Psychology 101: The 101 Ideas, Concepts and Theories that Have Shaped Our World - Adrian Furnham 2021

Psychology 101: The 101 Ideas, Concepts and Theories that Have Shaped Our World - Adrian Furnham 2021

Introduction

c. 10,000 BCE Shamanism

528 BCE Buddha’s Four Noble Truths

c. 500 BCE Confucian Psychology

c. 350 BCE Asclepius and the Art of Healing

c. 200 BCE Bhagavad Gita

c. 160 CE Humoral Theory

1025 Avicenna and the First Islamic Psychology

1517 Protestantism and the Psychological Self

1580 Montaigne’s Essays

1637 Descartes on Mind and Body

1664 Cerebri Anatome: On the Brain and Behavior

1690 Tabula Rasa: The Psychology of Experience

1762 Rousseau’s Natural Child

1766 Mesmerism

1832 Phrenology

1834 Fechner and the Just-Noticeable Difference (JND)

1843 The First Thinking Machine

1848 The Curious Case of Phineas Gage

1851 Bipolar Disorder and Creativity

1859 Darwin’s On the Origin of Species

1859 Mind-Cure

1861 Where Brain Functions Are Localized

1867 Prosopagnosia: The Inability to Recognize Faces

1871 Synesthesia: Numbers as Colors or Tuesday Is Red

1874 Nature vs. Nurture

1874 Psychology Becomes a Science

1880 Anna O.: Converting Psychological Distress into Physical Illness

1885 Multiple Personality Disorder

1886 Psychopathia Sexualis

1890 James’s The Principles of Psychology

1898 Western Cultural Bias: The Torres Strait Expedition

1899 Psychoanalysis: The Talking Cure

1900 The Interpretation of Dreams Inaugurates the Century of Psychology

1902 Forensic Psychology

1903 Classical Conditioning: Pavlov’s Bell

1904 Culture Determines What Counts as Mental Illness

1905 Binet and Simon: The First Intelligence Test

1908 Bleuler Initiates the Modern Study of the Schizophrenias

1909 Can Apes Learn Human Language?

1912 Gestalt Psychology: The Whole Is Greater than the Sum of Its Parts

1912 Experimental Neurosis: How Animals Can Be Made Crazy

1913 Jungian Psychology: Collective Unconscious and Psychological Growth

1913 The Lie Detector and the Golden Lasso of Truth

1914 Variability Hypothesis: Gender and Genius

1915 Transforming Western Psychology in India

1921 Army Intelligence Tests and Scientific Racism

1921 Projective Tests: The Rorschach Inkblots

1922 Feminine Psychology

1923 Capgras Syndrome

1924 Seeing the Brain at Work

1925 Somatotypes: Does Body Shape Reflect Our Personality?

1928 Cultural Relativism: Culture, Sex, and Coming of Age

1930 The Skinner Chamber

1932 Remembering and Forgetting

1934 Archetypes: Trickster, Sage, Hero, and Primordial Mother

1934 Zone of Proximal Development

1935 Thematic Apperception Test: Our Stories and Our Personality

1935 Psychosurgery

1936 Defense Mechanisms

1937 Turing Machine

1941 Direct Brain Stimulation and Experiential Hallucinations

1943 Cybernetics, Computers, and the Beginning of Cognitive Science

1943 The Doll Studies: Racism and Child Self-Image

1943 Maslow Creates the Hierarchy of Needs

1943 Autism

1944 Sex Roles

1946 Logotherapy and the Search for Meaning

1947 Rogers’s Client-Centered Therapy

1948 Neuroplasticity

1950 The Discovery of Stress

1950 Identity Crisis

1951 Conformity and Independence

1952 Bees Dancing, Egg-Rolling Birds, and the New Science of Ethology

1952 Lives in Progress: Psychology and the Stories of Our Lives

1953 The Case of H. M.

1953 REM and the Cycles of Sleep

1954 Pleasure and Pain

1954 Contact Hypothesis or How to Reduce Racism and Bias

1955 Cognitive Therapy

1955 Placebo Effect

1957 Antidepressant Medications

1957 Cognitive Dissonance: How Humans Maintain Psychological Consistency

1957 Hooker’s Research: Homosexuality Is Not an Illness

1958 Mother Love

1959 Type A Personality

1960 The Visual Cliff

1961 Humanistic Psychology

1962 Right Brain, Left Brain

1963 Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique

1963 Milgram’s Obedience Experiments

1965 Head Start

1966 Masters and Johnson’s Human Sexual Response

1967 Martin Luther King Jr., Psychology, and Social Justice

1969 Attachment Theory

1969 Five Stages of Grief

1970 Black Psychology

1970 The BITCH Test

1971 Stanford Prison Experiment

1973 Resilience

1974 Judgment Under Uncertainty: Human Rationality

1975 Sikolohiyang Pilipino

1975 Psychoneuroimmunology

1978 Theory of Mind

1979 Ecological Systems Theory

1979 Social Identity Theory

1980 Nurturant-Task Model of Leadership

1980 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

1982 In a Different Voice: Women and Moral Development

1983 Multiple Intelligences

1989 Liberation Psychology

1990 Flow: The Experience of Optimal Living

1992 Mirror Neurons

1992 Social Ontogenesis: Culture and Development in Africa

1993 Mindfulness and Mind-Body Medicine

1995 Looping Effects of Human Kinds

1995 Stereotype Threat

1996 Autonomous-Relational Self

2000 Positive Psychology

2004 Emerging Adulthood

2008 Diamond’s Sexual Fluidity

2013 The BRAIN Initiative

2014 Black Lives Matter

2017 Beyond the Gender Binary

2019 Traditional Knowledge—Indigenous Psychologies

2020 Climate Crisis Psychology

Further Reading and Sources

Acknowledgments