The Adaptable Mind: What Neuroplasticity and Neural Reuse Tell Us about Language and Cognition - John Zerilli 2021


Aizawa, K. (2009). Neuroscience and multiple realization: A reply to Bechtel and Mundale. Synthese, 167(3), 493—510.

Altun, Z. F., & Hall, D. H. (2011). Nervous system, general description. In: WormAtlas, eds. Z. F. Altun, L. A. Herndon, C. Crocker, R. Lints, & D. H. Hall. Available at:

Amaral, D. G., & Strick, P. L. (2013). The organization of the central nervous system. In: Principles of neural science, eds. E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, T. M. Jessell, S. A. Siegelbaum, & A. J. Hudspeth, pp. 337—355. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Anderson, M. L. (2007a). Evolution of cognitive function via redeployment of brain areas. The Neuroscientist, 13, 13—21.

Anderson, M. L. (2007b). Massive redeployment, exaptation, and the functional integration of cognitive operations. Synthese,159(3), 329—345.

Anderson, M. L. (2007c). The massive redeployment hypothesis and the functional topography of the brain. Philosophical Psychology, 21(2), 143—174.

Anderson, M. L. (2008). Circuit sharing and the implementation of intelligent systems. Connection Science, 20(4), 239—251.

Anderson, M. L. (2010). Neural reuse: A fundamental organizational principle of the brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(4), 245—266; discussion 266—313.

Anderson, M. L. (2014). After phrenology: Neural reuse and the interactive brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Anderson, M. L. (2015). Mining the brain for a new taxonomy of the mind. Philosophy Compass, 10(1), 68—77.

Anderson, M. L., & Finlay, B. L. (2014). Allocating structure to function: The strong links between neuroplasticity and natural selection. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 1—16.

Apperly, I. A., Samson, D., Carroll, N., Hussain, S., & Humphreys, G. (2006). Intact first- and second-order false belief reasoning in a patient with severely impaired grammar. Social Neuroscience, 1(3—4), 334—348.

Arbib, M. A. (1989). Modularity, schemas and neurons: A critique of Fodor. In: Computers, brains and minds, eds. P. Slezak & W. R. Albury, pp. 193—219. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Ariew, A. (1996). Innateness and canalization. Philosophy of Science,63, S19—S27.

Ariew, A. (1999). Innateness is canalization: In defense of a developmental account of innateness. In: Where biology meets psychology: Philosophical essays, ed. V. G. Hardcastle, pp. 117—138. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ariew, A. (2007). Innateness. In: Handbook of the philosophy of science: Philosophy of biology, eds. M. Matthen & C. Stephens, pp. 567—584. Dordrecht: Elsevier.

Avital, E., & Jablonka, E. (2000). Animal traditions: Behavioural inheritance in evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bach-y-Rita, P. (2004). Emerging concepts of brain function. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 4(2), 183—205.

Badcock, P. B., Ploeger, A., & Allen, N. B. (2016). After phrenology: Time for a paradigm shift in cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences,39, 10—11.

Barrett, H. C. (2006). Modularity and design reincarnation. In: The innate mind, volume 2: Culture and cognition, eds. P. Carruthers, S. Laurence, & S. P. Stich, pp. 199—217. New York: Oxford University Press.

Barrett, H. C., & Kurzban, R. (2006). Modularity in cognition: Framing the debate. Psychological Review, 113(3), 628—647.

Bates, E. (1999). Plasticity, localization, and language development. In: The changing nervous system: Neurobehavioral consequences of early brain disorders, eds. S. H. Broman & J. M. Fletcher, pp. 214—253. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bateson, P., & Mameli, M. (2007). The innate and the acquired: Useful clusters or a residual distinction from folk biology? Developmental Psychobiology, 49, 818—831.

Bechtel, W. (2008a). Mechanisms in cognitive psychology: What are the operations? Philosophy of Science, 75(5), 983—994.

Bechtel, W. (2008b). Mental mechanisms: Philosophical perspectives on cognitive neuroscience. London: Routledge.

Bechtel, W., & Mundale, J. (1999). Multiple realizability revisited: Linking cognitive and neural states. Philosophy of Science, 66(2), 175—207.

Bergeron, V. (2007). Anatomical and functional modularity in cognitive science: Shifting the focus. Philosophical Psychology, 20(2), 175—195.

Bergeron, V. (2008). Cognitive architecture and the brain: Beyond domain-specific functional specification. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Philosophy, University of British Columbia. Available at:

Berwick, R. C., & Chomsky, N. (2016). Why only us: Language and evolution. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bickle, J. (1998). Psychoneural reduction: The new wave. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bickle, J. (2003). Philosophy and neuroscience: A ruthlessly reductive account. Dordrecht: Springer.

Bickle, J. (2010). Has the last decade of challenges to the multiple realization argument provided aid and comfort to psychoneural reductionists? Synthese, 177(2), 247—260.

Binkofski, F., Amunts, K., Stephan, K. M., Posse, S., Schormann, T., Freund, H.-J., Zilles, K., & Seitz, R. J. (2000). Broca’s region subserves imagery of motion: A combined cytoarchitectonic and fMRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 11, 273—285.

Bloom, P. (2000). How children learn the meanings of words. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Boone, W., & Piccinini, G. (2016). The cognitive neuroscience revolution. Synthese,193, 1509—1534.

Boyd, R., Richerson, P. J., & Henrich, J. (2011). The cultural niche: Why social learning is essential for human adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(Supplement 2), 10918—10925.

Brattico, P., & Liikkanen, L. (2009). Rethinking the Cartesian theory of linguistic productivity. Philosophical Psychology, 22(3), 251—279.

Bregman, A. S., & Pinker, S. (1978). Auditory streaming and the building of timbre. Canadian Journal of Psychology,32(1), 19—31.

Bressler, S. L. (1995). Large-scale cortical networks and cognition. Brain Research Reviews, 20, 288—304.

Bridgeman, B. (2010). Neural reuse implies distributed coding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(4), 269—270.

Brighton, H., Kirby, S., & Smith, K. (2005). Cultural selection for learnability: Three principles underlying the view that language adapts to be learnable. In: Language origins: Perspectives on evolution, ed. M. Tallerman, pp. 291—309. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bullmore, E., & Sporns, O. (2012). The economy of brain network organization. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13(5), 336—349.

Buonomano, D. V., & Merzenich, M. M. (1998). Cortical plasticity: From synapses to maps. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 21, 149—186.

Burnston, D. C. (2016). A contextualist approach to functional localization in the brain. Biology and Philosophy, 31, 527—550.

Buxhoeveden, D. P., & Casanova, M. F. (2002). The minicolumn hypothesis in neuroscience. Brain, 125, 935—951.

Cain, D. P. (2001). Synaptic models of neuroplasticity: What is LTP? In: Toward a theory of neuroplasticity, eds. C. A. Shaw & J. C. McEachern, pp. 118—129. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Caldarelli, G., & Catanzaro, M. (2012). Networks: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Carandini, M. (2015). From circuits to In: The future of the brain, eds. G. Marcus & J. Freeman, pp. 177—185. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Carruthers, P. (2006). The architecture of the mind: Massive modularity and the flexibility of thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Carruthers, P. (2008). Précis of The architecture of the mind: Massive modularity and the flexibility of thought. Mind and Language,23(3), 257—262.

Casasanto, D., & Dijkstra, K. (2010). Motor action and emotional memory. Cognition, 115(1), 179—185.

Chao, L. L., & Martin, A. (2000). Representation of manipulable man-made objects in the dorsal stream. NeuroImage, 12, 478—484.

Chomsky, N. (1956). Three models for the description of language. IRE transactions on information theory IT-2: 113—124. Reprinted, with corrections, in: Readings in mathematical psychology, Vol. II, eds. R. D. Luce, R. R. Bush, & E. Gallanter, pp. 105—124. New York: John Wiley, & Sons, 1965. References are to the reprint.

Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic structures. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on language. New York: Pantheon.

Chomsky, N. (1979). Language and responsibility (with Mitsou Ronat). New York: Pantheon.

Chomsky, N. (1980a). Rules and representations. New York: Columbia University Press.

Chomsky, N. (1980b). Rules and representations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3(1), 1—15; discussion 15—61.

Chomsky, N. (1988). Language and problems of knowledge: The Managua lectures. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chomsky, N. (1995). The minimalist program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Chomsky, N. (2002). On nature and language. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Chomsky, N. (2005). Three factors in language design. Linguistic Inquiry, 36(1), 1—22.

Chomsky, N. (2006). Language and mind. 3rd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Chomsky, N. (2010). Some simple evo devo theses: How true might they be for language? In: The evolution of human language: Biolinguistic perspectives, eds. R. K. Larson, V. Déprez, & H. Yamakido, pp. 45—72. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Chomsky, N. (2016). Minimal computation and the architecture of language. Chinese Semiotic Studies, 12(1), 13—24.

Chomsky, N. (2018). Two notions of modularity. In: On concepts, modules, and language: Cognitive science at its core, eds. R. G. de Almeida & L. R. Gleitman, pp. 25—40. New York: Oxford University Press.

Christiansen, M. H., & Chater, N. (2016). Creating language: Integrating evolution, acquisition, and processing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Clark, A. (2013). Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 36(3), 181—204; discussion 204—253.

Clark, E. (2009). First language acquisition. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Coase, R. H. (1937). The nature of the firm. Economica New Series,4(16), 386—405.

Cohen, L.G, Celnik, P., Pascual-Leone, A., Corwell, B., Faiz, L., Dambrosia, J., Honda, M., Sadato, N., Gerloff, C., Catalá, M. D., & Hallett, M. (1997). Functional relevance of cross-modal plasticity in blind humans. Nature,389(6647), 180—183.

Cole, M. W., Reynolds, J. R., Power, J. D., Repovs, G., Anticevic, A., & Braver, T. S. (2013). Multi-task connectivity reveals flexible hubs for adaptive task control. Nature Neuroscience, 16(9), 1348—1355.

Collins, J. (2004). Faculty disputes. Mind and Language,19(5), 503—533.

Collins, J. (2005). Nativism: In defense of a biological understanding. Philosophical Psychology, 18(2), 157—177.

Collins, J. (2008). Chomsky: A guide for the perplexed. London: Continuum.

Collins, J. (2004). Brain imaging, connectionism, and cognitive neuropsychology. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 21(1), 21—25.

Collins, J. (2011). Methods for modular modelling: Additive factors and cognitive neuropsychology. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 28(3—4), 224—240.

Coltheart, M. (1999). Modularity and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3(3), 115—120.

Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1994). Origins of domain specificity: The evolution of functional organization. In: Mapping the world: Domain specificity in cognition and culture, eds. L. Hirschfield & S. Gelman, pp. 85—116. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Couch, M. B. (2009). Functional explanation in context. Philosophy of Science, 76(2), 253—269.

Cowie, F. (2008). Innateness and language. In: The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, winter 2016, ed. E. N. Zalta. Available at:

Craver, C. F. (2007). Explaining the brain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Croft, W., & Cruise, D. A. (2004). Cognitive linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

da Costa, N. M., & Martin, K. A. C. (2010). Whose cortical column would that be? Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 4(5), 1—10.

Damasio, A. R., & Tranel, D. (1993). Nouns and verbs are retrieved with differently distributed neural systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 90, 4957—4960.

Damasio, H., Grabowski, T. J., Tranel, D., Hichwa, R. D., & Damasio, A. R. (1996). A neural basis for lexical retrieval. Science, 380, 499—505.

Danelli, L., Cossu, G., Berlingeri, M., Bottini, G., Sberna, M., & Paulesu, E. (2013). Is a lone right hemisphere enough? Neurolinguistic architecture in a case with a very early left hemispherectomy. Neurocase,19(3), 209—231.

de Boer, B. (2016). Evolution of speech and evolution of language. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 2016, 1—5. doi: 10.3758/s13423-016-1130-6.

Deacon, T. W. (1997). The symbolic species: The co-evolution of language and the brain. New York: Norton.

Deacon, T. W. (2010). A role for relaxed selection in the evolution of the language capacity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 9000—9006.

Decety, J., Grèzes, J., Costes, N., Perani, D., Jeannerod, M., Procyk, E., Grassi, F., & Fazio, F. (1997). Brain activity during observation of actions. Influence of action content and subject’s strategy. Brain, 120(10), 1763—1777.

Dehaene, S. (2005). Evolution of human cortical circuits for reading and arithmetic: The “neuronal recycling” hypothesis. In: From monkey brain to human brain, eds. S. Dehaene, J. R. Duhamel, M. D. Hauser, & G. Rizzolatti, pp. 133—157. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Dehaene, S., Bossini, S., & Giraux, P. (1993). The mental representation of parity and numerical magnitude. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 371—396.

Dennett, D. C. (1991). Consciousness explained. London: Penguin.

Doidge, N. (2007). The brain that changes itself. New York: Penguin.

Dor, D., & Jablonka, E. (2010). Canalization and plasticity in the evolution of linguistic communication: An evolutionary developmental approach. In: The evolution of human language: Biolinguistic perspectives, eds. R. K. Larson, V. Déprez, & H. Yamakido, pp. 135—147. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dunn, M., Greenhill, S. J., Levinson, S. C., & Gray, R. D. (2011). Evolved structure of language shows lineage-specific trends in word-order universals. Nature, 473, 79—82.

Edelman, G. M., & Gally, J. A. (2001). Degeneracy and complexity in biological systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98(24), 13763—13768.

Elbert, T., Pantev, C., Wienbruch, C., Rockstroh, B., & Taub, E. (1995). Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science, 270, 305—307.

Eliasmith, C. (2015). Building a behaving brain. In: The future of the brain, eds. G. Marcus & J. Freeman, pp. 125—136. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Evans, N., & Levinson, S. C. (2009). The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32(5), 429—448; discussion 448—492.

Evans, V., & Green, M. (2006). Cognitive linguistics: An introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Everett, D. (2012). Language: The cultural tool. New York: Vintage.

Fedorenko, E., Behr, M. K., & Kanwisher, N. (2011). Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,108(39), 16428—16433.

Fedorenko, E., Duncan, J., & Kanwisher, N. (2012). Language-selective and domain-general regions lie side by side within Broca’s area. Current Biology,22(21), 2059—2062.

Fedorenko, E., & Thompson-Schill, S. L. (2014). Reworking the language network. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18(3), 120—126.

Fisher, S. E. (2015). Translating the genome in human neuroscience. In: The future of the brain, eds. G. Marcus & J. Freeman, pp. 149—158. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Fisher, S. E., & Scharff, C. (2009). FOXP2 as a molecular window into speech and language. Trends in Genetics, 25, 166—177.

Fitch, W. T. (2010). Three meanings of “recursion”: Key distinctions for biolinguistics. In: The evolution of human language: Biolinguistic perspectives, eds. R. K. Larson, V. Déprez, & H. Yamakido, pp. 73—90. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fitch, W. T., Hauser, M. D., & Chomsky, N. (2005). The evolution of the language faculty: Clarifications and implications. Cognition, 97, 179—210.

Fodor, J. A. (1975). The language of thought. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Fodor, J. A. (1983). The modularity of mind: An essay on faculty psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Fodor, J. A., Bever, T., & Garrett, M. (1974). The psychology of language: An introduction to psycholinguistics and generative grammar. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Frost, R., Armstrong, B. C., Siegelman, N., & Christiansen, M. H. (2015). Domain generality versus modality specificity: The paradox of statistical learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(3), 117—125.

Fuchs, E., & Flügge, G. (2014). Adult neuroplasticity: More than 40 years of research. Neural Plasticity, 2014, 1—10. doi: 10.1155/2014/541870.

Gall, F. J., & Spurzheim, J. C. (1835). On the function of the brain and each of its parts. Boston: Marsh Capen and Lyon.

Gauthier, I., Curran, T., Curby, K. M., & Collins, D. (2003). Perceptual interference supports a non-modular account of face processing. Nature Neuroscience, 6(4), 428—432.

Gauthier, I., Skudlarski, P. Gore, J. C., & Anderson, A. W. (2000). Expertise for cars and birds recruits brain areas involved in face recognition. Nature Neuroscience, 3(2), 191—197.

Gazzaniga, M. S. (1989). Organization of the human brain. Science, 245(4921), 947—952.

Gerrans, P. (2014). The measure of madness: Philosophy of mind, cognitive neuroscience, and delusional thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gilbert, C. D. (2013). The constructive nature of visual processing. In: Principles of neural science, eds. E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, T. M. Jessell, S. A. Siegelbaum, & A. J. Hudspeth, pp. 556—576. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gillett, C. (2002). The dimensions of realization: A critique of the standard view. Analysis, 62(4), 316—323.

Gillett, C. (2003). The metaphysics of realization, multiple realizability, and the special sciences. Journal of Philosophy, 100(11), 591—603.

Glenberg, A. M., Brown, M., & Levin, J. R. (2007). Enhancing comprehension in small reading groups using a manipulation strategy. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32, 389—399.

Glenberg, A. M., Sato, M., & Cattaneo, L. (2008). Use-induced motor plasticity affects the processing of abstract and concrete language. Current Biology,18(7), R290—R291.

Glickstein, M. (2014). Neuroscience: A historical introduction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Godfrey-Smith, P. (2001). Three kinds of adaptationism. In: Adaptationism and optimality, ed. S. H. Orzack & E. Sober, pp. 335—357. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gold, I., & Roskies, A. L. (2008). Philosophy of neuroscience. In: The Oxford handbook of philosophy of biology, ed. M. Ruse, pp. 349—380. New York: Oxford University Press.

Goldberg, A. E. (2003). Constructions: A new theoretical approach to language. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(5), 219—224.

Graziano, M. S. A., Taylor, C. S. R., Moore, T., & Cooke, D. F. (2002). The cortical control of movement revisited. Neuron, 36, 349—362.

Greenfield, P. M. (1991). Language, tools and brain: The ontogeny and phylogeny of hierarchically organized sequential behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences,14(4), 531—551; discussion 551—595.

Greenhill, S. J., Atkinson, Q. D., Meade, A., & Gray, R. D. (2010). The shape and tempo of language evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 277, 2443—2450.

Griffiths, P. E. (2002). What is innateness? Monist, 85, 70—85.

Griffiths, P. E., & Machery, E. (2008). Innateness, canalization, and “biologicizing the mind.” Philosophical Psychology,21(3), 397—414.

Griffiths, P. E., Machery, E., & Linquist, S. (2009). The vernacular concept of innateness. Mind and Language,24(5), 605—630.

Grossi, G. (2014). A module is a module is a module: Evolution of modularity in evolutionary psychology. Dialectical Anthropology, 38, 333—351.

Gruber, O. (2002). The co-evolution of language and working memory capacity in the human brain. In: Mirror neurons and the evolution of brain and language, eds. M. I. Stamenov & V. Gallese, pp. 77—86. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Guida, A., Campitelli, G., & Gobet, F. (2016). Becoming an expert: Ontogeny of expertise as an example of neural reuse. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, 13—15.

Hagoort, P., & Indefrey, P. (2014). The neurobiology of language beyond single words. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 37, 347—362.

Hanson, S. J., Matsuka, T., & Haxby, J. V. (2004). Combinatorial codes in ventral temporal lobe for object recognition: Is there a “face” area? NeuroImage, 23(1), 156—166.

Hardcastle, V. G., & Stewart, C. M. (2009). fMRI: A modern cerebrascope? The case of pain. In: The Oxford handbook of philosophy and neuroscience, ed. J. Bickle, pp. 179—199. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hauser, M. D., Chomsky, N., & Fitch, W. T. (2002). The faculty of language: What is it, who has it and how did it evolve? Science, 298(5598), 1569—1579.

Hawrylycz, M. (2015). Building atlases of the brain. In: The future of the brain, eds. G. Marcus & J. Freeman, pp. 3—16. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Haxby, J. V., Gobbini, M. I., Furey, M. L., Ishai, A., Schouten, J. L., & Pietrini, P. (2001). Distributed and overlapping representations of faces and objects in ventral temporal cortex. Science, 293, 2425—2430.

Hebb, D. O. (1949). The organization of New York: Wiley.

Hickok, G., & Poeppel, D. (2000). Towards a functional neuroanatomy of speech perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences,4(4), 131—138.

Hirst, P., Khomami, P. J., Gharat, A., & Zangenehpour, S. (2012). Cross-modal recruitment of primary visual cortex by auditory stimuli in the nonhuman primate brain: A molecular mapping study. Neural Plasticity, 2012, 1—11. doi: 10.1155/2012/197264.

Horst, S. W. (2011). Laws, mind, and free will. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hsu, H. J., Tomblin, J. B., & Christiansen, M. H. (2014). Impaired statistical learning of non-adjacent dependencies in adolescents with specific language impairment. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 175.

Hubbard, E. M., Piazza, M., Pinel, P., & Dehaene, S. (2005). Interactions between number and space in parietal cortex. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 435—448.

Iriki, A., & Taoka, M. (2012). Triadic (ecological, neural, cognitive) niche construction: A scenario of human brain evolution extrapolating tool use and language from the control of reaching actions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367, 10—23.

Jackendoff, R. (2007). A Parallel Architecture perspective on language processing. Brain Research, 1146, 2—22.

Jacobs, J. A. (1999). Computational studies of the development of functionally specialized neural modules. Trends in Cognitive Sciences,3(1), 31—38.

Jilk, D. J., Lebiere, C., O’Reilly, R. C., & Anderson, J. R. (2008). SAL: An explicitly pluralistic cognitive architecture. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 20, 197—218.

Jungé, J. A., & Dennett, D. C. (2010). Multi-use and constraints from original use. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(4), 277—278.

Jusczyk, P. W., & Cohen, A. (1985). What constitutes a module? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8(1), 20—21.

Kaan, E., & Stowe, L. A. (2002). Storage and computation in the brain: A neuroimaging perspective. In: Storage and computation in the language faculty, eds. S. G. Nooteboom, F. Weerman, & F. N. K. Wijnen, pp. 257—298. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Kaan, E., & Swaab, T. Y. (2002). The brain circuitry of syntactic comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(8), 350—356.

Kandel, E. R., Barres, B. A., & Hudspeth, A. J. (2013). Nerve cells, neural circuitry, and behavior. In: Principles of neural science, eds. E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, T. M. Jessell, S. A. Siegelbaum, & A. J. Hudspeth, pp. 21—38. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kandel, E. R., & Hudspeth, A. J. (2013). The brain and behavior. In: Principles of neural science, eds. E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, T. M. Jessell, S. A. Siegelbaum, & A. J. Hudspeth, pp. 5—20. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kanwisher, N., McDermott, J., & Chun, M. (1997). The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. Journal of Neuroscience, 17(11), 4302—4311.

Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1992). Beyond modularity: A developmental perspective on cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1994). Précis of Beyond modularity: A developmental perspective on cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17(4), 693—706; discussion 707—745.

Kim, J. (1992). Multiple realization and the metaphysics of reduction. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research,52(1), 1—26.

Kim, S. (2002). Testing multiple realizability: A discussion of Bechtel and Mundale. Philosophy of Science, 69(4), 606—610.

Kirby, S., Dowman, M., & Griffiths, T. L. (2007). Innateness and culture in the evolution of language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 5241—5245.

Klein, C. (2008). An ideal solution to disputes about multiply realized kinds. Philosophical Studies, 140(2), 161—177.

Klein, C. (2010). Redeployed functions versus spreading activation: A potential confound. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(4), 280—281.

Klein, C. (2012). Cognitive ontology and region- versus network-oriented analyses. Philosophy of Science, 79(5), 952—960.

Knott, A. (2012). Sensorimotor cognition and natural language syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Koch, C. (2015). Project MindScope. In: The future of the brain, eds. G. Marcus & J. Freeman, pp. 25—39. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Kolb, B., Gibb. R., & Gonzalez, C. L. R. (2001). Cortical injury and neuroplasticity during brain development. In: Toward a theory of neuroplasticity, eds. C. A. Shaw & J. C. McEachern, pp. 223—243. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Krubitzer, L. (1995). The organization of neocortex in mammals: Are species differences really so different? Trends in Neurosciences, 18(9), 408—417.

Kuhl, P. K., & Damasio, A. R. (2013). Language. In: Principles of neural science, eds. E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, T. M. Jessell, S. A. Siegelbaum, & A. J. Hudspeth, pp. 1353—1372. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lai, C. S. L., Fisher, S. E., Hurst, J. A., Vargha-Khadem, F., & Monaco, A. P. (2001). A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature,413, 519—523.

Laland, K. N. (2016). The origins of language in teaching. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 2016, 1—7. doi: 10.3758/s13423-016-1077-7.

Laland, K. N. Sterelny, K., Odling-Smee, J., Hoppit, W., & Uller, T. (2011). Cause and effect in biology revisited: Is Mayr’s proximate-ultimate dichotomy still useful? Science, 334(6062), 1512—1516.

Laland, K.N, Uller, T., Feldman, M. W., Sterelny, K., Müller, G. B., Moczek, A., Jablonka, E., & Odling-Smee, J. (2015). The extended evolutionary synthesis: Its structure, assumptions and predictions. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282, 20151019.

Landon, B. (2013). Building great sentences: How to write the kinds of sentences you love to read. Penguin: New York.

Laurence, S., & Margolis, E. (2015). Concept nativism and neural plasticity. In: The conceptual mind: New directions in the study of concepts, eds. E. Margolis & S. Laurence, pp. 117—147. Cambridge, MIT: MIT Press.

Leiber, J. (2006). Turing’s golden: How well Turing’s work stands today. Philosophical Psychology,19(1), 13—46.

Leise, E. M. (1990). Modular construction of nervous systems: A basic principle of design for invertebrates and vertebrates. Brain Research Reviews, 15, 1—23.

Leo, A., Bernardi, G., Handjaras, G., Bonino, D., Ricciardi, E., & Pietrini, P. (2012). Increased BOLD variability in the parietal cortex and enhanced parieto-occipital connectivity during tactile perception in congenitally blind individuals. Neural Plasticity, 2012, 1—8. doi: 10.1155/2012/720278.

Levinson, S. C. (2000). Presumptive meanings: The theory of generalized conversational implicature. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Lingnau, A., Strnad, L., He, C., Fabbri, S., Han, Z., Bi, Y., & Caramazza, A. (2014). Cross-modal plasticity preserves functional specialization in posterior parietal cortex. Cerebral Cortex,24, 541—549.

Liu, L., & Kager, R. (2016). Enhanced music sensitivity in 9-month-old bilingual infants. Cognitive Processing, 2016, 1—11. doi: 10.1007/s10339-016-0780-7.

Luria, A. R., Tsvetkova, L. S., & Futer, D. S. (1965). Aphasia in a composer (V. G. Shebalin). Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 2(3), 288—292.

MacDermot, K. D., Bonora, E., Sykes, N. Coupe, A. M., Lai, C. S. L., Vernes, S. C., Vargha-Khadem, F., McKenzie, F., Smith, R. L., Monaco, A. P., & Fisher, S. E. (2005). Identification of FOXP2 truncation as a novel cause of developmental speech and language deficits. American Journal of Human Genetics, 76(6), 1074—1080.

MacNeilage, P. F. (1998). The frame/content theory of evolution of speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences,21(4), 499—511; discussion 511—546.

Maess, B., Koelsch, S., Gunter, T. C., & Friederici, A. D. (2001). Musical syntax is processed in Broca’s area: An MEG study. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 540—545.

Mahon, B. Z., & Cantlon, J. F. (2011). The specialization of function: Cognitive and neural perspectives. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 28(3—4), 147—155.

Maleszka, R., Mason, P. H., & Barron, A. B. (2013). Epigenomics and the concept of degeneracy in biological systems. Briefings in Functional Genomics, 13(3), 191—202.

Malle, B. F. (2002). The relation between language and theory of mind in development and evolution. In: The evolution of language out of pre-language, eds. T. Givón & B. Malle, pp. 265—284. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Mameli, M., & Bateson, P. (2006). Innateness and the sciences. Biology and Philosophy, 21, 155—188.

Mameli, M., & Bateson, P. (2011). An evaluation of the concept of innateness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 366, 436—443.

Mameli, M., & Papineau, D. (2006). The new nativism: A commentary on Gary Marcus’s The birth of the mind. Biology and Philosophy, 21, 559—573.

Mampe, B., Friederici, A. D., Christophe, A., & Wermke, K. (2009). Newborns’ cry melody is shaped by their native language. Current Biology,19(23), 1994—1997.

Marcus, G. (2004). The birth of the mind: How a tiny number of genes creates the complexities of human thought. New York: Basic Books.

Marr, D. (1976). Early processing of visual information. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 275, 483—524.

Marr, D. (2010 [1982]). Vision: A computational investigation into the human representation and processing of visual information. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Martin, A., Haxby, J. V., Lalonde, F. M., Wiggs, C. L., & Ungerleider, L. G. (1995). Discrete cortical regions associated with knowledge of color and knowledge of action. Science, 270, 102—105.

Martin, A., Ungerleider, L. G., & Haxby, J. V. (2000). Category-specificity and the brain: The sensorymotor model of semantic representations of objects. In: The new cognitive neurosciences, 2nd ed., ed. M. S. Gazzaniga, pp. 1023—1036. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.

Martin, A., Wiggs, C. L., Ungerleider, L. G., & Haxby, J. V. (1996). Neural correlates of category-specific knowledge. Nature, 379(6566), 649—652.

Mason, P. H. (2010). Degeneracy at multiple levels of complexity. Biological Theory, 5(3), 277—288.

Mather, M., Cacioppo, J. T., & Kanwisher, N. (2013). How fMRI can inform cognitive theories. Perspectives on Psychological Science,8(1), 108—113.

McGeer, V. (2007). Why neuroscience matters to cognitive neuropsychology. Synthese, 159, 347—371.

McGilvray, J. (2014). Chomsky: Language, mind, politics. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Melchner, L., Pallas, S. L., & Sur, M. (2000). Visual behaviour mediated by retinal projections directed to the auditory pathway. Nature,404(6780), 871—876.

Merabet, L. B., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2010). Neural organization following sensory loss: The opportunity of change. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 44—52.

Mnih, V., Kavukcuoglu, K., Silver, D., Rusu, A. A., Veness, J., Bellemare, M. G., Graves, A., Riedmiller, M., Fidjeland, A. K., Ostrovski, G., Petersen, S., Beattie, C., Sadik, A., Antonoglou, I., King, H., Kumaran, D., Wierstra, D., Legg, S., & Hassabis, D. (2015). Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518, 529—533.

Moore, R. (2017). The evolution of syntactic structure. Biology and Philosophy, 32(4), 599—613.

Mountcastle, V. B. (1957). Modality and topographic properties of single neurons of cat’s somatic sensory cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 20(4), 408—434.

Mountcastle, V. B. (1978). An organizing principle for cerebral function: The unit module and the distributed system. In: The mindful brain, eds. G. Edelman & V. B. Mountcastle, pp. 7—50. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Mountcastle, V. B. (1997). The columnar organization of the neocortex. Brain, 120, 701—722.

Müller, R.-A., & Basho, S. (2004). Are nonlinguistic functions in “Broca’s area” prerequisites for language acquisition? fMRI findings from an ontogenetic viewpoint. Brain and Language, 89(2), 329—336.

Neville, H. J., & Bavelier, D. (2001). Specificity of developmental neuroplasticity in humans: Evidence from sensory deprivation and altered language experience. In: Toward a theory of neuroplasticity, eds. C. A. Shaw & J. C. McEachern, pp. 261—274. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Nishitani, N., Schürmann, M., Amunts, K., & Hari, R. (2005). Broca’s region: From action to language. Physiology, 20, 60—69.

Noppeney, U. (2007). The effects of visual deprivation on structural and functional organization of the human brain. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 31, 1169—1180.

Ohlsson, S. (1994). Representational change, generality versus specificity, and nature versus nurture: Perennial issues in cognitive research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17(4), 724—725.

O’Neill, E. (2015). Relativizing innateness: Innateness as the insensitivity of the appearance of a trait with respect to specified environmental variation. Biology and Philosophy,30, 211—225.

O’Reilly, R. C. (1998). Six principles for biologically-based computational models of cortical cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences,2(11), 455—462.

O’Reilly, R. C., Munakata, Y., Frank, M. J., Hazy, T. E., & Contributors. (2012). Computational cognitive neuroscience. 1st ed. Wiki Book. Available at:

Parfit, D. (1984). Reasons and persons. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pascual-Leone, A., Amedi, A., Fregni, F., & Merabet, L. B. (2005). The plastic human brain cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 377—401.

Pascual-Leone, A., & Hamilton, R. (2001). The metamodal organization of the brain. Progress in Brain Research, 134, 427—445.

Pascual-Leone, A., & Torres, F. (1993). Plasticity of the sensorimotor cortex representation of the reading finger in Braille readers. Brain, 116, 39—52.

Pasqualotto, A. (2016). Multisensory integration substantiates distributed and overlapping neural networks. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, 20—21.

Peretz, I., & Coltheart, M. (2003). Modularity of music processing. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 688—691.

Pessoa, L. (2016). Beyond disjoint brain networks: Overlapping networks for cognition and emotion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, 22—24.

Petrov, A. A., Jilk, D. J., & O’Reilly, R. C. (2010). The Leabra architecture: Specialization without modularity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(4), 286—287.

Piccinini, G., & Craver, C. (2011). Integrating psychology and neuroscience: Functional analyses as mechanism sketches. Synthese,183, 283—311.

Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct. London: Penguin/Folio.

Pinker, S. (1997). How the mind works. New York: Norton.

Pinker, S., & Jackendoff, R. (2005). The faculty of language: What’s special about it? Cognition, 95, 201—236.

Plaut, D. C. (1995). Double dissociation without modularity: Evidence from connectionist neuropsychology. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychology,17(2), 291—321.

Poeppel, D. (2001). Pure word deafness and the bilateral processing of the speech code. Cognitive Science, 21(5), 679—693.

Poeppel, D. (2015). The neurobiology of language. In: The future of the brain, eds. G. Marcus & J. Freeman, pp. 139—148. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Poldrack, R. A. (2010). Mapping mental function to brain structure: How can cognitive neuroimaging succeed? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(6), 753—761.

Poldrack, R. A., Halchenko, Y. O., & Hanson, S. J. (2009). Decoding the large-scale structure of brain function by classifying mental states across individuals. Psychological Science, 20(11), 1364—1372.

Polger, T. W. (2008). Two confusions concerning multiple realization. Philosophy of Science, 75(5), 537—547.

Polger, T. W. (2009). Evaluating the evidence for multiple realization. Synthese, 167(3), 457—472.

Polger, T. W., & Shapiro, L. A. (2008). Understanding the dimensions of realization. Journal of Philosophy, 105(4), 213—222.

Polger, T. W., & Shapiro, L. A. (2016). The multiple realization book. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Price, C. J., & Friston, K. J. (2005). Functional ontologies for cognition: The systematic definition of structure and function. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22(3), 262—275.

Prinz, J. J. (2006). Is the mind really modular? In: Contemporary debates in cognitive science, ed. R. Stainton, pp. 22—36. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ptito, M., Kupers, R., Lomber, S., & Pietrini, P. (2012). Sensory deprivation and brain plasticity. Neural Plasticity, 2012, 1—2. doi: 10.1155/2012/810370.

Ptito, M., Matteau, I., Zhi Wang, A., Paulson, O. B., Siebner, H. R., & Kupers, R. (2012). Crossmodal recruitment of the ventral visual stream in congenital blindness. Neural Plasticity, 2012, 1—9. doi: 10.1155/2012/304045.

Pullum, G. K., & Scholz, B. C. (2002). Empirical assessment of stimulus poverty arguments. Linguistic Review,19, 9—50.

Pulvermüller, F. (2005). Brain mechanisms linking language and action. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 576—582.

Pulvermüller, F., & Fadiga, L. (2010). Active perception: Sensorimotor circuits as a cortical basis for language. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 351—360.

Putnam, H. (1967). Psychological predicates. In: Art, mind, and religion, eds. W. Capitan & D. Merrill, pp. 37—48. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Quartz, S. R., & Sejnowski, T. J. (1994). Neural evidence for constructivist principles in development. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17(4), 725—726.

Ramus, F., & Fisher, S. E. (2009). Genetics of Language. In: The cognitive neurosciences, 4th ed., ed. M. S. Gazzaniga, pp. 855—872. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Rasmussen, J. (1986). Information processing and human-machine interaction. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Rauschecker, J. P. (2001). Developmental neuroplasticity within and across sensory modalities. In: Toward a theory of neuroplasticity, eds. C. A. Shaw & J. C. McEachern, pp. 244—260. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Renier, L. A., Anurova, I., De Volder, A. G., Carlson, S., VanMeter, J., & Rauschecker, J. P. (2010). Preserved functional specialization for spatial processing in the middle occipital gyrus of the early blind. Neuron, 68(1), 138—148.

Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (2005). Not by genes alone: How culture transformed human evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ritchie, J. B., & Carruthers, P. (2010). Massive modularity is consistent with most forms of neural reuse. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33(4), 289—290.

Robbins, P. (2009). Modularity of mind. In: The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, summer 2010, ed. E. N. Zalta. Available at:

Rockland, K. S. (2010). Five points on columns. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy, 4(6), 1—10.

Rose, J. K., & Rankin, C. H. (2001). Behavioral, neural circuit and genetic analyses of habituation in C. elegans. In: Toward a theory of neuroplasticity, eds. C. A. Shaw & J. C. McEachern, pp. 176—192. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Rowland, D. C., & Moser, M. B. (2014). From cortical modules to memories. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 24, 22—27.

Sadato, N., Pascual-Leone, A., Grafman, J., Ibañez, V., Deiber, M. P., Dold, G., & Hallett, M. (1996). Activation of the primary visual cortex by Braille reading in blind subjects. Nature, 380(6574), 526—528.

Saitoe, M., & Tully, T. (2001). Making connections between developmental and behavioral plasticity in Drosophila. In: Toward a theory of neuroplasticity, eds. C. A. Shaw & J. C. McEachern, pp. 193—220. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Sanes, J. R., & Jessell, T. M. (2013). Experience and the refinement of synaptic connections. In: Principles of neural science, eds. E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, T. M. Jessell, S. A. Siegelbaum, & A. J. Hudspeth, pp. 1259—1283. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Scholl, B. J. (1997). Neural constraints on cognitive modularity? Behavioral and Brain Sciences,20(4), 575—576.

Scholz, B. C., & Pullum, G. K. (2002). Searching for arguments to support linguistic nativism. Linguistic Review,19, 185—223.

Schreiweis, C., Bornschein, U., Burguière, E., Kerimoglu, C., Schreiter, S., Dannemann, M., Goyal, S., Rea, E., French, C. A., Puliyadi, R., Groszer, M., Fisher, S. E., Mundry, R., Winter, C., Hevers, W., Pääbo, S., Enard, W., & Graybiel, A. M. (2014). Humanized Foxp2 accelerates learning by enhancing transitions from declarative to procedural performance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,111(39), 14253—14258.

Shapiro, L. A. (2000). Multiple realizations. Journal of Philosophy, 97(12), 635—654.

Shapiro, L. A. (2004). The mind incarnate. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Shapiro, L. A. (2008). How to test for multiple realization. Philosophy of Science, 75(5), 514—525.

Shapiro, L. A., & Polger, T. W. (2012). Identity, variability, and multiple realization in the special sciences. In: New perspectives on type identity: The mental and the physical, eds. S. Gozzano & C. S. Hill, pp. 264—286. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Shaw, C. A., & McEachern, J. C., eds. (2001). Toward a theory of neuroplasticity. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Sharma, J., Angelucci, A., & Sur, M. (2000). Induction of visual orientation modules in auditory cortex. Nature,404(6780), 841—847.

Silberstein, M. (2016). The implications of neural reuse for the future of both cognitive neuroscience and folk psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences,39, 27—29.

Smit, H. (2014). The Social Evolution of Human Nature: From Biology to Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, K., & Kirby, S. (2008). Cultural evolution: Implications for understanding the human language faculty and its evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363, 3591—3603.

Sorrells, S. F., Paredes, M. F., Cebrian-Silla, A., Sandoval, K., Qi, D., Kelley, K. W., James, D., Mayer, S., Chang, J., Auguste, J. I., Chang, E. F., Gutierrez, A. J., Kriegstein, A. R., Mathern, A. M., Oldham, M. C., Huang, E. J., Garcia-Verdugo, J. M., Yang, Z., & Alvarez-Buylla, A. (2018). Human hippocampal neurogenesis drops sharply in children to undetectable levels in adults. Nature, 555, 377—381.

Sperber, D. (1994). The modularity of thought and the epidemiology of representations. In: Mapping the mind, eds. L. A. Hirschfield & S. A. Gelman, pp. 39—67. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sperber, D. (2002). In defense of massive modularity. In: Language, brain, and cognitive development, ed. I. Dupoux, pp. 47—57. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sporns, O. (2015). Network neuroscience. In: The future of the brain, eds. G. Marcus & J. Freeman, pp. 90—99. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Stanley, M. L., & De Brigard, F. (2016). Modularity in network neuroscience and neural reuse. Behavioral and Brain Sciences,39, 29—31.

Stanton, N. A., & Salmon, P. M. (2009). Human error taxonomies applied to driving: A generic error taxonomy and its implications for intelligent transport systems. Safety Science, 47(2), 227—237.

Sterelny, K. (2006). Language, modularity, and evolution. In: Teleosemantics, eds. G. Macdonald & D. Papineau, pp. 23—41. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sterelny, K. (2012). The evolved apprentice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sternberg, S. (2011). Modular processes in mind and brain. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 28(3—4), 156—208.

Striem-Amit, E., Dakwar, O., Reich, L., & Amedi, A. (2012). The large-scale organization of “visual” streams emerges without visual experience. Cerebral Cortex, 22(7), 1698—1709.

Striem-Amit, E., & Amedi, A. (2014). Visual cortex extrastriate body-selective area activation in congenitally blind people “seeing” by using sounds. Current Biology, 24, 1—6.

Suddendorf, T. (2013). The gap: The science of what separates us from the animals. New York: Basic Books.

Teyler, T. J. (2001). LTP and the superfamily of synaptic plasticities. In: Toward a theory of neuroplasticity, eds. C. A. Shaw & J. C. McEachern, pp. 101—117. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Thoenissen, D., Zilles, K., & Toni, I. (2002). Differential involvement of parietal and precentral regions in movement preparation and motor intention. Journal of Neuroscience, 22, 9024—9034.

van Gelder, T. (1995). What might cognition be, if not computation? Journal of Philosophy, 92(7), 345—381.

Varley, R. A., Klessinger, N. J. C., Romanowski, C. A. J., & Siegal, M. (2005). Agrammatic but numerate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 3519—3524.

Verhage, M., Maia, A. S., Plomp, J. J., Brussaard, A. B., Heeroma, J. H., Vermeer, H., Toonen, R. F., Hammer, R. E., van den Berg, T. K., Missler, M., Geuze, H. J., & Südhof, T. C. (2000). Synaptic assembly of the brain in the absence of neurotransmitter secretion. Science, 287(5454), 864—869.

Waddington, C. H. (1953). Genetic assimilation of an acquired character. Evolution, 17, 118—126.

Waddington, C. H. (1955). On a case of quantitative variation on either side of the wild type. Molecular Genetics and Genomics,87(2), 208—228.

Walker, G. H., Stanton, N. A., & Salmon, P. M. (2015). Human factors in automotive engineering and technology. Surrey: Ashgate.

Wernicke, C. (1908). The symptom-complex of aphasia. In: Diseases of the nervous system, ed. A. Church, pp. 265—324. New York: Appleton.

Whiteacre, J. M. (2010). Degeneracy: A link between evolvability, robustness and complexity in biological systems. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, 7(6), 1—17.

Wolbers, T., Zahorik, P., & Giudice, N. A. (2011). Decoding the direction of auditory motion in blind humans. NeuroImage, 56(2), 681—687.

Wolpert, L. (2011). Developmental biology: A very short introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Zador, A. (2015). The connectome as a DNA sequencing problem. In: The future of the brain, eds. G. Marcus & J. Freeman, pp. 40—49. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Zerilli, J. (2014). A minimalist framework for comparative psychology. Biology and Philosophy, 29(6), 897—904.

Zerilli, J. (2019). Multiple realization and the commensurability of taxonomies. Synthese, 196(8), 3337—3353.