11 Motivation, Emotion, and Personality
STEP 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High
Directions: For each question, choose the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Imprinting is
(A) the adaptive response of an infant when its mother leaves a room
(B) a maladaptive response of anxiety by an infant when abandoned by its mother
(C) a period shortly after birth when a newborn reacts to salty, sweet, or bitter stimuli
(D) a period shortly after birth when an adult forms a bond with his or her newborn
(E) the tendency of some baby animals to form an attachment to the first moving object they see or hear during a critical period after birth
2. Which of the following topics would a sociobiologist be most interested in studying?
(A) whether or not ape communication can be defined as language
(B) whether pigeons are capable of cognitive learning
(C) altruistic acts that ensure the survival of the next generation
(D) aggressive behavior in stickleback fish related to sign stimuli
(E) stress and its relationship to heart attacks
3. When asked why he wants to become a doctor, Tom says, “Because I’ve always liked biology and being a doctor will allow me to make a good salary to take care of a family.” His answer is most consistent with which of the following theories of motivation?
(A) drive reduction
(C) hierarchy of needs
4. According to the Yerkes—Dodson model, when facing a very difficult challenge, which level of arousal would probably lead to the best outcome?
(A) a very low level
(B) a moderately low level
(C) a moderate level
(D) a moderately high level
(E) a very high level
5. The James—Lange theory of emotion states that
(A) emotional awareness precedes our physiological response to a stressful event
(B) emotional expression follows awareness of our physiological response to an arousing event
(C) an arousing event simultaneously triggers both a cognitive awareness and a physiological response
(D) the level of fear we first feel when we ride a roller coaster is reduced each time we experience the same event until thrill replaces it
(E) when we are unaware of why we are feeling arousal, we take our cue from the environment
6. Which of the following factors stimulate us to eat?
(A) stomach contractions, high levels of glucagon, and stimulation of the VMH
(B) high levels of cholecystokinin, high levels of insulin, and stimulation of the VMH
(C) lack of cholecystokinin, high levels of glucagon, and stimulation of the LH
(D) lack of cholecystokinin, high levels of insulin, and stimulation of the LH
(E) low blood sugar, stomach contractions, and stimulation of the VMH
7. Homeostasis refers to
(A) arousal of the sympathetic nervous system
(B) a tendency for individuals to behave consistently when highly motivated
(C) a need state resulting from the physiological experience of hunger or thirst
(D) the body’s tendency to maintain a balanced internal state
(E) the second stage of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome
8. During junior high, the typical student is preoccupied with making friends. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which of the following needs is he or she satisfying?
(A) fundamental needs
(B) safety needs
(C) love and belonging needs
(D) esteem needs
9. The number one tennis player on last year’s squad does not find her name on the list of students who made this year’s team. Which stage of Selye’s general adaptation syndrome is she most likely experiencing?
10. Which of the following characteristics of the Type A personality is most positively correlated with having a heart attack?
(B) eating quickly
11. Terrence’s parents were excited by his recent interest in reading science fiction novels. They bought him toy science fiction characters and praised him for reading the books. When they stopped giving him praise and toys, they were dismayed that he quit reading. Terrence’s behavior best illustrates
(A) the overjustification effect
(C) internal locus of control
(D) the self-fulfilling prophecy
(E) drive reduction theory
12. Which of the following most accurately reflects our current understanding of basic facial expressions?
(A) Facial expressions are universally recognized and displayed by all cultures.
(B) Anger is easily interpreted as a facial expression by most cultures and displayed by all in similar situations.
(C) Facial expressions are universally recognized, but highly variable in how they are displayed.
(D) Cultures vary in their interpretation and display of the six most common facial expressions.
(E) Facial expressions are learned through modeling of basic facial expressions by parents.
13. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormones (LH) are most closely associated with which of the following motivated behaviors?
14. Selection of moderately challenging tasks characterizes the behavior of people who have a
(A) fear of failing
(B) high need for achievement
(C) fear of success
(D) low need for achievement
(E) inferiority complex
15. Adam loved the girlfriend who dropped him, but acts as if he’s glad to be rid of her. His behavior most clearly illustrates which of the following Freudian defense mechanisms?
(C) reaction formation
16. Which Freudian personality system is guided by the reality principle?
17. In contrast to the blank slate view of human nature held by the behaviorists, humanists believe that humans are born
(A) evil and instinctively selfish
(B) good and with an inner drive to reach full potential
(C) neutral and that personality is based on perceptions of reality
(D) neither good nor evil, but personality is a product of their environment
(E) weak and needing others to find a meaning and purpose in life
18. Which of the following is a good example of a Jungian archetype?
(A) John, whose domineering mother’s voice is always in the back of his head
(B) Patty, who is haunted by her memories of child abuse
(C) Yan, who always roots for the underdog
(D) Tariq, who consciously strives to be the best tennis player he can be
(E) Kendra, whose power motive influences everything she does
19. Which is an example of a projective test, consisting of a set of ambiguous pictures about which people are asked to tell a story?
(C) 16 PF
20. In order to determine a client’s personality, Carl Rogers used a Q-sort to measure the difference between
(A) self-esteem and self-efficacy
(B) ideal self and real self
(C) locus of control and self-actualization
(D) conditions of worth and locus of control
(E) ego strength and need for approval
21. The most commonly used personality assessments are
(A) projective tests
(B) naturalistic observations
(C) structured interviews
(D) self-report inventories
(E) behavior assessments
22. Self-efficacy, according to Bandura, is
(A) how you view your worth as a person
(B) how you think about your self-image
(C) all you know about your deficiencies and weaknesses as a person
(D) what others have conditioned you to see in yourself
(E) how competent you feel to accomplish tasks and goals
23. Mother Teresa’s altruism showed in everything she did. According to Allport’s trait theory, Mother Teresa’s altruism was
(A) a common trait she shared with most other religious people
(B) a cardinal trait
(C) one of several central traits that characterized her exceptional life
(D) basically inherited from her father
(E) a surface trait that was visible to others
24. Roberto believes that he is the master of his ship and in charge of his destiny. According to Rotter’s theory of personality, Roberto has
(A) an external orientation to the world about him
(B) an internal locus of control
(C) an extraverted personality
(D) a low sense of self-efficacy
(E) a positive self-image, but is not self-actualized
25. Collective-efficacy would probably be more beneficial than self-efficacy for achieving group goals in
(C) Puerto Rico
(D) South Korea
26. A relatively permanent characteristic of personality that can be used to predict behavior is
(A) the id
(B) the ego
(C) the superego
(D) a defense mechanism
(E) a trait
Answers and Explanations
1. E—Imprinting is the tendency for the newborn of some animals, such as ducklings and goslings, to follow the first moving object they see or hear.
2. C—Sociobiologists assume that human and animal behavior is based on a biological imperative to ensure survival of genetic material into the next generation. They believe that altruism—selfless behavior—is an instinct that serves this goal.
3. B—Incentive theory discusses both the primary motives, such as hunger and sex, that push behavior, and the secondary motives, like achievement and money, that are pulled by incentives or rewards found in the environment.
4. B—According to the Yerkes—Dodson inverted-U graph of arousal, average tasks require a moderate level of arousal, very difficult tasks like this one require a moderately low level of arousal, and very easy tasks require a moderately high level of arousal. Very low and very high arousal levels are never optimal, because we need some arousal to do well, but too high a level agitates us.
5. B—According to the James—Lange theory, we are aware of feeling emotions after the physiological and behavioral responses occur to environmental stimuli. I see the bear, I start to run, and then I realize I am afraid.
6. D—The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is the “on” button that initiates eating behavior when food is not in our stomachs or small intestines, which is indicated by lack of cholecystokinin and high levels of insulin.
7. D—Homeostasis is a balanced internal state. When the sympathetic nervous system is activated, the parasympathetic nervous system works to return the body to homeostasis.
8. C—Most teens are looking to belong to groups and feel acceptance from others, which corresponds to Maslow’s third level in his hierarchy—love and belonging needs.
9. A—The alarm stage is the first part of Selye’s general adaptation syndrome. The tennis player is probably in a state of shock and her stress at not making the team will cause the sympathetic nervous system to be activated. In the second stage of resistance, her coping skills will probably lessen her stress after the initial shock.
10. E—Three characteristics of the Type A personality have been found to be positively correlated with heart disease—anger, hostility, and cynicism.
11. A—In the overjustification effect here, an intrinsically rewarded behavior was turned into an extrinsically rewarded behavior, and thus, when the rewards were taken away by the parents, the behavior diminished.
12. C—Cross-cultural studies conducted by Paul Ekman and others seem to support identification of six basic facial expressions across all cultures but different display rules, depending on the culture.
13. C—Follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones are associated with sexual arousal in humans.
14. B—People with a high need for achievement want to feel successful. If they select easy tasks, they are expected to be able to do them and don’t feel very successful. If they select difficult tasks, their likelihood of success is limited. By completing challenging but achievable tasks, they feel successful.
15. C—Reaction formation is the defense mechanism that involves acting exactly opposite of what we feel. The boy is actually sad but acts as if he is glad.
16. C—The ego mediates between the id and the superego and operates on the reality principle.
17. B—Humanists believe that humans are born good and that we are all naturally motivated to seek our full potential, but conditions of worth and our wish for society’s approval sometimes make us select a less productive path.
18. C—Rooting for the underdog is a universal theme in our collective unconscious, according to Jung. Whether it’s David and Goliath or the home team who hasn’t won a game all season, we instinctively align ourselves with the underdog.
19. A—Projective tests are designed to uncover thoughts, conflicts, and feelings in the unconscious mind. The Thematic Apperception Test, with its ambiguous pictures to interpret, is a good example of such a test.
20. B—Rogers believed that our ideal self is what we think society wants us to be and our real self is our natural self, which is good by nature. He believed that the differences between these two account for problems that we need to overcome in order to become fully functioning.
21. D—Self-report inventories used by humanists and cognitive theorists are the most common personality tests given.
22. E—According to Bandura, self-efficacy deals with our evaluation of our talents and abilities.
23. B—Altruism is a cardinal trait of Mother Teresa because it seems to encompass everything that she stood for—selflessness and devotion to others. Allport believed that most people have clusters of 5 to 7 central traits, but most do not have a cardinal trait.
24. B—Roberto has an internal locus of control. Rotter’s locus of control theory is part of his social cognitive theory that our perception of how much we are in control of our environment influences the choices we make and behaviors we follow.
25. D—South Korea. Collective efficacy is our perception that, with collaborative effort, our group will obtain its desired outcome. Some recent research studies indicate that high collective efficacy seems to be more beneficial in collectivistic societies such as Asian societies for achievement of group goals.
26. E—A trait is a relatively permanent and stable characteristic that can be used to predict our behavior.