Rapid Review - 9 Cognition - STEP 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High

5 Steps to a 5: AP Psychology - McGraw Hill 2021

Rapid Review
9 Cognition
STEP 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High

Memory—human capacity to register, retain, and remember information.

Three models of memory:

1. Information processing model of memory—encoding, storage, and retrieval.

Encoding—the process of putting information into the memory system.

Storage—the retention of encoded information over time.

Retrieval—the process of getting information out of memory storage.

We have difficulty attending to two complex tasks—divided attention.

2. Levels of processing theory or semantic network theory—the ability to form memories depends upon the depth of the processing.

Shallow processing—structural encoding emphasizes structure of incoming sensory information.

Deep processing—semantic encoding involves forming an association or attaching meaning to a sensory impression and results in longer-lasting memories.

Self-reference effect or self-referent encoding—processing information deemed important or relevant more deeply, making it easier to recall.

3. Atkinson—Shiffrin model: Three memory systems—sensory, short term, and long term.

Sensory memory—memory system that holds external events from the senses for up to a few seconds.

Visual encoding—the encoding of picture images.

Iconic memory—a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli.

Acoustic encoding—the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.

Echoic memory—a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli.

Selective attention—the focusing of awareness on stimuli in sensory memory that facilitates its encoding into STM.

Automatic processing—unconscious encoding of information about space, time, and frequency that occurs without interfering with our thinking about other things.

Parallel processing—a natural mode of information processing that involves several information streams simultaneously.

Effortful processing—encoding that requires our attention and conscious effort.

Feature extraction (pattern recognition)—finding a match for new raw information in sensory storage by actively searching through long-term memory.

Short-term memory (STM)—working memory, 20 seconds before forgotten; capacity of seven plus or minus two items.

Rehearsal—conscious repetition of information to either maintain information in STM or to encode it for storage.

Maintenance rehearsal—repetition that keeps information in STM about 20 seconds.

Elaborative rehearsal—repetition that creates associations between the new memory and existing memories stored in LTM.

Chunking—grouping information into meaningful units increasing the capacity of STM.

Mnemonic devices—memory tricks or strategies to make information easier to remember.

Method of loci—uses visualization with familiar objects on a path to recall information in a list.

Peg word system—uses association of terms to be remembered with a memorized scheme (“One is a bun, two is . . .”).

Long-term memory (LTM)—relatively permanent storage with unlimited capacity, LTM is subdivided into explicit (declarative) memory and implicit memory.

Explicit memory (declarative)—memory of facts and experiences that one consciously knows and can verbalize. Explicit memory is subdivided into semantic memory (memory of general knowledge or objective facts) and episodic memory (memory of personally experienced events).

Implicit memory (nondeclarative)—retention without conscious recollection of learning the skills and dispositions. Implicit memory includes procedural memory—memories of perceptual, motor, and cognitive skills.

Four major models account for organization of information in LTM:

1. Hierarchies—systems in which concepts are arranged from more general to more specific classes.

Concepts—mental representations of related things.

Prototypes—the most typical examples of a concept.

2. Semantic networks—more irregular and distorted systems than strict hierarchies, with multiple links from one concept to others.

3. Schemas—frameworks of basic ideas and preconceptions about people, objects, and events based on past experience.

3. Script—a schema for an event.

4. Connectionism—theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections between neurons, many of which can work together to process a single memory.

Artificial intelligence (AI)—a field of study in which computer programs are designed to simulate human cognitive abilities such as reasoning, learning, and understanding language.

Neural network or parallel processing model—clusters of neurons that are interconnected (and computer models based on neuronlike systems) and process information simultaneously, automatically, and without our awareness.

Long-term potentiation or LTP—an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation and possibly the neural basis for learning and memory, involving an increase in the efficiency with which signals are sent across the synapses within neural networks.

The biology of memory:

• The thalamus is involved in encoding sensory memory into STM.

• The hippocampus is involved in putting information from STM into LTM.

• The amygdala is involved in the storage of emotional memories.

• The cerebellum processes implicit memories and seems to store procedural memory and classically conditioned memories.

• The basal ganglia process implicit memories.

Retrieval—the process of getting information out of memory storage. Key terms and concepts associated with retrieval include the following:

Retrieval cue—a stimulus that provides a trigger to get an item out of memory.

Priming—activating specific associations in memory either consciously or unconsciously.

Recognition—identification of something as familiar such as multiple-choice and matching questions on a test.

Recall—retrieval of information from LTM in the absence of any other information or cues such as for an essay question or fill-in question on a test.

Reconstruction—retrieval that can be distorted by adding, dropping, or changing details to complete a picture from incomplete stored information.

Confabulation—process of combining and substituting memories from events other than the one you’re trying to remember.

Flashbulb memory—vivid memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

Misinformation effect—incorporation of misleading information into memories of a given event.

Serial position effect—better recall for information that comes at the beginning (primacy effect) and at the end of a list of words (recency effect).

Encoding specificity principle—retrieval depends upon the match between the way information is encoded and the way it is retrieved.

Context-dependent memory—physical setting in which a person learns information is encoded along with the information and becomes part of the memory trace.

Mood congruence (mood-dependent memory)—tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.

State-dependent memory effect—tendency to recall information better when in the same internal state as when the information was encoded.

Distributed practice—spreading out the memorization of information or the learning of skills over several sessions typically produces better retrieval than massed practice.

Massed practice—cramming the memorization of information or the learning of skills into one session.

Forgetting—the inability to retrieve information. Forgetting results from failure to encode, decay of stored memories, or inability to access stored information. Key terms and concepts associated with memory include the following:

Interference—learning some items prevents retrieving others, especially when the items are similar.

Proactive interference—the process by which old memories prevent the retrieval of newer memories.

Retroactive inference—the process by which new memories prevent the retrieval of older memories.

Repression—the tendency to forget unpleasant or traumatic memories hidden in the unconscious mind, according to Freud.

Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon—the often temporary inability to access information accompanied by a feeling that the information is in LTM.

Anterograde amnesia—inability to put new information into explicit memory resulting from damage to hippocampus; no new semantic memories are formed.

Retrograde amnesia—memory loss for a segment of the past, usually around the time of an accident.

Overlearning—continuing to practice after memorizing information makes it more resistant to forgetting.

Cognition—all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering.

Metacognition—thinking about how you think.

Problem-solving steps typically involve identifying a problem, generating problem-solving strategies, trying a strategy, and evaluating the results.

Trial and error—trying possible solutions and discarding those that fail to solve the problem.

Algorithm—problem-solving strategy that involves a step-by-step procedure that guarantees a solution to certain types of problems.

Heuristic—a problem-solving strategy used as a mental shortcut to quickly simplify and solve a problem, but that does not guarantee a correct solution.

Insight learning—the sudden appearance (often creative) or awareness of a solution to a problem.

Deductive reasoning—reasoning from the general to the specific.

Inductive reasoning—reasoning from the specific to the general.

Hindrances to problem solving may include the following:

Mental sets—barriers to problem solving that occur when we apply only methods that have worked in the past rather than trying new or different strategies.

Functional fixedness—when we are not able to recognize novel uses for an object because we are so familiar with its common use.

Cognitive illusion—systematic way of thinking that is responsible for an error in judgment.

Availability heuristic—a tendency to estimate the probability of certain events in terms of how readily they come to mind.

Representativeness heuristic—tendency to judge the likelihood of things according to how they relate to a prototype.

Framing—the way an issue is stated. How an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.

Anchoring effect—tendency to be influenced by a suggested reference point, pulling our response toward that point.

Confirmation bias—tendency to notice or seek information that already supports our preconceptions and ignore information that refutes our ideas.

Belief perseverance—the tendency to hold onto a belief after the basis for the belief is discredited.

Belief bias—the tendency for our preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, making illogical conclusions seem valid or logical conclusions seem invalid.

Hindsight bias—the tendency to falsely report, after the event, that we correctly predicted the outcome of the event.

Overconfidence bias—the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.

Overcoming obstacles to problem solving can include the following:

Creativity—the ability to think about a problem or idea in new and unusual ways to come up with unconventional solutions.

Incubation—putting aside a problem temporarily; allows the problem solver to look at the problem from a different perspective.

Brainstorming—generating lots of possible solutions to a problem without making prior evaluative judgments.

Divergent thinking—thinking that produces many alternatives or ideas.

Convergent thinking—conventional thinking directed toward a single correct solution.

Language—communication system based on words and grammar; spoken, written, or gestured words and the way they are combined to communicate meaning from person to person and to transmit civilization’s accumulated knowledge. Key elements of language include the following:

Phonemes—smallest units of sound in spoken language.

Morphemes—the smallest unit of language that has meaning.

Grammar—a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.

Syntax—rules that are used to order words into grammatically sensible sentences.

Semantics—a set of rules we use to derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.

Key concepts and terms associated with language development include:

Babbling—an infant’s spontaneous production of speech sounds; begins around 4 months old.

Holophrase—one-word utterances that convey meaning; characteristic of a 1-year-old.

Telegraphic speech—meaningful two-word sentences, usually a noun and a verb, and usually in the correct order uttered by 2-year-olds.

Overgeneralization or overregularization—application of grammatical rules without making appropriate exceptions (“I goed to the store”).

Behavioral perspective—language is developed by imitating sounds we hear to create words.

Nativist perspective—idea that the human brain has an innate capacity for acquiring language (language acquisition device) possibly during a critical period of time after birth, and that children are born with a universal sense of grammar (Noam Chomsky).

Social interactivist perspective—babies are biologically equipped for learning language, which may be activated or constrained by experience.

Linguistic relativity hypothesis—our language guides and determines our thinking (Whorf). It is more accurate to say that language influences thought.

Tests are used to make decisions.

Psychometricians (measurement psychologists)—focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data; measure mental traits, abilities, and processes.

Standardization and norms:

Constructs—hypothetical abstractions related to behavior and defined by groups of objects or events.

Standardization—two-part test development procedure: first establishes test norms from the test results of the large representative sample and then ensures that the test is both administered and scored uniformly for all test takers.

Norms—standards used to compare scores of test takers.

Reliability and validity:

Reliability—consistency of results over time (repeatability); methods of measurement include test-retest, split half, alternate form.

Validity—test measures what it is supposed to measure; methods of measurement include face, content, predictive, construct.

Types of tests:

Performance tests—test taker knows how to respond to questions and tries to succeed.

Speed tests—large number of relatively easy items in limited test period.

Power tests—items of varying difficulty with adequate test period.

Aptitude tests—assess person’s capacity to learn, predict future performance (example: SAT).

Achievement tests—assess what a person has already learned (example: AP test).

Group tests—test many people at one time; test taker works alone; cheaper; more objective.

Individualized tests—interaction of one examiner with one test taker; expensive; subjective grading.

Ethics and standards in testing:

APA and other guidelines detail standards to promote best interests of client, guard against misuse, respect client’s right to know results, and safeguard dignity.

Culture-relevant tests—test skills and knowledge related to cultural experiences of the test takers.

Intelligence and intelligence testing:

Reification—construct treated as a concrete, tangible object.

Intelligence—aggregate or global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment.

Stanford—Binet intelligence test—constructed by Lewis Terman—was an individual IQ test with IQ calculated using ratio formula: Mental age/chronological age × 100. Now, IQ based on deviation from mean, for children and for adults. Five ability areas assessed both verbally and nonverbally.

Wechsler intelligence tests—three age-based individual IQ tests: WPPSI (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence), WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale); two scores—verbal and performance; difference between the two is helpful for identifying learning disabilities; deviation IQ score—100 mean/mode/median, 15-pt SD; good for extremes of gifted and intellectually disabled.

Degrees of intellectual disability range from mild to severe for individuals who score at or below 70 on an IQ test such as the Wechsler:

• Mild—(about 85 percent) can self-care, hold job, live independently, form social relationships.

• Moderate—(about 10 percent) may self-care, hold menial job, function in group home.

• Severe—(about 3—4 percent) limited language and limited self-care, lack social skills, require care.

• Profound—(about 1—2 percent) require complete custodial care.

Factor analysis—a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of items by determining which variables have a high degree of correlation.

Charles Spearman used factor analysis to identify g (general factor underlying all intelligence) and s (less important specialized abilities).

Thurstone identified seven distinct intelligence factors he called primary mental abilities.

John Horn and Raymond Cattell identified two intelligence factors:

Fluid intelligence—those cognitive abilities requiring speed or rapid learning that tend to diminish with adult aging.

Crystallized intelligence—learned knowledge and skills, such as vocabulary, which tend to increase with age.

Multiple intelligences—Howard Gardner’s theory that people process information differently and intelligence is composed of many different factors, including at least eight intelligences: logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.

Emotional intelligence—Peter Salovey and John Mayer’s construct defined as the ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions; similar to Gardner’s interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences.

Triarchic theory of intelligence—Robert Sternberg’s idea of three separate and testable intelligences: analytical (facts), practical (“street smarts”), and creative (seeing multiple solutions).

Heredity/environment and intelligence:

Both nature and nurture contribute to intelligence.

In twin studies, correlation of IQs of identical twins was much higher than that of fraternal twins or other siblings (favoring nature).

Flynn effect—steady increase in performance on IQ tests over the last 80 years, possibly resulting from better nutrition, educational opportunities, and health care (favoring nurture).

Human diversity:

Within-group differences—range of scores for variables being measured for a group of individuals.

Between-group differences—usually the difference between means of two groups of individuals for a common variable.

Stereotype threat—Claude Steele’s concept that anxiety influences achievement of members of a group concerned that their performance on a test will confirm a negative stereotype. This may account for lower scores of blacks on intelligence tests or girls on math tests.