The Exam - Part II: Practice Test 1

AP Psychology Premium Prep - The Princeton Review 2021

The Exam
Part II: Practice Test 1

AP® Psychology Exam

SECTION I: Multiple-Choice Questions


At a Glance

Total Time

1 hour and 10 minutes

Number of Questions


Percent of Total Score


Writing Instrument

Pencil required


Section I of this exam contains 100 multiple-choice questions. Fill in only the ovals for numbers 1 through 100 on your answer sheet.

Indicate all of your answers to the multiple-choice questions on the answer sheet. No credit will be given for anything written in this exam booklet, but you may use the booklet for notes or scratch work. After you have decided which of the suggested answers is best, completely fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. Give only one answer to each question. If you change an answer, be sure that the previous mark is erased completely. Here is a sample question and answer.

Sample Question

Omaha is a

(A) state

(B) city

(C) country

(D) continent

(E) village

Sample Answer


Use your time effectively, working as quickly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend too much time on any one question. Go on to other questions and come back to the ones you have not answered if you have time. It is not expected that everyone will know the answers to all of the multiple-choice questions.

About Guessing

Many candidates wonder whether or not to guess the answers to questions about which they are not certain. Multiple-choice scores are based on the number of questions answered correctly. Points are not deducted for incorrect answers, and no points are awarded for unanswered questions. Because points are not deducted for incorrect answers, you are encouraged to answer all multiple-choice questions. On any questions you do not know the answer to, you should eliminate as many choices as you can, and then select the best answer among the remaining choices.

Section I


Section I

Time—1 hour and 10 minutes

100 Questions

Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five answer choices. Select the one that is best in each case and then completely fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.

1.Which of the following is an example of habituation?

(A)The first time Ilene wears high-heeled shoes, she finds them extremely uncomfortable.

(B)Ilene can only tolerate wearing high-heeled shoes for a few hours because they hurt.

(C)Ilene wore high-heeled shoes for the first time two weeks ago; now she wears them every day.

(D)High-heeled shoes always hurt Ilene’s feet, but she forces herself to wear them because they are fashionable.

(E)When Ilene wears high-heeled shoes all day her feet usually only hurt for the first few minutes.

2.Which of the following is NOT a symptom of major depressive disorder?

(A)Loss of appetite


(C)Social withdrawal

(D)Prolonged feelings of sadness

(E)Suicidal ideation

3.Joe’s psychotherapist often asks him to recount his dreams, discuss his early childhood, and explore possible feelings and motivations of which he is unaware. His therapist would best be described as






4.Which of the following groups of quiz scores has the highest standard deviation?

(A)80, 80, 80, 82, 85

(B)90, 91, 93, 95, 98

(C)50, 53, 54, 54

(D)60, 65, 75, 84, 98

(E)70, 70, 79

5.Jill commits a minor criminal offense. Consequently, a judge orders her to perform community service: picking up garbage along the side of the highway. This scenario is best described as

(A)positive reinforcement

(B)negative punishment


(D)negative reinforcement

(E)positive punishment

6.On a public street, Dave is accosted by a stranger who proceeds to rob him. According to social psychological theory, his chances of receiving help from someone are greatest if how many people witness the incident?






7.Which of the following scientists is most closely associated with the “collective unconscious”?

(A)Sigmund Freud

(B)Carl Jung

(C)B.F. Skinner

(D)Ivan Pavlov

(E)William James

8.A drug counselor observes that her client is extremely lethargic and his pupils are constricted. Which of the following illegal drugs is the client most likely to have taken?



(C)LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)


(E)Ecstasy (methylenedioxymethamphetamine)

9.A researcher reads the following list of words to a group of subjects in this order: horse, nose, book, dog, lamp, mind, train, glass, ice, paint, hat, and chair. Then he asks the subjects to write down all the words they remember. On average, the group will

(A)be more likely to remember the word “horse” than the word “chair,” owing to the recency effect

(B)be more likely to remember the word “nose” than the word “mind,” owing to the recency effect

(C)be more likely to remember the words “horse” and “chair” than the word “train,” owing to serial position effects

(D)be more likely to remember the words in the middle of the list than those at the beginning, owing to the primacy effect

(E)be more likely to remember certain words randomly than to recall any of the words based on serial position

10.Robert sees an angry bear approach him and runs as fast as he can to escape. Which of the following bodily changes would be most likely to occur as Robert is running from the bear?

(A)Increased parasympathetic activity

(B)Decreased respiration

(C)Decreased sympathetic activity

(D)Increased epinephrine levels

(E)Decreased adrenaline levels

11.Linda gives all employees of her company a 2% raise every January. She rewards her employees on which type of schedule?






12.Sue is shy, works exclusively from home, and has very few friends. While she would like to be socially accepted, she generally avoids contact with others for fear that they will reject her. Which personality disorder best describes Sue?






13.Mary just turned seventeen. Which of Erikson’s developmental stages is she working on at this point in her life?

(A)Trust vs. mistrust

(B)Autonomy vs. shame and doubt

(C)Identity vs. role confusion

(D)Generativity vs. stagnation

(E)Integrity vs. despair

14.During Jack’s first two years in college, he took one history class every semester and found each professor extremely entertaining. This prompted him to take European History with Professor Smith, whom he found terribly boring. After dropping the class, Jack concluded that history teachers are not all entertaining. The fact that he changed his mind based on this recent experience is best described as

(A)cognitive dissonance





15.Ever since Jane sustained a head injury in a car accident, she has been unable to form new memories. Which part of her brain has been damaged?

(A)The hippocampus

(B)The hypothalamus

(C)The occipital lobe

(D)The temporal lobe

(E)The medulla

16.Which of the following is the best example of the psychotherapeutic technique known as “mirroring”?

(A)Dr. Jones challenges her client’s explanation of his hostile behavior.

(B)Dr. Jones is empathic and caring towards her client when he recounts traumatic experiences.

(C)Dr. Jones praises her client when he abstains from alcohol and withholds her praise when he does not.

(D)Dr. Jones points out how her client’s behavior resembles that of his father.

(E)Dr. Jones summarizes her client’s concerns about losing his job and states that he seems worried and upset about it.

17.Louis is thirty years old with an IQ of 65. He can dress and groom himself, make small purchases independently, and work in a restaurant clearing tables with some assistance. He lives with his parents, whom he relies on for help with major life decisions. Which of the following best describes Louis’s intellectual functioning?

(A)No disability

(B)Mild disability

(C)Moderate disability

(D)Severe disability

(E)Profound disability

18.Which of the following scenarios best exemplifies the just-world hypothesis?

(A)Laura is the prettiest and most popular girl in school. Her peers unanimously elect her class president, despite her lack of relevant experience and qualifications.

(B)Fred is serving a life sentence for a serious crime; crowds of people protest, asserting that he was falsely convicted.

(C)Phil feels bad about ridiculing a fellow student, but he does it because all his friends are doing it.

(D)Roy is mugged at gunpoint; the community believes he brought the attack upon himself by bragging about how much cash he carries.

(E)Julia is fired from her job and her coworkers support her claim of gender discrimination.

19.Zachary, who loves sugary carbonated drinks, reads a magazine article about how bad such beverages are for one’s health. According to cognitive dissonance theory, Zachary is LEAST likely to do which of the following after reading the article?

(A)Substantially reduce his consumption of sugary carbonated drinks

(B)Eliminate sugary carbonated drinks from his diet altogether

(C)Question the medical accuracy of the statements in the magazine article

(D)Decide that enjoying oneself is more important that maintaining perfect health

(E)Accept the article’s conclusions and continue to consume the same number of sugary carbonated drinks

20.Jennifer finally goes to bed after staying up for 24 hours straight in order to cram for a test. She remains asleep even though a fire alarm goes off in her dormitory, requiring her roommate to shake her a few times in order to wake her up. Which of the following brainwaves were likely dominant in Jennifer’s brain while she slept through the alarm?

(A)Alpha and beta


(C)Beta and theta


(E)Delta and beta

21.In John Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment, fear of white rats was the

(A)unconditioned response

(B)conditioned stimulus

(C)unconditioned stimulus

(D)conditioned response

(E)primary punisher

22.A professional dancer is warming up before a show by performing some elementary dance moves. If he is suddenly joined by several other dancers who perform the same moves, his performance will most likely


(B)worsen substantially due to the bystander effect

(C)worsen slightly due to social loafing

(D)remain unaffected

(E)improve substantially due to the mere-exposure effect

23.Which of the following is an example of chunking?

(A)Reciting a telephone number as follows: the area code first followed by a pause, then the first three digits followed by a pause, then the last four digits

(B)Preparing for an exam by studying a different subject each day

(C)Repeating a license plate number over and over out loud until it can be written down

(D)Using the scent of roses to trigger a childhood memory of being in a rose garden

(E)Teaching children the alphabet through the use of the “ABC’s” song

24.Margaret stores tomatoes together with apples and oranges, rather than together with carrots and celery. This is most likely an example of which Gestalt principle?



(C)Figure and ground



25.Falsely concluding that research findings are statistically significant is called

(A)a null hypothesis

(B)a type 1 error

(C)a regression toward the mean

(D)a random error

(E)a type 2 error

26.The brain’s occipital lobe controls

(A)impulse inhibition

(B)hearing and language processing

(C)planning and goal-setting

(D)pain recognition

(E)visual processing

27.Kerri didn’t bother to study much for her medical school entrance exam. She believed that, if she was meant to be a doctor, she would do well on the test and ultimately get accepted to medical school. Which of the following is most likely to be true based on this information?

(A)She has an external locus of control.

(B)She suffers from learned helplessness.

(C)She has an internal locus of control.

(D)She has a self-serving bias.

(E)She lacks self-esteem.

28.A psychology professor examining the effects of teacher praise on academic performance randomly assigns each of her students to one of two groups: high praise or low praise. She praises her students accordingly and then administers a test: the “high praise” students perform an average of 13% better than they did on the last exam, while the “low praise” students perform only 6% better on average. The independent variable in this study is

(A)the test scores earned by the two groups

(B)how well the teacher expected the two groups to perform

(C)how well the students performed on the last test prior to the experiment

(D)the amount of praise given to the students

(E)the difference between the average improvement rates demonstrated by the “high praise” and “low praise” groups

29.Fred received a score of 120 on a standardized college entrance exam, which places him in the 68th percentile. This means that

(A)he answered 68% of the questions correctly

(B)32% of the students who took that test scored lower than he did

(C)he scored higher than 68% of the students who took that test

(D)68% of the students who took that test scored higher than he did

(E)a score of 120 is below average for that test

30.One evening Carol wears clothing that she herself thinks is appropriate, but is sharply criticized by her community for dressing in that manner. Upon learning of the criticism, Carol is overcome with shame and guilt and swears never to wear clothing of that type again. According to Kohlberg, Carol is most likely at which level/stage of moral development?

(A)Preconventional morality

(B)Stage 8: Integrity vs despair

(C)Conventional morality

(D)Stage 6: Universal ethical principles

(E)Stage 1: Punishment and obedience orientation

31.According to Freudian theory, a lifelong criminal with no regard for others’ rights has probably failed to develop a(n)




(D)Oedipal complex


32.Delirium tremens is associated with withdrawal from which of the following substances?






33.The word “unhappiness” has how many morphemes?






34.Jenny is diagnosed with aphasia after a severe blow to the head. She will most likely be unable to perform which of the following activities?

(A)Standing unaided for several minutes

(B)Recognizing human faces

(C)Forming new memories

(D)Digesting large amounts of food

(E)Conversing with a group of friends

35.Dennis is an extremely aggressive eleven-year-old boy who is frequently in trouble for physically assaulting other children. According to the research and theories of Albert Bandura, Dennis probably

(A)finds at least some of the consequences of his aggressive behavior desirable

(B)is genetically predisposed to violence

(C)is fixated at an earlier stage of psychosexual development

(D)has observed adults in his life behaving violently

(E)would have had a distinct survival advantage had he lived in a prehistoric era

36.Which of the following is an example of secondary drive-reduction?

(A)Veronica pulls her car off the road for a quick nap because she’s afraid she might fall asleep at the wheel.

(B)Veronica purchases a new coat, despite living in a warm climate, because an unusually cold winter has been predicted.

(C)Veronica works exhausting double shifts at her job all month in order to receive a large paycheck.

(D)Veronica eats her dessert before dinner has been served because she cannot resist chocolate cake.

(E)Veronica spends several hundred dollars on a new air conditioning system for her car.

37.Which part of the eye contains the cells that sense light?

(A)The pupil

(B)The retina

(C)The lens

(D)The cornea

(E)The iris

38.Sandra tells her therapist, who has been trained in rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), that she feels depressed, guilty, and unwanted since her divorce. The therapist would be most likely to do which of the following?

(A)Empathize with her feelings

(B)Ask her about her relationship with her father

(C)Put her on a behavior modification program

(D)Have her lie on a couch and say whatever comes to mind

(E)Help her understand that her negative beliefs about herself are false

39.Which of the following is an example of the door-in-the-face technique?

(A)Liz’s boss grants her request to leave 30 minutes early one day, even though leaving early is against company rules. The next week she asks to leave several hours early, and her boss allows it.

(B)Every time Liz’s boss lets her leave early, she showers him with praise and thanks.

(C)Liz pesters her boss to allow her to leave early one day, constantly complaining that she feels ill-treated, until he finally gives in. Then she stops bothering him.

(D)Liz asks her boss to let her leave four hours early one day and he flatly refuses. She then asks him to let her leave 30 minutes early, and he agrees.

(E)Liz’s boss never lets her leave early, no matter how much she pleads.

40.Which of the following is a projective test?

(A)The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

(B)The Rorschach

(C)The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

(D)The DSM- 5

(E)A clinical intake interview

41.Instead of throwing away an empty wine bottle, Julie paints it and uses it as a vase to display flowers. Julie has overcome which of the following?


(B)The fundamental attribution error

(C)The mere exposure effect

(D)Functional fixedness

(E)Learned helplessness

42.Conversion disorder (or “functional neurological symptom disorder”) might cause an individual to complain of which one of the following problems?

(A)A debilitating fear of heights

(B)A fear of germs

(C)Paralysis for which there is no apparent medical explanation

(D)A compulsion to inflict self-harm

(E)Delusions of grandeur

43.A child who has mastered conservation understands that

(A)objects still exist even though they can’t be seen

(B)human law is fallible and subject to a higher morality

(C)abstract ideas can be represented by symbols

(D)a given amount of liquid remains the same despite being poured into a smaller container

(E)outward expression of aggressive impulses will displease authority figures

44.Which of the following best exemplifies the halo effect?

(A)Louise is the best student in her algebra class, so her teacher praises her constantly in front of the other students.

(B)Louise has won the annual skiing competition for the past three years, so everyone assumes she’ll win again this year.

(C)Louise has the highest GPA in her class, so everyone assumes she’ll be the best cheerleader on the new team and votes to make her captain.

(D)Louise is the most obedient child out of all her siblings, so her parents reward her with special privileges.

(E)Louise is such an exceptionally talented ballerina that the other ballerinas in her class seem mediocre in comparison, even though some are quite good.

45.Which of the following is true of Wernicke’s area?

(A)It is largely responsible for language comprehension.

(B)It is located in the frontal lobe.

(C)It is responsible for speech production.

(D)It controls balance and movement.

(E)It is associated with memory formation.

46.Which of the following is characteristic of Munchausen syndrome by proxy?

(A)Ignoring one’s child

(B)Committing suicide

(C)Verbally abusing one’s child in public

(D)Physically abusing one’s spouse in public

(E)Contaminating food to keep a family member ill

47.Biofeedback training would be LEAST likely to benefit a person who suffers from which of the following?

(A)Severe anxiety



(D)Migraine headaches

(E)Mild pain

48.Which of the following statements is true about hypnosis?

(A)While hypnotized, subjects can be forced to violate their personal moral codes.

(B)Hypnosis has proven beneficial in treating some physical conditions.

(C)Most people can be hypnotized against their will.

(D)All people are equally susceptible to hypnosis.

(E)Post-hypnotic suggestion is not used in therapeutic settings.

49.A longitudinal study would be most appropriate to examine which of the following research issues?

(A)The rate of remission for institutionalized schizophrenics vs non-institutionalized schizophrenics

(B)The relationship between race, divorce, and income in the U.S.

(C)The effects of age and gender on conformity

(D)The efficacy of a new experimental drug for hypertension

(E)The extent to which single-parent households are impoverished in urban vs. rural areas

50.Approximately what percentage of the population has an IQ score of 130 or above?






51.Cindy’s therapist tells her that her debilitating fear of dogs likely stems from an unconscious fear of her parents, who were abusive to Cindy when she was a young child. The therapist prescribes sedatives for Cindy to calm her nerves. He then begins to gradually expose Cindy to dogs during therapy, beginning with stimuli that Cindy finds least frightening (e.g., a picture of a tiny dog). This therapist is best described as






52.Which of the following best exemplifies confirmation bias?

(A)Victor holds no definitive views on alcohol consumption, so he avoids discussing the topic with others.

(B)Victor believes drinking alcohol is morally wrong, although he remains open to thoughtful debate on the subject.

(C)Victor used to drink heavily, but, after suffering alcohol-related health problems, firmly believes that drinking is wrong.

(D)Victor has never believed that drinking alcohol is harmful; he continues to drink on occasion.

(E)Victor believes that drinking alcohol leads to serious health problems; he subscribes to several newsletters and podcasts that address the dangers of alcohol.

53.Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding hormones and neurotransmitters?

(A)Neurotransmitters are primarily found in the nervous system.

(B)Hormones transmit signals faster than neurotransmitters do.

(C)Hormones are transmitted through the bloodstream.

(D)Neurotransmitters are transmitted across the synaptic cleft.

(E)Hormones are produced by the endocrine system.

54.Which of the following tests appears to have predictive validity?

(A)97% of high school students who take a certain college entrance exam a second time will score within 3 points of their first score on that exam.

(B)A questionnaire designed to assess the severity of tobacco addiction asks a variety of questions about how often the subject smokes, the circumstances under which the subject smokes, the severity of withdrawal symptoms, etc.

(C)Scores on a law school entrance exam are very highly correlated with first-year law school GPA’s.

(D)A certain narcissism scale has very little overlap with most sociopathy scales: those who are determined to be narcissistic are typically NOT determined to be sociopathic.

(E)Scores on a newly developed depression scale correlate highly with scores on a well-established depression scale.

55.A psychologist wishes to examine the relationship between age and career satisfaction among Americans. Which of the following research methods would be the best choice?

(A)A case study

(B)Naturalistic observation

(C)A controlled laboratory experiment

(D)A quasi-experiment

(E)A cross-sectional study

56.In the Milgram obedience experiments, subjects (“teachers”) were instructed by the experimenter to administer shocks to confederates (“learners”) as punishment for wrong answers on a memory test. Which of the following variations did NOT lead to a decrease in obedience?

(A)Conducting the experiment in a run-down office instead of a prestigious university

(B)Allowing the teacher to instruct an assistant to administer the shocks

(C)Moving the experimenter farther from the teacher

(D)Having other teachers present who refused to obey

(E)Moving the learner closer to the teacher

57.Jerry (15 months old), Jimmy (17 months old), Jana (22 months old), and Jason (24 months old) do not yet walk. Which of the children, if any, can be considered developmentally delayed?

(A)None of the children

(B)Jason only

(C)Jason and Jana only

(D)Jason, Jana, and Jimmy only

(E)Jason, Jana, Jimmy, and Jerry

58.Short-term memory lasts for approximately

(A)5 to 15 seconds

(B)20 to 30 seconds

(C)60 seconds to 75 seconds

(D)75 seconds to 90 seconds

(E)90 seconds to 120 seconds

59.Scores on a certain standardized essay test range from 1 to 6: 1 to 2 is below average, 3 to 4 is average, and 5 to 6 is above average. Layla received a score of 3, as one grader gave her a 1 and another grader gave her a 5—with 3 being the arithmetic mean. After challenging her score, Layla requested that another grader review her essay, and this third individual gave Layla a score of 3. Based on this information alone, the essay test in question might have

(A)high parallel-forms reliability

(B)high inter-rater reliability

(C)high test-retest reliability

(D)low inter-rater reliability

(E)low split-half reliability

60.Which of the following groups, charged with the task of making a collective decision, would be most likely to fall victim to a groupthink process?

(A)A nationwide television audience voting online for their favorite performers on a talent-competition reality show

(B)Residents of a sparsely populated state voting to elect a new governor

(C)Members of two rival sororities required to plan campus charity events together

(D)A close-knit extended family whose members must decide where to go on vacation

(E)A group of commuters on a subway attempting to render first aid to an injured woman

61.On a snowy day, the Eta Pi fraternity members miss an important meeting with the dean of students, as do members of their rival fraternity. Which of the following would best exemplify the ultimate attribution error?

(A)The Eta Pi members blame the snowstorm for causing both fraternities to miss the meeting.

(B)The Eta Pi members admit that they didn’t attend because they really don’t care about administrative meetings; they assume their rival fraternity felt the same way.

(C)The rival fraternity assumes that Eta Pi didn’t attend because of the snowstorm.

(D)The rival fraternity assumes that the Eta Pi members were just too lazy and irresponsible to attend the meeting.

(E)The Eta Pi members believe that the snowstorm prevented them from getting to the meeting, but that the rival fraternity members were too lazy to attend.

62.Tim, an animal trainer, wanted to teach his seal to clap its flippers whenever Tim said the seal’s name. Which manner of training the seal would be LEAST effective?

(A)Rewarded the seal with a fish every time it clapped at the sound of its name

(B)Rewarded the seal with a fish every five minutes, regardless of its behavior

(C)Rewarded the seal with a fish every other time it clapped at the sound of its name

(D)Rewarded the seal with a fish every third time it clapped at the sound of its name

(E)Rewarded the seal with a fish for clapping at the sound of its name, on average once every five times (sometimes every three times, sometimes every seven times, etc.)

63.Which of the following is NOT a problem with the Stanford prison experiment conducted by Philip Zimbardo?

(A)The treatment of the subjects, some of whom suffered extreme distress, was unethical

(B)The demand characteristics were prominent and problematic

(C)The study improperly inferred causality from correlation

(D)The subjects were all young males of college age

(E)The mock prison setting differed significantly from a real one

64.Dr. Jackson gives Louie, his three-year-old patient, a painful shot and Louie screams and cries. The next four times Louie visits Dr. Jackson, Louie screams and cries at the sight of him, even though no shot is given. On the fifth visit no shot is given and Louie shows no signs of distress. Which of the following best describes ALL of Louie’s abovementioned reactions to Dr. Jackson?

(A)Louie was conditioned to cry at the sight of Dr. Jackson through negative reinforcement.

(B)Dr. Jackson became a conditioned stimulus for Louie’s screaming and crying response.

(C)Through shaping, Louie was conditioned not to scream and cry at the sight of Dr. Jackson.

(D)Louie was classically conditioned to respond fearfully to Dr. Jackson; then that conditioned response was extinguished.

(E)Louie was positively reinforced for crying and screaming in Dr. Jackson’s presence, then positively reinforced for remaining calm in his presence.

65.Which of the following individuals, each of whom suffers from severe anxiety, would be LEAST likely to benefit from systematic desensitization?

(A)A young mother who developed debilitating generalized anxiety after giving birth

(B)A combat veteran who began experiencing crippling symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after an intense battle

(C)A CEO who is so afraid of flying that she panics at the mere sight of an airplane

(D)A college student who developed a mild fear of dogs after having been attacked by one

(E)A housebound man who is terrified to step outside his home

66.Of the following research studies, which one would be the most likely to be compromised by a ceiling effect?

(A)A study measuring the effects of professional tutoring on third-graders’ standardized test scores

(B)A study measuring the effects of monetary rewards on college students’ ability to solve simple arithmetic problems

(C)A study measuring the effects of praise on middle school students’ test scores in advanced algebra

(D)A study measuring the effects of parental encouragement on toddlers’ ability to learn new words

(E)A study measuring the effects of health food consumption on high school students’ SAT scores

67.The Asch conformity experiments involved asking subjects to identify the longest of several lines in the context of a “vision test.” Which of the following is true regarding this series of experiments?

(A)Subjects were as likely to conform when they delivered written responses in private as they were when they voiced their responses aloud.

(B)Most subjects conformed even when one of the confederates opposed the group by giving the correct response.

(C)The study was representative in that it included roughly equal numbers of males and females, as well as adult subjects of all ages.

(D)The number of confederates present affected the rate at which the subjects conformed.

(E)Making the lines more similar in length decreased conformity on the part of the subjects.

68.Billy’s mother takes him out of the crib in his bedroom and carries him away for a bath, leaving his favorite stuffed toy behind. While being taken down the hallway Billy cries and reaches out in the direction of the bedroom for the toy. According to Piaget, Billy most likely

(A)has reached the formal operations stage because he used logic in his attempt to regain the toy

(B)has reached the concrete operations stage

(C)has achieved object permanence

(D)is in the sensorimotor stage because he has mastered conservation

(E)is in the preoperational stage because he can think symbolically

69.Alice had always included two teaspoons of salt in her gravy recipe until her husband, Ralph, recently complained that it was too bland. The next six times Alice made gravy, she added an additional teaspoon of salt, but Ralph only noticed this increase on two of those six occasions. Which of the following statements is accurate regarding Ralph and Alice’s gravy?

(A)His absolute threshold for salt is two teaspoons.

(B)His difference threshold (JND) for salt is one teaspoon.

(C)His absolute threshold for salt is greater than his difference threshold (JND) for salt.

(D)His difference threshold (JND) for salt is three teaspoons.

(E)His difference threshold (JND) for salt is greater than one teaspoon.

70.A double-blind design is preferable for an experimental drug trial because it will likely eliminate which of the following?

(A)The placebo effect

(B)Demand characteristics

(C)Random error

(D)The need for informed consent

(E)Serious side effects of the drugs ingested

71.According to Freudian theory, an individual who is fixated at the oral stage of psychosexual development is likely to

(A)be verbally abusive to others

(B)have a rigid sense of gender roles

(C)be preoccupied with cleanliness

(D)have an overly obsessive personality

(E)have difficulties with romantic partners

72.Annie is very late for an important interview and there are few empty parking spaces nearby. When a woman attempts to park her car in a spot that Annie had planned to park in, an argument develops and insults are exchanged. According to attribution theory, Annie will most likely

(A)assume that the other woman was also late for an interview

(B)attribute the other woman’s hostile behavior to the fact that Annie was herself hostile

(C)consider the argument to be the result of her own character flaws and feel guilty

(D)believe that the unpleasant exchange occurred because both women were feeling stressed

(E)conclude that the other woman is a rude and aggressive individual

73.A psychology professor visits a certain kindergarten classroom, which is known for being especially rowdy, in order to study the effects of a token economy on disruptive behavior. Half the students were put on a token economy and the other half were not, with students being randomly assigned to the “token” and “control” groups. If disruptive behavior decreased significantly for both groups, but the reduction was much greater for the “token” group, which concepts would, respectively, best explain these two findings?

(A)Social facilitation and operant conditioning

(B)The Hawthorne effect and the placebo effect

(C)The placebo effect and the Hawthorne effect

(D)The Hawthorne effect and operant conditioning

(E)Operant conditioning and social facilitation

74.Randy is a new patient at a psychiatric facility and his doctor suspects that he might have antisocial personality disorder. Which of the following would be the best way to assess Randy for this disorder?

(A)Have him fill out a psychopathy questionnaire

(B)Rely on whatever relevant information is available from third parties, such as family accounts and police reports, and have staff monitor his behavior closely

(C)Interact with him for several hours in order to get an intuitive sense of his character

(D)Go over each of the DSM-5 criteria for antisocial personality disorder with him during the clinical intake interview in order to determine which, if any, apply

(E)Administer a Rorschach test

75.Frank helped his father paint their house on Saturday and did an excellent job. To show his gratitude for his son’s efforts, Frank’s father gave him a big hug, took him out for ice cream, and gave him $20. The hug, the ice cream, and the $20 are, respectively

(A)a primary reinforcer, a secondary reinforcer, and a secondary reinforcer

(B)a secondary reinforcer, a primary reinforcer, and a secondary reinforcer

(C)a secondary reinforcer, a secondary reinforcer, and a primary reinforcer

(D)a primary reinforcer, a primary reinforcer, and a primary reinforcer

(E)a primary reinforcer, a primary reinforcer, and a secondary reinforcer

76.Bobby is furious with his teacher for failing him in math. When he gets home he immediately hits his younger brother, whom he dislikes intensely, shouting “don’t give me that mean look!”. For the next few hours Bobby constantly gives his brother treats and tells him how much he loves him. Bobby’s behavior suggests all the following defense mechanisms EXCEPT



(C)reaction formation



77.A researcher wanted to examine the effects of vitamin intake on standardized test scores. One-hundred local high school students were randomly assigned to receive either a potent vitamin pill, an inert tablet that they were told was a potent vitamin, or no pill at all each morning. The test scores of the students who received the vitamins increased by 20% on average, the scores of those who received the inert tablet increased by 9% on average, and the scores of the remaining students increased by 3% on average. Which of the following is true regarding this study?

(A)It uses a within-subjects design.

(B)Its findings can all be explained by the placebo effect.

(C)It is a quasi-experiment, so causation cannot properly be inferred.

(D)It uses a between-subjects design.

(E)It is methodologically flawed because the sample size is too small.

78.Shaun’s behavior is extremely erratic and he is prone to frequent mood swings. He is self-destructive, highly emotional, overly concerned with his physical appearance, and never comfortable unless he is the center of attention. In terms of a differential diagnosis, Shaun’s psychologist should consider which of the following personality disorders?

(A)Histrionic and antisocial

(B)Antisocial and avoidant

(C)Borderline and paranoid

(D)Paranoid, borderline, and antisocial

(E)Histrionic, borderline, and narcissistic

79.Paul Ekman identified 6 basic human emotions that are universal across cultures. These emotions are

(A)happiness, disgust, jealousy, sadness, fear, and anger

(B)disgust, anger, fear, happiness, surprise, and sadness

(C)fear, love, happiness, sadness, surprise, and disgust

(D)surprise, sadness, happiness, disgust, shame, and jealousy

(E)shame, sadness, disgust, anger, fear, and happiness

80.Which of the following statistics, if true, would provide the most support for the assertion that alcoholism causes depression?

(A)78% of alcoholics are depressed.

(B)85% of depressed people are alcoholics.

(C)72% of alcoholics are depressed, and for 85% of those individuals, a diagnosis of alcoholism preceded a diagnosis of depression by a minimum of three years.

(D)Whenever rates of alcoholism increase among the population, rates of depression increase proportionately.

(E)Whenever rates of depression decrease among the population, rates of alcoholism decrease proportionately.

81.Which of the following accurately states a critical difference between PTSD and Generalized Anxiety Disorder?

(A)PTSD, not Generalized Anxiety Disorder, emerges following exposure to the threat of death, injury, or sexual assault.

(B)PTSD affects older individuals more than Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

(C)Generalized Anxiety Disorder is more likely than PTSD to involve hypervigilance.

(D)Unlike Generalized Anxiety Disorder, PTSD does not usually involve intrusive thoughts.

(E)Unlike PTSD, Generalized Anxiety Disorder does not usually involve avoidance behaviors.

82.According to Maslow’s humanistic theory of motivation, which of the following is at the very top of the pyramid of human needs?

(A)Physical safety

(B)Food and water



(E)Love and a sense of belonging

83.Tonya, a very shy three-year-old girl, falls and skins her knee. She runs to her mother crying, but then runs away when her mother attempts to comfort her. Based on the research and theories of Mary Ainsworth, it is likely that

(A)Tonya has a “secure” attachment to her mother

(B)Tonya’s mother has never attempted to comfort her daughter before

(C)Tonya has an “insecure ambivalent/resistant” attachment to her mother

(D)Tonya has a more secure attachment to her father than to her mother

(E)Tonya has an “insecure avoidant” attachment to her mother

84.A police officer conducts a traffic stop, suspecting that the driver is under the influence of alcohol. She instructs him to close his eyes and touch his nose with his right finger. She is primarily testing the driver’s

(A)short-term memory


(C)attention span

(D)reaction time

(E)visual acuity

85.Which of the following scenarios provides the most support for the theory that antisocial personality traits are genetic?

(A)Dizygotic twins are reared together; both are antisocial.

(B)Monozygotic twins are reared apart; neither is antisocial.

(C)Monozygotic twins are reared together; both are antisocial.

(D)Dizygotic twins are reared apart; only one is antisocial.

(E)Monozygotic twins are reared apart; both are antisocial.

86.Which of the following survey findings are most likely to accurately reflect what they purport to measure?

(A)Jeffrey stands outside an upscale grocery store and asks the first 100 people who walk by whom they intend to vote for in the upcoming senatorial election (they all answer his question). Based on the results he concludes that candidate X will win.

(B)On orientation day at Jeffrey’s college he passes out a survey about attitudes towards capital punishment. Based on the 100 responses he collects (everyone present responded), he concludes that young people in America disapprove of capital punishment.

(C)Jeffrey mails a survey about environmental issues to 500 people randomly selected from the local phone book. Based on the 100 responses he receives, he concludes that most people in his county of residence believe that more money should be spent on conservation efforts.

(D)At an elementary school Jeffrey chooses three of the four sixth-grade classes at random and distributes a survey about which field trips the children desire. All 100 children completed the survey and, based on the results, he concludes that the overwhelming majority of sixth-graders at that school want to visit a science museum.

(E)Jeffrey visits a community meeting at the Town Hall, shows a film about the plight of the poor, and passes out a political survey (all 100 people present complete it). Based on the results he concludes that most local citizens believe that the government should be doing more to eliminate poverty in their area.

87.Edward and Elsie are siblings who grew up with highly critical parents. Edward lacks confidence in his abilities to make significant life decisions and relies extensively on his wife to guide him. He similarly requires a great deal of help from his coworkers to perform routine tasks at his job. In contrast, Elsie is a wealthy, powerful, and fiercely competitive executive who strives to dominate everyone around her. According to the theories of Alfred Adler, which of the following statements best characterizes Edward and Elsie’s behavior?

(A)Edward harbors unconscious feelings of inferiority, but Elsie does not.

(B)Elsie harbors unconscious feelings of inferiority, but Edward does not.

(C)Edward and Elsie are both overcompensating for unconscious feelings of inferiority.

(D)Elsie is overcompensating for unconscious feelings of inferiority, while Edward is undercompensating for such feelings.

(E)Edward is compensating for unconscious feelings of inferiority in a negative way, while Elsie is compensating for such feelings in a positive way.

88.The external ear is separated from the middle ear by the

(A)tympanic membrane


(C)semicircular canals



89.Which of the following is NOT a symptom of fetal alcohol syndrome?

(A)Intellectual disability

(B)Low birth weight

(C)A large head

(D)Poor social skills

(E)Poor coordination

90.Which of the following is true about efferent neurons?

(A)They are sensory neurons.

(B)They transmit impulses between other neurons.

(C)They carry neural impulses away from the central nervous system to the muscles.

(D)They carry neural impulses from sensory stimuli towards the central nervous system.

(E)They enable communication between sensory and motor neurons.

91.Brad is highly sociable and loves to attend large parties, although when he does he often gets into physical altercations or other legal trouble. He is quick to anger and unpredictable, often jeopardizing his safety and that of others. According to Hans Eysenck, which of the following is probably true of Brad?

(A)He falls towards the “stability” end of the stability/neuroticism continuum and the high end of the psychoticism scale.

(B)He falls towards the low end of the psychoticism scale and towards the “neuroticism” end of the stability/neuroticism continuum.

(C)He is biologically predisposed to avoid stimulation.

(D)He falls towards the “introversion” end of the introversion/extraversion continuum.

(E)He falls towards the high end of the psychoticism scale and towards the “extraversion” end of the extraversion/introversion continuum.

92.Which of the following is the best example of top-down processing?

(A)Ned reaches into his bag for his French book but mistakenly grabs his English book instead, as the books are about the same size.

(B)Ned sees an object lying in the road but can’t identify it at such distance; when he gets closer he realizes that it is a discarded bag of groceries.

(C)Ned sees a woman standing outside a store, then notices that she is wearing a uniform, then notices that she is holding a plate of food; he then realizes that the woman is a salesperson offering free samples of the store’s merchandise.

(D)Ned is colorblind, so he differentiates between oranges and grapefruits by size, not color.

(E)Ned is trying to read a cookie recipe that has been partially torn. He sees the letters “b” and “u” and correctly concludes that the word is “butter.”

93.Mr. Reynolds, an elderly jewelry store owner, is looking to hire a new manager. He interviews Candy, a very attractive twenty-five-year-old blond woman, who has excellent references. Mr. Reynolds likes Candy but doesn’t hire her; he believes that someone with her looks wouldn’t be “taken seriously” as an authority figure. He is also afraid that a “flighty blonde” would spend more time flirting with customers than attending to her managerial duties. Which of the following does NOT characterize Mr. Reynold’s actions?


(B)Self-serving bias

(C)Out-group homogeneity



94.Which of the following research studies is probably the LEAST ethically problematic?

(A)An experiment about social loafing in which the researcher lies about the purpose of the study, telling subjects it’s about short-term memory

(B)A drug trial in which prisoners are required to participate in order to retain important privileges within the correctional facility

(C)A study involving treatment for depression in which subjects’ names are published along with the data pertaining to them

(D)An experiment measuring the extent to which subjects are willing to administer a lethal electric shock to a stranger (although, unbeknownst to the subject, the shocks are fake)

(E)A nutritional study in which kindergarteners are given vitamin supplements without their parents’ knowledge

95.Allie is surprised to learn that her family and friends find her use of her new floral perfume excessive and overwhelming. The most likely explanation is that Allie is experiencing which of the following?


(B)Olfactory fatigue

(C)Cocktail party syndrome



96.Which of the following pairs of symptoms probably warrants a diagnosis of schizophrenia, as opposed to schizotypal personality disorder?

(A)Social isolation and social anxiety

(B)Marked eccentricities and odd behavior

(C)Delusions and hallucinations

(D)Paranoia and distorted perceptions

(E)Flat affect and inappropriate emotional responses

97.Which of the following is the best example of the availability heuristic?

(A)Greg thinks that good-looking people are more likely to commit murder than they really are because the media tends to focus on such cases.

(B)Greg believes that his next child will definitely be a girl because he and his wife already have five boys.

(C)Greg assumes that his daughter is a bad driver because she has had four accidents in the last month.

(D)Greg is worried about his car breaking down because that model is associated with a disproportionate number of online consumer complaints.

(E)Greg adopts a German shepherd, although he would have preferred a golden retriever, because there were no golden retrievers available for adoption.

98.Vera’s cat, Fluffy, meows excitedly whenever Vera takes out a can of tuna (Fluffy’s favorite food) from the cabinet; Vera almost always shares the tuna with Fluffy. Fluffy also behaves this way when Vera takes out a can of corn (which Fluffy does not eat), but not when she takes out a can of mushrooms (which Fluffy also does not eat). Vera didn’t share her last two cans of tuna with Fluffy. Based on this information, which of the following is most likely true?

(A)Stimulus discrimination caused Fluffy to meow at the can of corn.

(B)Stimulus generalization caused Fluffy not to meow at the mushrooms.

(C)The can of tuna looks more like the can of corn than like the can of mushrooms.

(D)Fluffy’s conditioned response has been extinguished.

(E)If Fluffy meows at any more cans of tuna, this will be due to spontaneous recovery.

99.In a research experiment, only inmates on “Block A” of a certain prison participated in an anger-management program. Daily staff reports showed that there was an average of only five violent incidents on Block A that year—73% fewer than average in that prison. Which of the following, if true, would NOT cast doubt on the study’s finding that anger management reduces prison violence?

(A)Only Block A inmates were given a special diet intended to promote well-being.

(B)Security is much stricter on Block A than in other areas of the prison.

(C)Only highly violent prisoners were studied.

(D)Block A staff created the anger-management program and wanted it to succeed.

(E)All Block A inmates received the same basic treatment.

100.Several patients on a psychiatric unit report symptoms to the head nurse. Which one is most likely to be malingering?

(A)A thirty-year-old woman hospitalized for bipolar disorder who reports suicidal thoughts

(B)A twenty-five-year-old man hospitalized for schizophrenia who reports hearing voices

(C)A sixteen-year-old girl hospitalized for an eating disorder who reports thoughts of self-harm

(D)A thirteen-year-old boy hospitalized for antisocial behavior who reports visual hallucinations

(E)An eighty-year-old woman hospitalized for depression who reports memory loss



Section II


Section II

Time—50 minutes

Percent of total score—33Image

Directions: You have 50 minutes to answer BOTH of the following questions. It is not enough to answer a question by merely listing facts. You should present a cogent argument based on your critical analysis of the question posed, using appropriate psychological terminology.

1.Simon’s fourth grade teacher has become increasingly concerned about his behavior. He is extremely fidgety in class and he cannot stay on task for more than a few minutes. Also, if not immediately praised for the work he is doing, he becomes downtrodden and uncommunicative. She calls in Simon’s parents for a conference. The parents have not noticed these specific behaviors at home; there, Simon spends a great deal of time seemingly focused on his laptop, but his parents are not sure how much time he spends on any given site or what he might be doing that is productive. However, they have noticed that his school notebook is very disorganized and he has difficulty planning ahead; specifically, he often misses due dates to turn in work that the teacher has assigned. The parents are very resistant to having a diagnostic label attached to Simon or to having him medicated. Rather, they agree with the teacher on an intervention program: whenever Simon completes a fifteen minute period exclusively on task, he will be rewarded with additional time on the school computer, his favorite activity, during “free time.” If, after a verbal warning from the teacher, he continues with behavior that is too fidgety or off task, he will receive “timeout”: this means that he will sit by himself in an adjoining room for ten minutes; he’ll be able to hear what is happening in class, but not participate. After Simon is doing better, the time necessary for him to earn a reward will gradually increase from 15 minutes, by five minute intervals, until it gets to a full class period.

Address the following concepts and explain how they may be involved in Simon’s situation:


· Executive function

· Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development

· Behaviorism

· Fixed-interval schedule

· Negative punishment

· Shaping

2.Researchers at State University had a theory that people have an underlying core of “emotionality” that constitutes a personality trait. To test out this theory, they designed a study. They placed an advertisement in the student newspaper seeking study participants who had vivid memories of the day that their parents dropped them off at college. Students who responded to the ad were then administered a questionnaire that asked them, among other things, to rate the emotion they felt on the day their parents dropped them off on a scale of one to ten, one being utterly miserable and ten being elated. Elsewhere in the questionnaire, the students were asked about their most significant interpersonal relationship during college and they were asked to rate their most recent feelings about that relationship on the same one to ten scale. Researchers categorized scores of 1, 2, 9, or 10 as “high emotionality,” and scores of 3 to 8, inclusive, as “low to moderate emotionality.” They found that students who had “high emotionality” scores for moving-in day were five times more likely to have “high emotionality” scores about their relationship as students who had had “low to moderate emotionality” scores for moving-in day. Believing that their theory was validated, they hope to publish an article in the journal Psychology of Emotions detailing their findings.

A.Respond to the following questions about the nature of this study:

· What is the study design, and, specifically, is this an experiment?

· Where does statistical significance fit into an analysis of this study?

· What is the significance of peer review in the future assessment of this theory?

B.Indicate how the following concepts relate to this study:

· Subject selection and exclusion

· Episodic memory

· Trait theory

· Confirmation bias