Practice Test 3
Part VII: Additional Practice Tests
AP® Psychology Exam
SECTION I: Multiple-Choice Questions
DO NOT OPEN THIS BOOKLET UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.
At a Glance
1 hour and 10 minutes
Number of Questions
Percent of Total Grade 66.6%
Section I of this exam contains 100 multiple-choice questions. Fill in only the ovals for numbers 1 through 100 on your answer sheet.
Indicate all of your answers to the multiple-choice questions on the answer sheet. No credit will be given for anything written in this exam booklet, but you may use the booklet for notes or scratch work. After you have decided which of the suggested answers is best, completely fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. Give only one answer to each question. If you change an answer, be sure that the previous mark is erased completely. Here is a sample question and answer.
Omaha is a
Use your time effectively, working as quickly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend too much time on any one question. Go on to other questions and come back to the ones you have not answered if you have time. It is not expected that everyone will know the answers to all of the multiple-choice questions.
Many candidates wonder whether or not to guess the answers to questions about which they are not certain. Multiple-choice scores are based on the number of questions answered correctly. Points are not deducted for incorrect answers and no points are awarded for unanswered questions. Because points are not deducted for incorrect answers, you are encouraged to answer all multiple-choice questions. On any questions you do not know the answer to, you should eliminate as many choices as you can and then select the best answer among the remaining choices.
Time—1 hour and 10 minutes
Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five answer choices. Select the one that is best in each case and then completely fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.
1.The relationship between heritability and environment is referred to as
(A)the nature versus nurture debate
(B)the mind-body problem
(D)efferent versus afferent
2.The sympathetic nervous system is most associated with which of the following?
(B)Fight or flight
(E)Impaired immune systems
3.Which of the following tests is designed to measure intelligence?
(A)Rorschach Inkblot Test
(B)Thematic Apperception Test
(D)External validity test
4.Which of the following people is often thought of as the founder of psychology as a science?
5.Ever since sophomore year, Brianna has felt it very comforting to come home and fix 10 pieces of cinnamon toast. She eats them in her bedroom, and later vomits all of them up so she doesn’t gain weight. Brianna likely has what?
(C)Binge eating disorder
(E)Borderline personality disorder
6.Relatively more of which cell type enables humans to see in color, while dogs see in black and white?
7.Leon Festinger proposed the idea that we are uncomfortable when our ideas, beliefs, and behaviors conflict with how we really act. Which of the following terms refers to this discomfort?
(A)General adaptation syndrome
(E)Mere exposure effect
8.A newborn baby grabs a pacifier placed in her hands. This is an example of which of the following?
(A)The Moro reflex
(B)The palmar reflex
(C)The head-turning reflex
(D)The sucking reflex
(E)The Babinski reflex
9.A behaviorist is most likely to consider
(A)a person’s response to reward and punishment
(B)a person’s response to unconditional positive regard
(C)a person’s recounting of their dreams
(D)a person’s thoughts regarding things that cause them anxiety
(E)a person’s heredity versus their response to environment
10.Five students who wrote excellent individual essays were then chosen to do a group written project. Although each of them believes that they worked hard on it, the end result is generally weaker than expected. This outcome can be best explained by what phenomenon?
11.Which of the following people was involved in founding the first U.S. hospital for the mentally ill?
(B)Mary Whiton Calkins
(C)Margaret Floy Washburn
12.In the endocrine system, which of the following is known as the master gland?
13.Howard Gardner believed that all of the following were types of intelligence EXCEPT
14.Which social psychologist is best known for experiments concerning obedience?
15.Which of the following concepts are NOT part of psychoanalytic theory?
16.Pavlov is best-known for which discovery?
(A)Finding that rats can learn to navigate a maze to find food
(B)Finding that dogs will salivate when seeing the attendant who brought them food, even before receiving the food
(C)Finding that rats will learn to avoid negative experiences such as electric shocks
(D)Finding that pigeons can be trained to associate food with pecking at a particular key
(E)Finding that people will continue to do activities for which they are praised, even when the praise stops
17.Ayesha’s new job requires employees to punch in a numeric code to enter certain rooms. She repeats the code over and over to herself to remember it. Ayesha is using which of the following?
18.Hanna goes to Bread and Cheese, a sandwich shop, on the way home from school about twice a week. She likes it partly because she gets a card that is punched every time she purchases a sandwich. When she buys a dozen, she gets the 13th free. Bread and Cheese is encouraging Hanna’s business using which of the following reinforcement schedules?
19.Kohlberg’s second (conventional) level of moral development is characterized by
(A)following rules in order to avoid punishment
(B)following rules in order to obtain reward
(C)maintaining order above all
(D)defining morality for oneself
(E)determining what is right by reference to what others say, especially those in authority
20.According to Richard Lazarus, which of the following is the first stage of response to stress?
21.All of the following are characteristics of psychologically disordered behavior EXCEPT
(A)cognitive or perceptual dysfunction
(B)unusual deviation from typical behavior
(C)labeled as abnormal by society
(D)patient’s history of trauma
22.Addison was in a car accident and sustained a brain injury. Since then, he can’t feel much difference between hot and cold temperatures. His neuroanatomist suspects that the head injury caused damage to which of the following?
23.Sean is preparing to study for an AP Psychology exam, and is attempting to learn all ten personality disorders. His friend Teresa suggests that he draw a comic strip with ten characters who represent each of the personality disorders. Her suggestion involves which of the following?
24.Which of the following is characteristic of anorexia nervosa?
(A)It primarily affects females who are 10% below ideal body weight.
(B)It primarily affects females and males with a propensity to abuse alcohol.
(C)It primarily affects females who are 15% below ideal body weight.
(D)It primarily affects females who are 12% below ideal body weight and have a tendency to abuse alcohol.
(E)It primarily affects females and males who are 12% below ideal body weight.
25.According to Freud, what happens from roughly the ages of 6 to 12, during the latency stage?
(A)Children repress traumatic memories.
(B)Children dream vividly.
(C)Children focus on oral gratification.
(D)Children’s ego becomes fragile.
(E)Children focus on gender identification.
26.Ellyn feels hungry four hours after she’s eaten breakfast, and goes to get lunch. What’s regulating her motivation to eat?
27.Remembering that Queen Elizabeth I ruled England during the Renaissance is an example of what type of memory?
28.The concept of unconditional positive regard is most closely associated with which therapist?
29.Jordan keeps her grades very high to please her parents and keep her scholarship. Her motivations can be described as
30.To which perspective are issues of repression, the conscious and unconscious mind, and unresolved conflicts in childhood most central?
31.Which of the following is NOT a requirement for ethical conduct of a research experiment with human subjects?
(A)Obtaining informed consent
(B)Debriefing after an experiment if deception has been used
(C)Maintaining confidentiality and anonymity
(D)Double-blinding in the research design
(E)Allowing subjects to leave the experiment if they become uncomfortable with what they are required to do
32.Which factor does NOT lead to interpersonal attraction?
(B)Good physical appearance
(D)Similar tastes in music
33.Caleb is taking part in a psychology experiment. He is to stare at a green dot on a page for 30 minutes. Then he is shown a blank white page and asked what he sees. He tells the researcher he sees a red dot. Which of the following best explains Caleb’s perception?
(E)Opponent process theory
34.According to the modal model, memory is stored in which of these areas?
(A)Echoic, iconic, auditory
(B)Encoding, decay, interference
(C)Semantic, visual, acoustic
(D)Hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, amygdala
(E)Sensory, short-term, long-term
35.Which of the following is NOT a condition for observational learning, according to Albert Bandura?
36.A group of developmental psychologists plans to compare similar cognitive tasks for a group of 3-year-olds, a group of 6-year-olds, and a group of 9-year-olds. What research method are they using?
37.Internal validity refers to which of the following?
(A)The extent to which a study’s findings can be generalized to the real world
(B)The certainty with which an experiment’s results can be attributed to the independent variable rather than some other variable
(C)The replicability of the standard deviations
(D)The absence of Type I or Type II error
(E)Eliminating the null hypothesis
38.Which of the following is NOT involved in neural firing in the brain?
(E)Nodes of Ranvier
39.Christa’s therapist has diagnosed her with a negative triad. What class of medication is she most likely to be prescribed?
40.Andre works for a large multinational corporation. He is always on time to meetings, wants to be the best salesperson in his company, and is sometimes irritated by colleagues who aren’t as punctual or as driven to succeed as he is. Which of the following might explain his behavior?
(A)Type-B pattern behavior
(C)Type-A pattern behavior
(E)Overactive pituitary gland
41.Weber’s law best describes which of the following?
(A)A person’s ability to notice that a 50-pound dumbbell is much heavier than a 25-pound dumbbell, but not notice that a 55-pound dumbbell is heavier than a 50-pound dumbbell
(B)The ability of people to recognize stimuli at a point of difference
(C)A person quickly recognizing a piece of classical music at a concert that has been playing very softly as background in their language lab all term
(D)A person recognizing shapes more readily in a dark movie theater after they have been there 10 minutes than when they first walked in
(E)A person having no trouble conversing with other people at a large party in which everyone is talking
42.Solomon Asch’s study involving perceptual stimuli tested which of the following?
(C)Occipital lobe processing
43.If a Type I error involving a hypothesis is made, which of the following has occurred?
(A)The experimenter concluded that a difference did not exist after the experiment, when in fact it did.
(B)The standard deviations were not read correctly.
(C)Confounding variables were not accounted for.
(D)The sample size was too low to be valid.
(E)The experimenter concluded that a difference existed after the experiment, when in fact it didn’t.
44.Drew’s sleep is being monitored by an electroencephalogram. Which of the following are researchers most likely to see during the rapid eye movement (REM) stage, when he dreams?
(A)Theta and beta waves
(C)Beta and alpha waves
45.Harriet is on the soccer team. The coach requires daily workouts, which she praises each student for. Harriet likes the praise, and shows up for each workout, doing more than asked. Eventually, Harriet does the workout every day even in the off-season, when the coach isn’t around. This is an example of
46.Leticia has developed a fear of heights. But her environmental class is going on a field trip, hiking in the Rocky Mountains, and she hates to miss it. She starts therapy to get over her fear. First, the therapist tells Leticia to visualize standing on a mountain path. Second, she’ll start hiking on gradual inclines. Finally, Leticia will go with a guide up a steep mountain for a short while, and then gradually lengthen the hikes. Which technique is her therapist using?
47.When his mother takes Frank to preschool, he crows “I go school!” This is an example of
48.Which of the following statements best reflects a behaviorist’s view?
(A)Behavior is influenced by both nature and nurture.
(B)Behavior is influenced by individuals wanting self-actualization.
(C)Behavior is influenced by unconscious desires within the person.
(D)Behavior is influenced by reward and punishment from the outside.
(E)Behavior is influenced by thoughts and actions.
49.Ken is in training for the state wrestling finals. It’s been challenging to remain in the range for his weight class. Two days his weigh-in, he throws a party for his eighteenth birthday, which includes his favorite type of cake. Of course he wants to eat the cake—it’s his birthday!—but he’s also worried about the effect on the weigh-in 48 hours away. This is an example of which of the following?
50.Jeremiah doesn’t study if he doesn’t feel like it, but he also doesn’t take responsibility for getting low scores on his high school tests. His parents don’t care about his grades, viewing themselves as his friends. Which of the following likely describes their parenting style?
51.Which of the following best summarizes a view of the contact hypothesis?
(A)Contact with someone every day for more than two weeks increases the chances of your feeling interpersonal attraction.
(B)Contact with someone of a different social group tends to reinforce your own biases.
(C)Conflict resolution requires frequent contact and cooperation.
(D)Contact with a different group may reduce prejudice against members of the group, but it could also increase prejudice or leave it unchanged.
(E)Contact is a diffuse form of altruism.
52.The Eysenck Personality Inventory measures people based on their
53.A psychoanalytic therapist would be most likely to use which of the following to treat depression?
(B)Prescribing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
54.Ivan’s aunt had a stroke last week. Ivan’s family has been told the Broca’s area in her brain is affected. What symptoms is she likely to have?
(A)Loss of ability to see
(B)Loss of ability to hear
(C)Loss of ability to understand what she hears
(D)Frequent repetition of what is said to her
(E)Loss of ability to speak
55.Aidan has the highest grades in class, plays the cello in the city orchestra, and is popular among his classmates. When he shows up to help build apartments for the homeless, the group leader is startled to find him clumsy and unable to hammer a nail without hitting his own thumb. The leader’s surprise likely results from which of the following?
56.Karen tumbled down the steps of the library, spraining her ankle. She began to cry, as her ankle hurt and she couldn’t walk without limping. She was terribly embarrassed, as at least 15 people were hanging out in front of the library and saw her fall. No one moved to help or comfort Karen. What accounts for the fact that none of these people offered her any assistance?
57.Peter is studying for a biology test. He remembers the information much better when he actually goes into the biology classroom, rather than staying in the library. This is most likely an example of
58.Kristin and Dave are driving to a restaurant in the fog. They see the restaurant’s neon sign in the distance, which they think is about 1 mile down the road. It turns out to be just half a mile. What explains the difference between their perception and reality?
59.If you design a single-blind experiment, which of the following is true?
(A)The experiment’s subjects know whether they are in an experimental group or in a control group, but the researchers do not.
(B)The experiment’s subjects do not know whether they are in an experimental group or in a control group, but the researchers do.
(C)Both the researchers and the experimental subjects know which group the subjects have been assigned to.
(D)Neither the researchers nor the experimental subjects know whether the latter have been assigned to an experimental group or a control group.
(E)The observers are unable to see the responses or behaviors of the experimental group during the course of the experimental manipulation.
60.Despite problems with addiction, which of the following explains why narcotics like oxycodone relieve pain?
(A)They work very similarly to endogenous serotonin.
(B)They work very similarly to endogenous acetylcholine.
(C)They work very similarly to endogenous endorphins.
(D)They work very similarly to endogenous adenosine.
(E)They work very similarly to endogenous norepinephrine.
61.Paula is a gymnast who’s been practicing hard for the state finals. When the judges give her an average score of 9, she attributes the high score to her hard work, thinking “All my practice paid off!” But in one trial, her average falls to 5. She fumes, “They shortchanged me on the balance beam.” Which of the following theories explains her reasoning?
(B)Fundamental attribution error
62.What demonstrates causation in an experiment?
(A)A hypothesis that successfully predicts the outcome
(B)Operationalization of independent and dependent variables
(C)A manipulation of one variable that always leads to predicted changes in another
(D)A positive correlation between the variables
(E)Successful manipulation of the way a subject responds to some aspect of the experiment
63.Julio is an A student who received early admission to the college of his choice. He still thinks he needs to be perfect in everything he does in class this spring, even though his GPA has already secured him a place in higher education. He has such extreme anxiety that a therapist suggests he replace every thought of “I’ve got to nail this assignment” with “It needs to just be good enough to graduate.” The therapist is using which of the following approaches?
(D)Rational-emotive behavior therapy
64.Jayden is learning to sail, but he experiences nausea every time he hits the open water. He is working with a therapist on ways to manage it. The therapist mentions that he should never eat favorite foods (chocolate, pizza) while sailing. This recommendation is made to help avoid which of the following?
(C)conditioned taste aversion
65.Olivia’s family moves to a new house very near an airport. For the first week, all the family members are distressed that the sound of planes taking off is so loud. When a friend comes to visit the third week and complains about the noise, Olivia realizes she doesn’t even hear it anymore. This is likely due to which phenomenon?
66.Diya is looking at a normal distribution of scores. Roughly what percentage should she expect to occur within two standard deviations (SDs) from the mean?
67.Thomas is a 55-year-old journalist. When he was young, he learned that all periods at the ends of sentences should be followed by two spaces. His 27-year-old editor learned that one space is correct. She gets very frustrated with Thomas, because she’s told him many times to just use one. Thomas shrugs and says “I can never remember that.” What best explains Thomas’s response?
68.Evelyn is 6. She is pleased when the teacher puts stars for good work on her assignments. She is likely in which of the following?
(A)Piaget’s concrete operational stage
(B)Erikson’s industry versus inferiority stage
(C)Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development
(D)Ainsworth’s secure attachment pattern
(E)Kohlberg’s conventional morality stage
69.Which of the following is NOT a major class of drugs deployed for psychotherapeutic use?
(A)Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
(E)Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
70.Which of the following is NOT an anxiety disorder?
(A)Fear of thunder and lightning
(C)Fear of snakes
71.Kris was sure Alexis would win the election for student body president because her campaign speeches were so logical and persuasive. She was shocked when her best friend said she’d voted for Raj for president because he had the best outfits of anyone in the junior class. What model best explains the friend’s decision?
(A)Elaboration likelihood model
(B)Piaget’s developmental model
(D)Kohlberg’s model of morality
72.Which of the following are found in the forebrain?
(A)Thalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum
(B)Thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala
(C)Medulla oblongata, amygdala, cerebellum
(D)Reticular activating system, amygdala, hippocampus
(E)Tectum, tegmentum, cerebellum
73.When Ashleigh was 4, she watched a movie over and over again about a little girl whose grandmother lets her wear a tiara as a reward for good behavior. Now that she’s 15, she thinks her grandmother gave her a tiara for being a good girl when she was little. Which of the following best explains this?
74.Which of the following involves sensations from the skin?
(A)Tactile and cutaneous receptors
(B)Malleus, incus, and stapes
(C)Cochlea and vestibular sacs
(E)Rods and cones
75.Amita loved playing soccer in grade school. Now, she’s a professional soccer player, with the entire team depending on her. She is sponsored by sports equipment manufacturers and in demand for television appearances. She still likes playing soccer, but she isn’t as happy kicking a ball as when she was 10. Which of the following phenomena explain her feelings best?
(D)General adaptation syndrome
76.Hal is a patient with schizophrenia. Which positive symptom could he show?
(A)No longer thinking he’s president of the United States
(B)Proactively taking medications
(C)Hallucinating that he’s being stalked by a giant rat
(D)Successfully returning to school
(E)Attending therapy regularly
77.Larry and Pat are both 50. Their children are in college. They are developing a plan to sell their home and go to work with the poor in other countries. Their plan is likely explained by which of the following?
(A)Erikson’s integrity vs. despair
(B)Kohlberg’s Level II, conventional morality
(D)Erikson’s generativity vs. stagnation
78.John’s parents died in a war shortly after he was born. He was sent to an orphanage, but because of the war it was severely understaffed, and the staff couldn’t provide the children with any emotional stimulus or interaction. He spent nearly two years there. Since being adopted, he seems nearly unable to form attachments with his new parents and siblings. John might have which of the following?
(B)Reactive attachment disorder
79.Zoe likes to smoke cigarettes occasionally, so she won’t eat as much. But she does notice that her heart beats faster when she smokes, too. The latter is most likely due to
80.Sophie always has difficulty coming up with ideas for her research papers at the end of the term. Her teacher suggests that she jot down five ideas quickly, without trying to critically assess whether they’ll work or not, as a first step. Her teacher is suggesting what type of thinking?
81.Alexander has developed an abnormal fear of thunder and lightning. Which of the following clinicians most likely believes that his phobia has a biological basis?
(A)Madison Brown, who encourages him to replace his thought “I’m scared! The lightning is going to strike me” with “I’m perfectly safe; the lightning is actually not near”
(B)Joshua Smith, who encourages him to remember his dreams
(C)Kathe Reynolds, who has him listen to recordings of thunder and prescribes a regular dose of Xanax
(D)Aurelia Smith-Zygmunt, who stresses his ability to deal with challenges
(E)Henry Pearson, who encourages him to join group therapy with other phobic people
82.Sebastian is on his feet screaming “Go! Go! Go!” as his favorite basketball team fights against the clock to win the game. He interprets his screaming and adrenaline as enthusiasm rather than anger or aggression. Which theory of emotion best explains this?
(A)The Schachter-Singer theory
(B)The James-Lange theory
(D)Negative triad theory
83.Complete the following using deductive reasoning. All social media managers who work for Company X use Instagram. Some social media managers who use Instagram also use Snapchat. Henry is a social media manager who works for Company X. It can therefore be determined that
(A)Henry uses both Instagram and Snapchat
(B)Henry uses neither Instagram nor Snapchat
(C)Henry uses either Instagram or Snapchat
(D)Henry uses Instagram
(E)Henry uses Snapchat
84.Amir is shopping online for textbooks. He finds out that the site won’t let him shop for anything unless he rates the product he ordered three months ago first. Amir doesn’t want to spend his time giving feedback, and is irritated by being forced to respond before he can even look at books for next term. As a result, he switches to a different site entirely. His anger and resistance to the rating request is an example of
85.A cognitive therapist would most likely agree with which of the following criticisms of psychoanalytic therapy?
(A)Psychoanalytic therapy often requires years before patients make any breakthroughs that change the way they think.
(B)Psychoanalytic therapy focuses too much on underlying issues and not enough on changing behavior.
(C)Psychoanalytic therapy is lengthy and creates an undue financial burden on patients.
(D)Psychoanalytic therapy does not focus enough on unconditional acceptance and self-esteem.
(E)Psychoanalytic therapy avoids desensitization techniques and is not suitable for phobic patients.
86.Three students are taking an AP Chemistry test. Megan is very nervous about the test, as she wants to be a doctor, and a good chemistry score is essential. Zach has been talking to his parents about taking a gap year, and hasn’t really paid much attention to the test. Tamika wants to do well and is slightly anxious, but knows she has done well in class and that her overall GPA and essay are more likely to affect her chances at college. Tamika gets the highest score. What explains her performance?
(A)Type B behavior
(D)Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy
(E)Mary Rothbart’s temperament scales
87.All humans possess which of the following five gustatory sensations?
(A)Umami, tangy, sweet, salty, sour
(B)Sweet, salty, bitter, sour, umami
(C)Smooth, grainy, cold, hot, warm
(D)Vegetable/fruit, fats, meat, dairy, grain
(E)Sweet, salty, sour, bitter, acidic
88.What is content validity in a psychometric test?
(A)The degree to which test-takers in the same age group get similar results
(B)The correlation between the test results and future performance on another measure
(C)The degree to which every administration of the same test will yield similar results
(D)How much the test actually measures what it is designed to measure
(E)The degree of consistency across sections of the test
89.Sally can never recall whether July has 30 days or 31. She remembers an old rhyme to help her. “30 days has September/April, June, and November/When short February’s done/All the rest have 31.” Sally is using which of the following?
90.A researcher designs a study to find the effects of picture cues on learning in young children. In the experimental design, 100 participants are randomly assigned to each group; one group learns words via software with picture cues, and the other group learns words without picture cues. The researcher records and observes the behavior in each group. The behavior of all the subjects is called the
91.The Gestalt concept of symmetry refers to
(A)a tendency to perceive similar forms as a part of a group
(B)a tendency to perceive forms that are mirror images
(C)a tendency to view objects as complete rather than incomplete
(D)a tendency to view objects in proximity to each other as part of a group
(E)a tendency to break down the relationship between figure and ground
92.Both Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are associated with which of the following?
(E)Unconditional positive regard
93.Mariah is anxious about studying for a test in which knowing the vocabulary will play a big part. She keeps dreaming that she sees a dictionary lying on the table, but when she opens it, it only contains a bunch of geometric shapes, with no words or definitions. She thinks the dream reflects her anxiety about not knowing the words likely to appear on the test. If she’s right, which of the following best explains this phenomenon?
94.Negative reinforcement is occurring in which of the following situations?
(A)When Tom gets an A, he doesn’t have to wash the dishes.
(B)4-year-old Lila gets a timeout when she misbehaves.
(C)Rover’s trainer speaks to Rover sternly but calmly when she chews furniture.
(D)When Jay is accepted to college, his family buys him tickets to Europe for the summer.
(E)A laboratory animal doesn’t receive pellets when pressing a lever.
95.Tamara doesn’t think she’s very good at math. She flunks her math test. But she knows that all she has to do is study and her grade will rise. This is an example of what?
(A)High self-efficacy and an external locus of control
(B)Low self-efficacy and an external locus of control
(C)High self-efficacy and an internal locus of control
(D)Low self-efficacy and an internal locus of control
(E)Low self-efficacy and learned helplessness
96.Jenny’s IQ score is 135. Where does this fall on a normal score distribution?
(A)It depends on how old she is.
(B)It depends on the sample size.
(C)Approximately one standard deviation above the mean
(D)Approximately one standard deviation below the mean
(E)Approximately two standard deviations above the mean
97.A K—6 school keeps boxes of juice for snacks. Each contains 4 ounces of juice, but some are in long, thin juice boxes and others are in short and squat juice boxes. Some kindergarteners who get a long, thin box are upset, because they think they are getting less juice than their classmates. But all the 10-year-olds understand they have equal amounts of juice. What cognitive development theory best explains this?
(A)Piaget’s formal operational stage
(B)Erikson’s trust versus mistrust stage
(C)Piaget’s theory of conservation
(D)Theory of Mind
98.Carmen is 8 years old. She loves to dress up by wearing her mother’s bracelets. But her mother is afraid she’ll damage them, so Carmen will be grounded if she’s caught playing with them. She won’t be able to go to her grandmother’s house, which she also loves to do. As a result, she leaves the bracelets alone. This is most likely accounted for by which of the following?
(A)Carol Gilligan’s theory of moral development
(B)Piaget’s concept of object permanence
(C)Ainsworth’s avoidant attachment pattern
(D)Kohlberg’s theory of preconventional morality
(E)Erikson’s initiative versus guilt stage
99.What does it mean to say a test is standardized?
(A)The results are correlated with other measures of the same dimension.
(B)The results are consistent with those given by different graders.
(C)The answer choices appear an equal number of times.
(D)The questions are quantitative rather than projective.
(E)The test is administered to a sample thought to reflect the characteristics of the population measured.
100.Which are the three scales on which temperament can be assessed, according to Mary Rothbart?
(A)Surgency, insurgency, acceptance
(B)Internal locus of control, effortful control, self-actualization
(C)Negative affect, positive affect, positive self-regard
(D)Surgency, agency, societal engagement
(E)Surgency, negative affect, effortful control
END OF SECTION I
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION. DO NOT GO ON TO SECTION II UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.
Percent of total grade—33
Directions: You have 50 minutes to answer BOTH of the following questions. It is not enough to answer a question by merely listing facts. You should present a cogent argument based on your critical analysis of the question posed using appropriate psychological terminology.
1.Jonas is a graduate student in psychology, He is designing an experiment to study how having older siblings with significant student loan debt affects high school students’ motivation to get college degrees. His working hypothesis is that an older sibling with $15,000 in debt or more may make a younger sibling less motivated to get a degree. He has contacted a local high school to find students applying to college whose siblings have no student loan debt. He has placed an ad on an online college advice site asking students with siblings having at least $15,000 in debt to participate in the experiment.
A.Explain the following concepts in the context of Jonas’s planned research design.
· Correlational study
· Type I error
B.Jonas presents his design to a graduate seminar for feedback. Explain how each of the following could affect the seminar’s discussion of his research design.
· Self-selection bias
· Elaboration likelihood model
· Type II error
· Confounding variable
2.Melody developed a fear of flying after an airplane she was on made a sudden emergency landing. She has nightmares about being on a plane. She also can’t stop thinking “It’s going to crash! It’s going to crash!” if she sees a plane. But she is a member of a choir that is singing in Washington, D.C. in three months, and wants to be able to fly there along with other members of her choir. She wants to choose a method of combating her fear that will do the most to help her be able to fly on an airplane.
Provide an essay that describes how Melody’s situation relates to the following seven terms, giving examples for each.
· Systematic desensitization
· Cognitive therapy
· Yerkes-Dodson law
END OF EXAM