; also called social structural theory.
The ways in which society conveys to the individual its expectations for their behavior.
The application of evolutionary theory to explaining the social behavior of animals, including people.
The first ejaculation of seminal fluid; also called semenarche.
A process in which positive or negative feelings in one role carry or spill over into another role.
An acronym for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
A situation in which there is a negative stereotype about a person’s group, and the person is concerned about being judged or treated negatively on the basis of that stereotype.
Spontaneous demise of a fetus after the 20th week of pregnancy.
A systematic pattern of inequity in which women of color are overrepresented among women with infertility but are underrepresented among those who receive treatment for infertility.
A psychological disorder characterized by excessive use of a substance (e.g., heroin), an associated failure to fulfill major role obligations (e.g., work, school, home), failure to cut back on use, cravings, and using increasingly greater amounts of the substance over time.
Freud’s term for the part of the personality that contains the person’s conscience.
A short phrase added to a sentence that turns it into a question.
Constitutionally based individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation, such as emotional intensity, inhibitory control, activity level, and distractibility.
A sex hormone manufactured by the testes and, in lesser amounts, by the ovaries; one of the androgens.
Traditional masculinity ideology:
A set of cultural beliefs about how boys and men should or should not think, feel, and behave.
Care that is respectful, aware, and supportive of the identities and life experiences of transgender and gender nonconforming people; also called gender-affirming care.
Describes a person whose gender identity differs from the gender they were assigned at birth.
In multicultural research, whether a scale written in one language and translated into another has the same meaning in both languages.
A model that there are three components to sexual response: sexual desire, vasocongestion, and myotonia.
Among some American Indian tribes, a gender category for individuals who feel they possess both male and female spirits.
A method of surgical abortion that is performed in the first trimester.
A strong, spastic contraction of the muscles around the vagina, perhaps closing off the vagina and making intercourse impossible.
An accumulation of blood in the blood vessels of a region of the body, especially the genitals; a swelling or erection results.
Visual dominance ratio:
The ratio of the percentage of time looking while speaking relative to the percentage of time looking while listening; an indicator of social dominance.
The theory that the language we learn influences how we think.
Feminism rooted in the lived experience of Black women and women of color; also Black feminism.
In Horney’s analytic theory, the man’s envy of the woman’s uterus and reproductive capacity.
In female fetuses, the process in which one of the two X chromosomes is inactivated or silenced in nearly every cell, so only one X chromosome functions.