12 Clinical Psychology
STEP 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High
Directions: For each question, choose the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Hani was unable to tell the difference between right and wrong. Which of the following definitions of abnormal behavior is described in this example?
2. The behavioral approach attributes the cause of abnormal behavior to
(A) internal conflict from early childhood trauma
(B) the result of neurochemical imbalances
(C) poor self-concept
(D) reinforcement of maladaptive behaviors learned through experience
(E) irrational and illogical perceptions of reality
3. Which of the following best characterizes a person experiencing obsessive-compulsive disorder?
(A) Anna, who hyperventilates whenever she is trapped in an elevator
(B) Ben, who returns home seven times to see if he has turned off the stove
(C) Katia, who complains constantly about feeling sick and goes to many different doctors
(D) Kabir, who keeps remembering the plane crash that killed the other members of his family
(E) Miguel, who wanders about town in a daze, not sure who he is or how he got there
4. A soldier who experiences sudden blindness after seeing his buddies killed in battle is best diagnosed with
(A) a phobic disorder
(B) mild somatic symptom disorder
(C) bipolar disorder
(D) dissociative fugue
(E) conversion disorder
5. A common feature among people diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder is
(A) early childhood sexual or physical abuse
(B) repeated physical complaints
(C) relatives suffering from bipolar disorder
(D) excess of dopamine
(E) hallucinations and delusions
6. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the manic state of bipolar disorder?
(A) inflated ego
(B) excessive talking
(C) shopping sprees
(E) too much sleep
7. Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by
(A) unwarranted suspiciousness and mistrust of other people
(B) a lack of interest in social relationships
(C) unusual preoccupation with rules and schedules
(D) instability revolving around problems of mood and thought processes
(E) pleasure-seeking, shallow feelings, a lack of conscience
8. When Herb physically abuses his dates, he considers himself good with the ladies, has little remorse for his actions, and has had repeated trouble with authority figures. His likely diagnosis is
(B) narcissistic personality disorder
(C) antisocial personality disorder
(D) borderline personality disorder
9. A delusion is a
(A) phobia of being in social situations
(B) misperception of auditory and visual stimuli
(C) faulty and disordered thought pattern
(D) first indication of dissociative disorders
(E) characteristic of people suffering from dependent personality disorder
10. DSM-5 is most helpful for
(A) identifying the causes of psychological disorders
(B) recommending treatment for psychological disorders
(C) classifying psychological disorders
(D) distinguishing between sanity and insanity
(E) suggesting where consumers can get help for mental health issues
11. Which of the following is classified as an anxiety disorder in DSM-5?
(B) post-traumatic stress disorder
(D) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
12. Which of the following is a negative symptom of schizophrenia?
(A) delusional thinking
(B) incoherent speech
(D) hearing voices
(E) flat affect
13. Which of the following disorders is most closely associated with excessive levels of dopamine?
(A) histrionic personality
(B) dependent personality
(D) bipolar disorder
(E) major depressive disorder
14. Estrella always goes shopping with Maria. Because she has no confidence in her own decisions, she lets Maria decide what she should buy and pays for clothes for Maria with money she was saving for a haircut. Estrella shows signs of which of the following personality disorders?
15. Jenna is telling her therapist about the dream she had last night, and her therapist begins to interpret it for her. Which approach to psychotherapy does Jenna’s therapist probably represent?
16. In contrast to a clinical psychologist, a psychiatrist is more likely to
(A) engage in an eclectic approach
(B) use a biomedical treatment
(C) recognize the importance of group therapy with patients having the same disorder
(D) treat clients in community mental health centers exclusively
(E) see patients with less serious mental health problems
17. Which of the following disorders is most likely to be treated with electroconvulsive therapy?
(B) obsessive-compulsive disorder
(C) dissociative identity disorder
(D) major depressive disorder
(E) antisocial personality disorder
18. Tommy came to Dr. Chambers seeking help with his fear of heights. First, Dr. Chambers asked Tommy to list all of the situations concerning heights that led to his fear response. After they had ordered them from least fear-provoking to most fear-provoking, Dr. Chambers had Tommy listen to soothing music and slowly relaxed him as he imagined each step. Which of the following best describes Dr. Chambers’s treatment?
(A) the exposure technique of flooding
(B) systematic desensitization
(C) rational emotive therapy
(D) aversive conditioning
(E) the social cognitive technique of modeling
19. The goal of psychoanalytic therapy is
(A) to change maladaptive behavior to more socially acceptable behavior
(B) to change negative thinking into more positive attributions
(C) to attain self-actualization
(D) to unite the mind and body elements into a whole
(E) to bring unconscious conflicts to conscious awareness and gain insight
20. Proactive preventive services available from many community mental health centers include all of the following EXCEPT
(A) 24-hour hotline services
(B) mental health screening for depression
(C) prenatal care for mothers in low-income families
(D) psychoanalytic therapy
(E) outreach programs for at-risk children
21. An unplanned social change that occurred as a result of deinstitutionalization was
(A) the rise of a multitude of group homes to provide care for the former patients
(B) a rise in the number of better psychotropic drugs to treat schizophrenia and bipolar illness
(C) an increase in the number of schizophrenics among the homeless population in urban areas
(D) an increase in the use of the insanity plea to avoid long-term incarceration
(E) an increase in the number of mental hospitals across the nation
22. Vic is encouraged to take charge of the therapy session, and his therapist uses an active listening approach to mirror back the feelings he hears from Vic. Which therapy is most likely being described?
(A) client-centered therapy
(B) cognitive therapy
(C) psychodynamic therapy
(D) existential therapy
(E) rational-emotive therapy
23. The antidepressants Prozac, Paxel, and Zoloft work to
(A) block dopamine receptors
(B) decrease the level of acetylcholine in the bloodstream
(C) break down the MAO enzymes
(D) decrease the amount of GABA at the postsynaptic neuron
(E) block the reuptake of serotonin
24. All of the following are potential benefits of group therapy EXCEPT
(A) it is often more economical than 1:1 treatment
(B) it does not require the services of a mental health professional
(C) clients with similar problems can provide helpful insight and feedback to peers
(D) group members can see how their problems might impact others
(E) it may reduce the resistance of patients who have experienced difficulties in 1:1 settings
25. Drew’s depression seems an outgrowth of his belief that everyone should like him. If his therapist were to utilize REBT, how might he proceed in treating Drew’s depression?
(A) He would suggest a mild antidepressant drug like Prozac to elevate his mood state.
(B) He would give him unconditional positive regard and encourage him to open up about his feelings.
(C) He would challenge Drew’s belief so that in defending it, Drew will recognize just how absurd it sounds.
(D) Using the cognitive triad of self, world, and future, he would determine Drew’s assumptions in all three areas.
(E) He would search Drew’s early childhood for the root cause of this distortion of reality.
26. Antabuse is a drug that, when paired with alcohol in the bloodstream, brings about extreme nausea. For many motivated alcoholics, this has proven to be an effective treatment. Under which umbrella of psychotherapy would it most likely be used?
(A) insight therapy
(B) aversive conditioning
(C) Gestalt therapy
(D) self-help therapy
(E) flooding exposure therapy
27. Andre suffers from mood swings, alternating from wild episodes of euphoria and spending sprees to motionless staring and hopelessness. A drug to treat his condition is
(A) Lithium carbonate
28. The belief of ancient Greeks such as Hippocrates and Galen about the cause of abnormal behavior was closest to which of the following modern approaches to psychology?
29. After conducting a meta-analysis of over 475 outcome studies on the effectiveness of psychotherapies, psychologists concluded that
(A) evidence supported its efficacy
(B) psychotherapy is no more effective than talking to a friend
(C) the potential to do further harm to the patient with psychotropic drugs outweighs its effectiveness
(D) psychotherapy proves no more beneficial than no treatment at all
(E) of all treatments, psychoanalysis proved the most beneficial over all other types of therapy
Answers and Explanations
1. B—Insanity is a legal definition of abnormal behavior. It means that a person, at the time he or she committed a crime, could not distinguish between right and wrong.
2. D—The behavioral approach sees abnormal behavior as a result of faulty reinforcement of maladaptive behavior.
3. B—Ben shows checking behavior, a common problem associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. His obsessive thought is that he may have left the stove on, and the ritualistic behavior or compulsion is the need to return home and “check” to make sure that it has been turned off.
4. E—A conversion disorder is characterized by excessive anxiety that has been transformed into a physical symptom without an organic or biological cause. The blindness probably does not disturb the soldier as much as it would if it were physiological, because it protects him from having to “see” any friends die in battle.
5. A—Childhood sexual or physical abuse is a common feature found in those diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder. Psychoanalytically trained professionals believe that, as a result of the trauma, the child “dissociates” as a defense mechanism and that the amnesia experienced by one or more of the personalities is massive repression.
6. E—Mania in the patient with bipolar disorder is characterized by little need for sleep. Sleep deprivation may actually trigger this phase of the disorder, and frequently during the manic cycle the patient gets 2 hours of sleep or less.
7. A—People diagnosed with paranoid personality disorder tend to be unduly suspicious and to mistrust others. They are overly sensitive and prone to jealousy.
8. C—Herb is clearly antisocial, and the lack of remorse or a guilty conscience for hurting others is a chief indicator of this personality disorder. It is difficult to treat people with this disorder.
9. C—A delusion is a disordered thought pattern characteristic of psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. Someone with schizophrenia might have delusions of grandeur, persecution, or reference.
10. C—DSM-5 is a handbook that lists common symptoms of psychological disorders, which helps professionals in the classifying and diagnosing of patients. It does not list either causes or treatments of disorders.
11. A—Phobias are classified as anxiety disorders because anxiety is the primary symptom.
12. E—Flat affect is a negative symptom, a lack of any particular mood state. Each of the other answers shows a positive symptom of schizophrenia, one that is present.
13. C—Excessive dopamine is associated with positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations and delusions.
14. B—Estrella seems excessively lacking in self-confidence. She subordinates her own needs by buying clothes for Maria and allows Maria to make decisions for her. These are characteristics of dependent personality disorder.
15. C—Gestalt therapy includes the use of dream interpretation. What Jenna reported was the manifest content of her dream, and what her analyst attempts to interpret is the latent or hidden meaning to help Jenna gain insight into her problems.
16. B—Psychiatrists are medical doctors who can prescribe medications and are more likely to use a somatic treatment than to utilize another psychotherapy. Clinical psychologists are often eclectic and have good training in many of the therapies currently used.
17. D—Major depressive disorder. For patients who are potentially suicidal, ECT can be a fairly quick and effective treatment. Its mechanism in the brain is still not entirely understood.
18. B—Dr. Chambers first worked with Tommy to create an anxiety hierarchy of Tommy’s fears and then attempted to use the counterconditioning therapy of systematic desensitization to prevent the phobic response, which is incompatible with relaxation.
19. E—The goal of psychoanalysis is to uncover the hidden childhood trauma and make this unconscious conflict conscious so that the patient can gain insight into the problem. Psychoanalysis does not offer a cure; rather, it offers the patient better understanding of the source of the problem.
20. D—Psychoanalytic therapy is a long, expensive type of therapy that cannot be provided at community mental health centers.
21. C—Deinstitutionalization was intended to result in better services for patients closer to their homes. Unexpectedly, former clients did not continue to seek out services and went off their medications. They now are part of the growing homeless population in America, making up 40 percent of that adult population according to some estimates. Many are suffering from some form of schizophrenia.
22. A—Vic is most likely engaging in client-centered or person-centered therapy. Therapists take a nondirective approach and encourage clients to discuss their feelings in a nonjudgmental setting. Through active listening, therapists help clients become aware of their feelings, clarify their emotions, and take responsibility for future growth toward their full potential.
23. E—Prozac is one of a category of drugs called SSRIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. By increasing the length of time serotonin stays in the synaptic cleft, serotonin becomes more available. Many sufferers of depressive disorders see mood improvement in about 2 weeks. The SSRIs have fewer side effects than do the older tricyclics and MAO inhibitors.
24. B—Group therapy is effective for all of the reasons given, with the exception that it does utilize a trained professional. Psychotherapists are necessary in this dynamic process to give needed direction and counseling to all involved clients.
25. C—REBT, devised by Albert Ellis, can be a very confrontational cognitive treatment. The hope is that by facing the irrationality of their belief systems, clients like Drew will become more rational in how they view the world.
26. B—Antabuse is an aversive therapy because of the punishing effects of the nausea, which, through repeated pairings, leads to the extinction of the desire for alcohol. As in all classically conditioned therapies, occasional pairing of the alcohol and Antabuse will be necessary to maintain its effectiveness over the long term.
27. A—A psychiatrist would prescribe lithium carbonate for Andre’s symptoms of bipolar disorder. Though the chemical nature of mania is not completely understood, the metal lithium is effective with many patients. However, care must be taken to avoid lithium poisoning. Some patients might still suffer depressive symptoms, and a combination of an antidepressant drug with lithium is often used.
28. E—Both medical doctors, Galen and Hippocrates, pursued the belief that imbalances in the body were the bases for abnormal behavior, much as the biomedical approach today believes that neurochemical and hormonal balances underlie disorders.
29. A—Though there have been conflicting individual studies, meta-analysis of 475 studies found that psychotherapy was effective in treating psychological disorders. Although cognitive-behavioral approaches to therapy are popular today for treating a wide variety of disorders, no single treatment has been found more effective for all types of mental health problems.