10 Developmental Psychology
STEP 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High
Directions: For each question, choose the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. What is the response pattern of securely attached children in the strange situation when their mothers return?
(A) They tend to ignore their mothers because they are secure about her care.
(B) Sometimes they run over to their mothers and sometimes they do not; there’s no consistent pattern in their responses.
(C) They tend to run over to their mothers and beg them not to leave again.
(D) They tend to go to their mothers for comfort.
(E) They hit their mothers.
2. In the nature versus nurture controversy, “nature” refers to
(B) plants and animals
(C) all living things we interact with
(D) constituents of the problem
(E) the environment
3. Researchers were interested in studying the effects of divorce on children. Their study included 250 4-year-olds. Interviews and family observations were conducted 6 months, 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years after the initial interviews and observations. Which method did the researcher use?
(A) cohort sequential
4. Object permanence is
(A) the belief that all objects have life just like humans do
(B) the idea that gender does not change by putting on the clothes of the opposite sex
(C) the understanding that a tall beaker and a short beaker can hold the same amount of water
(D) a belief that all objects in the world, including mountains and streams, are made by people
(E) the understanding that things continue to exist even when they are out of sight
5. The rooting reflex is a neonate’s tendency to
(A) open its mouth and turn its head when touched on the cheek
(B) throw out its arms and legs and quickly retract them when startled
(C) explore the world through sucking objects
(D) look longer at round shapes that look like faces than square shapes that do not
(E) grasp nearby objects
6. Dorothy just celebrated her 90th birthday with her close friends and is excited about a visit from her grandchildren. According to Erikson, she has probably most recently achieved
7. Mr. Hernandez explains to his son that the speed limit is 55 mph. He tells him to stay under the speed limit when driving because it’s the law and will probably prevent accidents. Kohlberg’s level of morality illustrated by this example is
(B) concrete operational
8. A critical period is a stage in development when
(A) specific stimuli have a major effect on development that they do not produce at other times
(B) children are resistant to any kind of discipline by their parents
(C) new learning is prevented by older learning
(D) bonding between the child and parent first takes place
(E) the child first enters elementary school and needs positive reinforcement
9. Which of the following is a similarity between the cognitive developmental theory of Piaget and the moral developmental theory of Kohlberg?
(A) Both theories stress the importance of changes in thinking in their stages.
(B) Both believe personality is formed in the first 5 years.
(C) Both theories stress the importance of the third stage in the developmental process.
(D) Both developed a life-span theory and had eight stages.
(E) Both believe that libido fixated in childhood cannot be changed.
10. Harlow’s experiment with rhesus monkeys and surrogate mothers emphasized the importance of
(A) contact comfort
(C) aesthetic needs
(D) incentive theory
(E) gender schema
11. According to Diana Baumrind, which of the following parental styles results in the most socially competent and responsible adults?
12. A child was born with widely spaced eyes, a thin upper lip, and a short, flat nose. Chances are that he will later suffer from intellectual disability. To which teratogen was this child most likely exposed during the prenatal period?
(B) German measles
13. According to social learning theory, gender identity is
I. a process which occurs when young children unconsciously identify with the same-sex parent
II. a result of being positively reinforced for acting in ways that conform to male and female roles
III. learned through observing and imitating role models like their parents
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
14. Which of the following theories best exemplifies continuity?
(A) Erikson’s psychosocial theory
(B) Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory
(C) Piaget’s cognitive development theory
(D) Kohlberg’s theory of moral development
(E) Gilligan’s theory of moral development
15. According to Kohlberg’s theory, postconventional morality requires thinking at Piaget’s
(A) sensorimotor level
(B) preoperational level
(C) concrete operational level
(D) formal operational level
(E) universal principle level
Answers and Explanations
1. D—Securely attached kids tend to come to their mother for comfort when their mothers return. They are not necessarily clingy as choice C suggests.
2. A—Nature refers to our heredity, and nurture refers to environmental factors.
3. C—Longitudinal research. If an experimenter is interested in looking at the long-term effects of divorce on children like Mavis Hetherington did, follow-up visits and observations would be made periodically. The disadvantage of this research method is how costly it is to conduct these follow-up visits and how long it takes to analyze the results to reach conclusions.
4. E—Object permanence occurs as a milestone in the sensorimotor stage when children can picture objects in their heads. When an experimenter hides a cookie behind a newspaper and the child uncovers it and says “cookie,” the child has achieved object permanence and is capable of representational thought.
5. A—The rooting reflex can be seen when someone puts a finger on the baby’s cheek and the baby turns its head.
6. B—Dorothy is experiencing the positive side of Erikson’s eighth stage of integrity. People like Dorothy tend to enjoy their golden years and continue to develop their interests.
7. C—Conventional. Mr. Hernandez’s moral reasoning conforms with Kohlberg’s stage 4 “Law and Order” morality, which is a stage of the conventional level.
8. A—Specific stimuli have a major effect on development that they do not produce at other times. Konrad Lorenz demonstrated the “critical period” for imprinting in goslings. Newly hatched babies first exposed to Lorenz followed him rather than their natural mothers if they had not been exposed to her soon after birth. Some theorists argue that mother—infant bonding and language development have critical periods.
9. A—Both Piaget and Kohlberg stressed the importance of changes in thinking in their developmental stages. For example, both recognized that egocentric young children see the consequences of their actions from their own perspectives.
10. A—Contact comfort. Harlow’s work with rhesus monkeys and surrogate mothers showed that even when food-deprived and anxious, monkeys preferred the terrycloth monkey to the wire monkey with food.
11. B—The authoritative style of parenting is seen as the “best” style for nurturing independent, responsible, and socially competent teens and adults.
12. D—Alcohol. The child’s mother likely drank alcohol throughout the pregnancy, producing the baby born with fetal alcohol syndrome. The effects of alcohol on prenatal brain development can be devastating.
13. D—Both reinforcement and observing and imitating role models like parents contribute to the development of gender identity, according to some (behavioral) social learning theorists.
14. B—Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory. Vygotsky advocated continuous cognitive growth. Vygotsky believed that with a mentor’s help, children can progress more rapidly through the same milestones they would achieve without a mentor’s help.
15. D—Formal operational level. Kohlberg modeled his stages of moral development after Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. Those in Piaget’s formal operational stage have developed the ability to think abstractly and, thus, have the ability to move to the postconventional moral thinking of Kohlberg’s stages 5 and 6.