Review Questions - 6 Biological Bases of Behavior - STEP 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High

5 Steps to a 5: AP Psychology - McGraw Hill 2021

Review Questions
6 Biological Bases of Behavior
STEP 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High

1. A neuron without terminal buttons would be unable to

(A) receive information from neighboring neurons

(B) generate an action potential

(C) direct the synthesis of neurotransmitters

(D) secrete neurotransmitters to postsynaptic neurons

(E) transport ions across the cell membrane

2. Paul Broca found that the loss of the ability to speak intelligibly is associated with damage to a region of the brain in the

(A) thalamus

(B) right parietal lobe

(C) right occipital lobe

(D) left temporal lobe

(E) left frontal lobe

3. Scientists are able to see changes in the brain as it processes information by means of

(A) lesioning

(B) autopsy

(C) CT



4. The simplest behaviors

(A) are learned when we are infants

(B) do not involve the central nervous system

(C) are called instincts

(D) include sneezing and blinking

(E) must be processed by the medulla

5. Of the following, the effect of adrenaline on the body is most similar to the effect of the

(A) cerebellum

(B) parathyroids

(C) somatic nervous system

(D) parasympathetic nervous system

(E) sympathetic nervous system

6. Mr. Jenkins suffered a “stroke” as a result of a brain injury. Although he can still move the fingers on his right hand, he has lost sensation in these parts. Of the following, the site of damage to his brain is most likely in the

(A) right frontal lobe

(B) right temporal lobe

(C) left frontal lobe

(D) left parietal lobe

(E) hypothalamus

7. Of the following, which are located exclusively in the central nervous system?

(A) afferent neurons

(B) interneurons

(C) efferent neurons

(D) glial cells

(E) effectors

8. Which of the following glands interact(s) most directly with all of the others to help regulate body processes?

(A) pituitary

(B) adrenals

(C) parathyroids

(D) thyroid

(E) ovaries

9. Gunshot wounds, tumors, and strokes all result in

(A) infections

(B) significant loss of function

(C) lesions

(D) pain

(E) necessity for surgery

10. Which of the following must be males?

(A) dizygotic twins

(B) monozygotic twins

(C) Down syndrome children

(D) Klinefelter’s syndrome children

(E) Turner syndrome children

11. Which includes all of the others?

(A) autonomic nervous system

(B) peripheral nervous system

(C) somatic nervous system

(D) parasympathetic nervous system

(E) sympathetic nervous system

12. Which stimulate a muscle to contract?

(A) adrenal hormones

(B) receptors

(C) sensory neurons

(D) motor neurons

(E) interneurons

13. The part of the brain most closely associated with maintaining balance and the coordination of complex sequences of movements is the

(A) hypothalamus

(B) thalamus

(C) pons

(D) medulla

(E) cerebellum

14. A loss of the ability of the brain to produce adequate levels of dopamine often leads to

(A) aphasia

(B) Alzheimer’s disease

(C) Parkinson’s disease

(D) bipolar disorder

(E) amnesia

15. Which task is primarily a right cerebral hemisphere function in most people?

(A) understanding written language

(B) understanding spoken language

(C) processing visual information from the left eye

(D) recognizing faces

(E) processing sensory information from the right leg

16. As you are reading this question, you are probably not thinking about what you ate for lunch. The memory of what you ate for lunch is most likely in your

(A) nonconscious

(B) preconscious

(C) unconsciousness

(D) sensory memory

(E) attention

17. Traveling in a jet plane from California to New York is most likely to

(A) disrupt your circadian rhythms

(B) prevent the onset of REM sleep

(C) stimulate your parasympathetic nervous system

(D) induce delta brain waves

(E) cause withdrawal symptoms

18. According to psychodynamic psychologists, the unconscious

(A) processes information of which you are unaware

(B) includes unacceptable feelings, wishes, and thoughts

(C) is characterized by loss of responsiveness to the environment

(D) is synonymous with the preconscious

(E) develops after the ego and superego

19. Nightmares most frequently occur during

(A) NREM-1

(B) NREM-2

(C) NREM-3

(D) hypnagogic


20. During paradoxical sleep, muscles seem paralyzed and

(A) eyes dart about in various directions

(B) breathing is slow and shallow

(C) night terrors are likely

(D) sleepwalking occurs

(E) the sleeper is easily awakened

21. After her bridal shower, a young woman dreamed that she was dining with her parents when a young man grabbed her wallet containing her driver’s license, credit cards, cash, and family pictures. She awoke in a cold sweat. After discussing the dream with a friend, she realized that she felt anxious about losing her identity in her approaching marriage. This explanation of her dream represents the

(A) manifest content

(B) latent content

(C) ego

(D) activation-synthesis theory

(E) cognitive analysis

22. Zen Buddhists and others practicing meditation are better able than most other people to stimulate their

(A) sympathetic nervous systems

(B) parasympathetic nervous systems

(C) somatic nervous systems

(D) salivation

(E) urination

23. Of the following, which pair of psychoactive drugs shares the most similar effects on the brain?

(A) alcohol—marijuana

(B) caffeine—morphine

(C) nicotine—heroin

(D) amphetamines—cocaine

(E) barbiturates—LSD

24. In small quantities, alcohol can be mistaken for a stimulant because it

(A) inhibits control of emotions

(B) stimulates the sympathetic nervous system

(C) speeds up respiration and heartbeat

(D) induces sleep

(E) affects the cerebellum

Image Answers and Explanations

1. D—Terminal buttons secrete neurotransmitters into the synapse.

2. E—Broca’s area is a region in the left frontal lobe anterior to the motor cortex.

3. E—PET scans visualize changes in the brain as it functions. While fMRI also shows changes in the brain as it functions, MRI and CT scans show structure only.

4. D—Our simplest behaviors are reflexes. Sneezing and blinking are reflexes.

5. E—Adrenaline is a hormone that speeds up breathing and heart rate, sends a message to change stored food back to glucose, etc. The sympathetic nervous system stimulates the same changes in the body.

6. D—The center for sensation in the brain is the somatosensory region of the cerebral cortex located in the front of the parietal lobes. Nerves carrying sensations from the right side of the body cross over to the left side of the brain, so the most probable site of damage is the left parietal lobe.

7. B—Interneurons are found in the brain and spinal cord only. The others can be found in the peripheral nervous system.

8. A—The pituitary gland, which is sometimes called “the master gland,” produces many hormones that stimulate other glands, including the adrenals, parathyroids, thyroid, and ovaries.

9. C—Lesions are interruptions in tissue. While the other choices may accompany wounds, tumors, and strokes, they also may not.

10. D—Presence of the Y chromosome determines the sex of a human baby. Of the choices, only a Klinefelter’s child (XXY) must have a Y chromosome.

11. B—The peripheral nervous system comprises the autonomic nervous and somatic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is subdivided into the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems.

12. D—Motor neurons or efferent neurons cause muscles to contract or glands to secrete.

13. E—The cerebellum functions in balance and coordination.

14. C—Parkinson’s disease is associated with depletion of cells that produce dopamine.

15. D—Pattern matching and picture and facial recognition are all right hemispheric functions.

16. B—Memories that can easily be brought into consciousness are in the preconscious level of consciousness.

17. A—Crossing time zones can change the amount of light and dark your body gets and alter your sleeping/waking cycle, secretion of hormones, etc. This disrupts your circadian rhythms.

18. B—According to psychoanalysts/psychodynamic psychologists, the unconscious harbors unacceptable thoughts, wishes, and feelings that can be revealed in dreams, through hypnosis, etc.

19. E—Nightmares are unpleasant, complex dreams that occur mainly during REM sleep.

20. A—A paradox is something contradictory that is true. REM sleep is considered paradoxical sleep because the eyes are darting around, brain waves are similar to being awake, but the muscles of the arms and legs are inactive.

21. B—Freudians believe the hidden meaning of a dream is its latent content.

22. B—Ordinarily we lack the ability to activate our parasympathetic nervous systems to any significant extent, but we can easily activate the other functions listed.

23. D—Amphetamines and cocaine are both classified as stimulants.

24. A—After drinking small amounts of alcohol, people are often lively and seem uninhibited. This results from inhibition of part of the frontal lobes that usually keep emotions in check.