Notes And Further Reading

The Book of Human Emotions: From Ambiguphobia to Umpty - 154 Words from Around the World for How We Feel - Tiffany Watt Smith 2016

Notes And Further Reading


“And how delightful…” Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891) (Penguin, 2012), p. 12.


“key note…” John Constable to Rev. John Fisher, October 23, 1821, quoted in John E. Thornes, John Constable’s Skies: A Fusion of Art and Science (University of Birmingham Press, 1999), p. 199.

“rather like saying…” Siri Hustvedt, Living, Thinking, Looking (Picador, 2012), p. 31.

In a drafty Edinburgh lecture hall… The history of the word “emotion” can be found in Thomas Dixon, “Emotion: The History of a Keyword in Crisis,” Emotion Review 4(4) (October 2012), 338—44.

“At his 8th day he frowned much…” Darwin’s observations of his son are held in the Darwin Archive at Cambridge University Library (DAR 210.11.1). With thanks to the Darwin Correspondence Project.

[fn.] There is some evidence… Letter from Emma Wedgwood, January 23, 1839, repr. in Frederick Burkhardt and Sydney Smith (eds.), The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, vol. 2: 1837—1843 (Cambridge University Press, 1987).

“common sense says… we meet a bear…” William James, “What Is an Emotion?,” Mind 9 (1884), 188—205, pp. 190, 195.

“It is not easy to treat feelings scientifically…” Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents (1930), trans. David McLintock (Penguin, 2002), p. 4.

“Some people would never fall in love…” François de La Rochefoucauld, Collected Maxims and Other Reflections, trans. E. H. and A. M. Blackmore and Francine Giguère (Oxford University Press, 2007), V: 136, p. 39.

no word that precisely captures the meaning of “worry”… cited in J. A. Russell, “Culture and the Categorization of Emotions,” Psychological Bulletin 110(3) (1991), 426—50.

Historians had long suspected… For the history of the history of emotions, and an overview of the field, see Jan Plamper, The History of Emotions: An Introduction, trans. Keith Tribe (Oxford University Press, 2015).

The Li Chi… “The Sacred Books of China,” The Sacred Books of the East, vols. 27 and 28, trans. James Legge (Oxford University Press, 1885).

Descartes thought there were six… René Descartes, “The Passions of the Soul,” trans. Elizabeth S. Haldane and G. R. T. Ross, repr. in What Is an Emotion?: Classic and Contemporary Readings, ed. Robert C. Solomon (Oxford University Press, 2003).

[fn.] Emotionologists… argue… Paul Ekman, E. Richard Sorenson and Wallace V. Friesen, “Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion,” Science, n.s. 164(3875) (April 4, 1969), 86—88. Among the psychologists who have called FACS into question are Rachael Jack and her colleagues: R. Jack et al., “Cultural Confusions Show that Facial Expressions Are Not Universal,” Current Biology, 19 (2009), 1543—48.

Geertz asked an elegant question… Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973), p. 6.

Today’s enthusiasm… The idea of EQ was popularized in Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ (Bantam Books, 1995), though it is based on earlier research, the most well known of which is P. Salovey and J. D. Mayer, “Emotional Intelligence,” Imagination, Cognition, and Personality 9 (1990), 185—211.


Rabindranath Tagore’s “Punishment” appears in Selected Short Stories, ed. William Radice (Penguin, 2005).

translators have offered… Swati Datta, “Locating and Collating Translated Stories of Rabindranath Tagore,” Translation Today 2(1) (March 2005), 203—4.


a “foul darkness” John Cassian, The Institutes, trans. Edgar C. S. Gibson (1894), p. 337.

“weighed down”… Amma Theodora’s sayings are collected in the Apophthegmata partum (Sayings of the Desert Fathers) repr. and trans. in Women in Early Christianity: Translations

from the Greek Texts, ed. Patricia Cox Miller (Catholic University of America Press, 2005), p. 247.


“person’s love for granted”… Takeo Doi, The Anatomy of Dependence: The Key Analysis of Japanese Behavior (1973), trans. John Bester (Kodansha International, 1981), p. 168.


“His ambiguphobic recipe…” Jack Hitt, In a Word (Dell, 1992), p. 14.


The introduction to this section incorporates material from Seneca’s “On Anger,” Robert A. Kaster, in Anger, Mercy, Revenge (Complete Works of Lucius Annaeus Seneca), trans. Robert A. Kaster and Martha C. Nussbaum (University of Chicago Press, 2010).

You might think the idea… For a discussion about the therapeutic uses of anger, and references to the physicians discussed here, see: Elena Carrera, “Anger and the Mind-Body Connection in Medieval and Early Modern Medicine,” in her Emotions and Health, 1200—1700 (Brill, 2013), pp. 95—146.

One example of this approach was the “ventilation therapy”… Eva S. Moskowitz, In Therapy We Trust: America’s Obsession with Self Fulfillment (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), pp. 234—35.

Today’s psychotherapists… Leslie S. Greenberg and Sandra C. Paivio, Working with Emotions in Psychotherapy (Guilford Press, 2003).


“You just wait and see…” Angela Carter, Wise Children (1991) (Vintage, 2006), p. 54.


“Anxiety is the dizziness…” Søren Kierkegaard, The Concept of Anxiety (1844), trans. Reidar Thomte (Princeton University Press, 1980), p. 61. All further quotes are to this edition.

Among Angstneurose’s symptoms were… Sigmund Freud, “On the Grounds for Detaching a Particular Syndrome from Neurasthenia Under the Description ’Anxiety Neurosis’ (1895),” in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 3 (Vintage, 2001), pp. 87—116.

psychological wreckage caused by the war… Rhodri Hayward, “The Pursuit of Serenity: Psychological Knowledge and the Making of the British Welfare State,” in Sally Alexander and Barbara Taylor (eds.), History and Psyche: Culture, Psychoanalysis and the Past (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), pp. 283—304.

“Age of Anxiety.” W. H. Auden, The Age of Anxiety: A Baroque Eclogue (1947), ed. Alan Jacobs (Princeton University Press, 2011).

“He whose eye happens to look down…” Kierkegaard, The Concept of Anxiety, p. 91.


“full of love and yet free from passion.” Marcus Aurelius, The Meditations (Penguin, 2006).

“bystander apathy”… Bibb Latané and John Darley, “Group Inhibition of Bystander Intervention in Emergencies,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10(3) (1968), 215—21.

In fact, those first reports of the Genovese case… Kevin Cook, Kitty Genovese: The Murder, the Bystanders, the Crime that Changed America (W. W. Norton, 2014).

L’Appel du Vide

as Jean-Paul Sartre recognized… Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, trans. Hazel Barnes (Washington Square Press, 1966), p. 345.


The indigenous Baining people… Jane Fajans, “Shame, Social Action and the Person Among the Baining,” Ethos 11(3) (1983), 166—80.

[fn.] Peter Goldie, The Emotions: A Philosophical Exploration (Clarendon Press, 2002), p. 91.


Discovered in Charles Harrington Elster, There’s a Word for It (Simon & Schuster), p. 68.


Mess brings people into analysis… Adam Phillips, “Clutter,” repr. in One Way and Another (Hamish Hamilton, 2013), pp. 117—28.

“Who is it that can tell me who I am?” William Shakespeare, King Lear I.iv.223.


When the new emotional category… Patricia Meyer Spacks, Boredom: The Literary History of a State of Mind (Chicago University Press, 1995).

many an “overtoiled” Roman citizen… Quoted in Peter Toohey, Boredom: A Lively History (Yale University Press, 2012).

“bored to death.” Charles Dickens, Bleak House (1853) (Oxford University Press, 1948), p. 9.

“look as pretty… and be dull without complaining…” George Eliot, Daniel Deronda (1876) (Wordsworth Editions, 2003), p. 110.

There is no coincidence that many creative people… Based on interviews with artists conducted by Dr. Teresa Belton: Teresa Belton, “A Fresh Look at Boredom,” Primary Leadership Today 13 (2008).

“the root of man’s “cultural advance”… Ralph Linton, The Study of Man (Appleton-Century, 1936), p. 90.


“very much inclined…” Douglas Adams and John Lloyd, The Deeper Meaning of Liff (Pan Books, 1990), p. 14.


“the womb is an animal…” Plato, Timaeus, ed. and trans. R. G. Bury (Heinemann, 1952), p. 91.

Sociologists studying the desire… R. A. Hadley, The experiences of involuntarily childless men as they age, British Sociological Association Poster (2013).


He dreamt of a “psychocivilized society”… The discussion of Delgado’s experiment and subsequent controversy is based on John Horgan, “The Forgotten Era of the Brain,” Scientific American 203 (2005), 66—73.

the journalists reporting on Delgado’s experiment… Peter J. Snyder et al., Science and the Media: Delgado’s Brave Bulls and the Ethics of Scientific Discourse (Academic Press, 2009), pp. 32—34.


“Slush! slush! sound the scythe-strokes.” D. H. Lawrence, “On Insouciance,” D. H. Lawrence: Late Essays and Articles, vol. 2, ed. James T. Boulton (Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 94—97.


Disney employees… Anne Reyers and Jonathan Matusitz, “Emotional Regulation at Walt Disney World: An Impression Management View,” Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health 27(3) (2012), 139—59.

The emergence of cheerfulness… Carol Z. Stearns, “’Lord Help Me Walk Humbly’: Anger and Sadness in England and America, 1700—1750,” in Carol Z. Stearns and Peter N. Stearns (eds.), Emotion and Social Change: Toward a New Psychohistory (Holmes and Meier, 1988); also: Christina Kotchemidova, “From Good Cheer to ’Drive by Smiling’: A Social History of Cheerfulness,” Journal of Social History 39 (2005), 5—37.

“a general air of cheerfulness”… Harriet Martineau, Retrospect of Western Travel (1838) (M. E. Sharpe, 2000), vol. 3, pp. 120—21.

the Beecher Sisters’ 1869 manual… Catherine Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe, American Women’s Home: Or, Principles of Domestic Science (J. B. Ford and Co., 1869), p. 215.

“Think and act cheerful…” Dale Carnegie, How to Stop Worrying and Start Living (World’s Work, 1948), p. 112.

In her seminal study… Arlie Russell Hochschild, The Managed Heart: The Commercialization of Human Feeling (University of California Press, 1983).

[fn.] The research conducted at the Max Planck Institute is reported in Andreas Hennenlotter, Christian Dresel, Florian Castrop et al., “The Link Between Facial Feedback and Neural Activity with Central Circuitries of Emotion—New Insights from Botulinum Toxin-Induced Denervation of Frown Muscles,” Cerebral Cortex 19(3) (2009), 537—42.


“They will have to undergo slow suffocation…” William Tebb, Premature Burial and How It May Be Prevented (1895) (Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1905), p. 215.

Collywobbles, The

It’s the stomach as well as the heart… For more on the links between stomach, emotions and mind, see Ian Miller, A Modern History of the Stomach: Gastric Illness, Medicine and British Society 1800—1950 (Pickering and Chatto, 2011).

“It causeth troublesome dreames.” Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) (J. W. Moore, 1867), p. 139.


Winnicott suggested that these objects were more than a reliable presence… Donald Winnicott, “Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena,” International Journal of Psychoanalysis 34 (1953), 89—97.

Before the outbreak of the Second World War… M. Vicedo, The Nature and Nurture of Love: From Imprinting to Attachment in Cold War America (University of Chicago Press, 2013).

He fashioned two wire structures, or “mothers”… Harry Harlow, “The Nature of Love,” American Psychologist 13 (1958), 573—685.


Compassion is never included in lists of “universal emotions”… Martha Nussbaum, “Compassion: The Basic Social Emotion,” Social Philosophy and Policy 13(1) (Winter 1996), 27—58.

“When we want to stop an afflicted person…” Gregory I, Moralia in Job, quoted in Barbara H. Rosenwein, Emotional Communities in the Middle Ages (Cornell University Press, 2006).

Researchers at the Center for Compassion and Altruism… Similar results have been found by Helen Weng et al., “Compassion Training Alters Altruism and Neural Responses to Suffering,” Psychological Sciences 24(7) (2013), 1171—80.


[fn.] Steven Alexander, “Free Love Gets a Fit of the Wibbles,” Guardian, April 4, 2005.


“Of all the grifters, the confidence man…” David Maurer, The Big Con: The Story of the Confidence Man (1940) (Anchor, 1999), p. 1.

Let go your conscious self”… Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (1977).

More recently psychologists have come to think… Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, Confidence: The Surprising Truth About How Much You Need and How to Get It (Profile, 2013).


“It was not a simple yawn”… “Clifton Williams, Illinois Man Jailed for Yawning, Freed After 3 Weeks,” Huffington Post, September 9, 2009.

people “never lose all predisposition to the good.” Immanuel Kant, “Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason,” Religion and Rational Theology (1793), trans. George di Giovanni (Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 91.

In 1955 the British philosopher J. L. Austin argued… J. L. Austin, “Lecture I: Performatives and Constatives,” repr. in How to Do Things with Words: The William James Lectures Delivered at Harvard University in 1955, ed. J. O. Urmson and Marina Sbisa (Clarendon Press, 1962), pp. 1—11.

In sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Britain… Sandy Bardsley, Venomous Tongues: Speech and Gender in Late Medieval England (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006).

More recently hundreds of women joined an online campaign… The movement was sparked off by an article by Rebecca Solnit, repr. in her Men Explain Things to Me and Other Essays (Haymarket, 2014).


She quickly became immortalized by the Victorians… John Price, Everyday Heroism: Victorian Constructions of the Heroic Civilian (Bloomsbury, 2014), pp. 22—24.

“lots of abundant hair… that is thick and curly”… Quoted in Heather Webb, The Medieval Heart (Yale University Press, 2010), p. 112.

“stand immovable in the midst of dangers”… Thomas Aquinas, “The Virtues,” Summa Theologiæ (1271—72), 1—2, 55—57, in Selected Writings (Penguin, 1998), pp. 653—81.

“We esteem the man who supports pain…” Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, VI.iii.17 (1759) (Wells and Lilly, 1817), p. 75.


Yet, even in the age historians have dubbed the “Age of Curiosity”… For the history of curiosity see Barbara M. Benedict, Curiosity: A Cultural History of Early Modern Inquiry (University of Chicago Press, 2001).

“the speculative part of swimming…” Thomas Shadwell, The Virtuoso (1676), ed. Marjorie Hope Nicolson and David Stuart Rodes (University of Nebraska Press, 1966), II.ii.84, p. 47.

Evolutionary psychologists have suggested… Robin Dunbar, Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language (Faber and Faber, 2010).

a “listen-thief.” For more on listen-thiefs, see John L. Locke, Eavesdropping: An Intimate History (Oxford University Press, 2010).


For the eighteenth-century English philosopher John Locke… John Locke, An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding (1689), ed. Peter N. Nidditch (Clarendon Press, 1975), book II, chapter XX, pp. 229—32.


Each day, under cover of cleaning the guests’ rooms… Excerpts from L’Hôtel are reproduced in Sophie Calle, M’as-tu vue (Prestel, 2003), pp. 159—65.


“It was a long time…” Samuel Beckett, “The End” (1946), in Stories and Texts for Nothing (Grove Press, 1968), pp. 47—74, p. 52.

“his departed idol”… Emily Brontë, Wuthering Heights (1847) (Harper & Brothers, 1858), p. 227.

In the twentieth century, the philosopher Georges Bataille suggested… This section incorporates material from Georges Bataille, Death and Sensuality: A Study of Eroticism and the Taboo (Walker & Co., 1962), p. 237.

Twentieth-century sexologists… William H. Masters and Virginia E. Johnson, Human Sexual Response (Little, Brown, 1966).


“the greatest hazard of all, losing one’s self…” Søren Kierkegaard, The Sickness Unto Death: A Christian Psychological Exposition for Upbuilding and Awakening (1849) (Princeton University Press, 1941), p. 32.

“eternall rest / And happie ease…” Edmund Spenser, The Fairie Queene (1590), IX: 40 (Wordsworth Editions, 1999), p. 97.

“I see that man going back down…” Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus and Other Essays (1942), trans. Justin O’Brien (Hamish Hamilton, 1955), pp. 76—77.

Disappear, The Desire to

“a chance… to totally erase the past”… Neil LaBute, The Mercy Seat (Faber and Faber, 2013), p. 32.


“his pleasure by trotting gravely…” Charles Darwin, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (John Murray, 1872), p. 57.

Her defense was “double insanity”… Official Report of the Trial of Mary Harris, Supreme Court of the District of Columbia, Monday, July 3, 1865 (W. H. & O. H. Morrison, 1865), p. 51.

He coined the phrase “the family romance”… Sigmund Freud, “Family Romances” (1909), in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 9, ed. and trans. James Strachey and Anna Freud (Hogarth Press, 1959), pp. 235—42.

no really ideal part of the self exists.” Melanie Klein, “On the Sense of Loneliness,” in Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946—63 (Hogarth, 1975), p. 305.

“a sense of treachery…” William Wordsworth, The Prelude; or, Growth of a Poet’s Mind (1799), ed. Jonathan Wordsworth, M. H. Abrams and Stephen Gill (W. W. Norton, 1979), 10.378—80.


“If not actually disgruntled…” P. G. Wodehouse, The Code of the Woosters (1938) (Arrow Books, 2008), p. 9.

Raoul Silva, villain of the Bond film Skyfall… Sam Mendes (2012).

“Right here and now we thankfully…” “Ever Onward: IBM Rally Song,” IBM Songbook (IBM Corporation, 1958).

“flexibility, adaptability and a readiness to reconfigure oneself.” Paolo Virno is quoted in Sainne Ngai, Ugly Feelings (Harvard University Press, 2005), pp. 4—5.

Corporations have begun to use cybersecurity consultants… This paragraph incorporates language from Eric Shaw and Harley Stock, Behavioral Risk Indicators of Malicious Insider Theft of Intellectual Property: Misreading the Writing on the Wall (NASDAQ: SYMC, 2011).

“despondence and grumpiness…” Quoted in Olivia Lang, “Can Governments Spot Whistle-Blowers?” BBC News, January 7, 2011,


When evolutionary psychologists talk of “universal basic emotions”… Paul Ekman, “Biological and Cultural Contributions to Body and Facial Movement,” in John Blacking (ed.), The Anthropology of the Body (Academic Press, 1977).

To start with, there are at least three types… Colin McGinn, The Meaning of Disgust (Oxford University Press, 2011); William Ian Miller, The Anatomy of Disgust (Harvard University Press, 1997).

“Dirt is matter out of place”… Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (1966) (Routledge, 2003), p. 41.

Early moderns didn’t talk of disgust… This history of disgust is based on research by Richard Firth-Godbehere, a PhD student at Queen Mary Center for the History of the Emotions. I am grateful to him for sharing his unpublished research with me.

In the late 1980s psychologists… Paul Rozin, Linda Milman and Carol Nemeroff, “Operation of the Laws of Sympathetic Magic in Disgust and Other Domains,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(4) (April 1986), 703—12.


In Dickens’s novels… Mr. Pickwick “almost fainted with horror and dismay” in The Pickwick Papers (1836) (Amalgamated Press, 1905), p. 294.

“What myghte he seyn? He felte he nas but deed”… Geoffrey Chaucer, Troilus and Criseyde, book 3, lines 1058—1141, repr. in The Riverside Chaucer (Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 528.

Those who suffer from Stendhal… I. Bamforth, “Stendhal’s Syndrome,” British Journal of General Practice 60(581) (2010), 945—46.


a “rootless phantom.” Jeuan Gethin (1349). Quoted in Philip Ziegler, The Black Death (Sutton, 2003), p. 162.

Some chroniclers reported… There is disagreement only about the number of people who died. R. S. Bray, Armies of Pestilence: The Impact of Disease on History (James Clark, 1996), gives an account of the different estimates.

In his account of the outbreaks of the plague… Giovanni Boccaccio, The Decameron of Giovanni Boccaccio, vol. 1 (1353), trans. Richard Aldington (Covici, 1930), p. 3.


“The pain was so great that I screamed aloud”… The Collected Works of St. Teresa of Avila, vol. 1: The Book of Her Life, trans. K. Kavanaugh and O. Rodriguez (Institute of Carmelite Studies, 1976), pp. 193—94.

“When you’ve the air of dervishood inside…” Rumi, The Masnavi: Book One, trans. Jawi Mojaddedi (Oxford University Press, 2004), p. 63.

One is entitled “Extase 1878.” D. M. Bourneville and P. Regnard, “Attitudes Passionnelles—Extase (1878),” Plate 23, Iconographie Photographique de la Salpêtrière, vol. 2 (Aux Bureaus du Progrès Médical, 1876—80).

“What does it matter if it is a disease?”… Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Idiot (1869) (Wordsworth Editions, 1996), p. 210.


According to the sociologist Erving Goffman… Erving Goffman, “Embarrassment and Social Organization,” American Journal of Sociology 62(3) (1956), 264—71.

In the film Four Weddings and a Funeral… Mike Newell (1994).

“instrument of conformity.” Rom Harré, “Embarrassment: A Conceptual Analysis,” in Roy Crozier (ed.), Perspectives from Social Psychology (Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 181—204, p. 181.

“sign of indignation”… See “The Guillotine: Some of Its Victims,” The Courier, June 14, 1844.

The true blush… Thomas Henry Burgess, The Physiology or Mechanism of Blushing (John Churchill, 1839), pp. 48—61.

One particular “servant Negress”… Charles Darwin, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, 2nd ed. (John Murray, 1890), p. 381.

He argued that blood rushes to the surface of the skin… Ibid., pp. 310—47.


In the 1890s the novelist Vernon Lee… Vernon Lee and C. Anstruther-Thomson, “Beauty and Ugliness” (1897), repr. in Beauty and Ugliness and Other Studies in Psychological Aesthetics (London: John Lane, 1912), pp. 45—76.

a “universal solvent”… Simon Baron-Cohen, Zero Degrees of Empathy: A New Theory of Human Cruelty (Penguin, 2012), p. 127.

“mirror neurons will do for psychology…” Vilayanur Ramachandran, “Mirror Neurons and Imitation Learning as the Driving Force Behind the ’Great Leap Forward’ in Human Evolution,” The Edge, May 29, 2000.

“When we see a stroke aimed…” Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) (Millar, 1761), p. 4.

“Nature” makes men “apt to invade, and destroy one another.” Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (Andrew Crooke, 1651), p. 61.

The eighteenth-century interest in sympathy… Barbara Taylor and Adam Phillips, On Kindness (Penguin, 2009).

“Weeping for the affliction of others…” “Moral Weeping,” in Man: A Paper for Ennobling the Species (1755) (written by the King’s physician, Peter Shaw, though published anonymously).


“it was as if she hadn’t a single penny.” The Tain. A New Translation of “The Táin bó Cúailnge,” trans. Ciaran Carson (Penguin, 2007), p. 5.

the one emotion in all human life…” Nancy Friday, Jealousy (1985) (M. Evans, 1997), p. 9.

the impulse to “take it away or to spoil it.” Melanie Klein, “Envy and Gratitude” (1957), repr. in Envy and Gratitude and Other Works, 1946—1963 (Hogarth Press, 1975), pp. 176—235.

Fredric Jameson has argued… Fredric Jameson, The Political Unconscious: Narrative as a Socially Symbolic Act (1981) (Routledge, 2002).


As the Tunisian activist and blogger… Lina Ben Mhenni, “A Tunisian Girl,”

[fn.] John Jones, The Mysteries of Opium Revealed (Richard Smith, 1701).

or what they called “silly cheerfulness.” Théodore Ribot, The Psychology of the Emotions (1896) (Scott, 1897).

In 1926 two physicians… S. S. Cottrell and S. A. K. Wilson, “The Affective Symptomatology of Disseminated Sclerosis,” Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology 7 (1926), 1—30.

Today, only 13 percent… C. Diaz-Olavarrieta et al., “Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 11 (1999), 51—57.

Dr. Feelgood guitarist Wilko Johnson… “Terminal Cancer Has Made Me Feel Alive,” BBC News, January 25, 2013,


“laughing, talking and kissing.” Charles Darwin, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (John Murray, 1872), p. 212.

excitement was an “emotion of action”… Alexander Bain, The Emotions and the Will, 2nd ed. (Longmans, Green & Co., 1865), pp. 148—62.

In adrenaline, they had found the secret of excitement… Otniel Dror, “What Is an Excitement?,” in Frank Biess and Daniel M. Gross (eds.), Science and Emotions After 1945: A Transatlantic Perspective (University of Chicago Press, 2014), pp. 121—38.

“Men and women must have their adrenals stimulated…” Aldous Huxley, Brave New World (1932) (Vintage, 2007), p. 211.


The implicit poetry in Ifaluk…” Catherine Lutz, Unnatural Emotions: Everyday Sentiments on a Micronesian Atoll and Their Challenge to Western Theory (University of Chicago Press, 1988), p. 119.


“fear was expressed from an extremely remote period…” Charles Darwin, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (John Murray, 1872), p. 362.

Fear is that simple. And yet… For more on fear and its history, see Joanna Bourke, Fear: A Cultural History (Virago, 2005).

“The only thing we have to fear is fear itself”… Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address, March 4, 1933.

“The thing I fear most is fear.” Michel de Montaigne, “Of Fear,” in The Essays of Michel de Montaigne, vol. 1 (C. Baldwin, 1811), pp. 63—66, p. 64.

According to the seventh-century medical manual… The Eight Books on Medicine of Aurelius Cornelius Celsys: Adapted for Students of Medicine, vol. 2, ed. John William Underwood (Underwood, 1830), p. 108.

“frighted” to death. Bill of Mortality, September 1665, Museum of London.

The situation is exacerbated… Frank Furedi, Culture of Fear: Risk Taking and the Morality of Low Expectation (Cassell, 1997).

“It did what all ads are supposed to do…” David Foster Wallace, Infinite Jest (Little, Brown, 1996), p. 414.

Feeling Good (About Yourself)

“lightness about the heart”… William James, “The Will to Believe,” in The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy (1897) (Dover, 1956), p. 19.

But as a result of the interest in positive psychology… For more on the history of the self-esteem movement see Peter N. Stearns, Anxious Parents: A History of Modern Child-rearing in America (New York University Press, 2003).

In the last ten years, the self-esteem movement… Jean M. Twenge, Generation Me (Free Press, 2006).

Formal Feeling, A

Emily Dickinson, “After Great Pain, A Formal Feeling Comes,” in The Poems of Emily Dickinson, ed. Thomas H. Johnson (Harvard University Press, 1996), p. 272.

Fraud, Feeling Like a

“like a bank clerk who had committed a fraud.” Franz Kafka, “Letter to his father,” trans. Ernst Kaiser and Eithne Wilkins, repr. in The Metamorphosis and Other Writings (Continuum, 2002), p. 207.

In the 1970s two psychologists… P. R. Clance and S. A. Imes. “The Imposter Phenomenon in High Achieving Women: Dynamics and Therapeutic Intervention,” Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 15, (1978), 241—47.

The suspicion that she’s a phony… Maria Klawe was interviewed on imposterism here:


After a series of security leaks in 2013… “NSA Leaks: UK’s Enemies Are ’rubbing their hands with glee,’ Says MI6 Chief,” Guardian, November 8, 2013.

The answer can be found in… John Bulwer, Chirologia or The Naturall Language of the Hand (1644) (Southern Illinois Press, 1974), p. 40.


It might seem “hokey”… Sonja Lyubomirsky, The How of Happiness: A Practical Guide to Getting the Life You Want (Piatkus, 2010), p. 95.

to make “the lives of relatively untroubled people happier.” Martin Seligman, Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment (Simon & Schuster, 2002), p. 19.

the “invisible hand” of the free market. Adam Smith, An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776).

“to recompense, to remunerate, to return good for good received”… Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) (Oxford University Press, 1976), II.i.1.2, 68.

McDougall thought gratitude produced “negative self-feeling”… William McDougall, Outline of Abnormal Psychology (Scribners, 1929), p. 334.

Lyubomirsky and her colleagues define gratitude… Kennon M. Sheldon and Sonja Lyubomirsky, “How to Increase and Sustain Positive Emotion: The Effects of Expressing Gratitude and Visualizing Best Possible Selves,” Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(2) (April 2006), 73—82.


The stone sculpture… “A Heavily Pregnant Woman,” Kunstkamera, St. Petersburg, repr. in Jill Cook, Ice Age Art: Arrival of the Modern Mind (British Museum Press, 2013), p. 81.

“It’s useless for me to describe…” Lemony Snicket, A Series of Unfortunate Events: The Bad Beginning (1999) (HarperCollins, 2007), p. 11.

“For a week, almost without speaking…” Gabriel García Márquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967) (New York Classics, 1981), p. 12.

Among the Koma of northern Ghana… Franz Kröger and Ben Baluri Saibu, First Notes on Koma Culture: Life in a Remote Area of Northern Ghana (Lit Verlag, 2010), pp. 405—6.

“permanently provisional feeling”… C. S. Lewis, A Grief Observed (Faber and Faber, 1961), p. 29.

“the deceased is tortured in his grave…” Sahih Bukhari, Book 23, Book of Funerals (Al-Janaaiz), Hadith Number 379, narrated Ibn Umar.

“grief not only had to be done but had to be seen to be done.” Jacqueline Rose, “The Cult of Celebrity,” London Review of Books, August 20, 1998.

This “five stages of grief” model… Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, On Death and Dying (Routledge, 1969).

“You don’t come out of it like a train…” Julian Barnes, Flaubert’s Parrot (1984) (Picador, 2004), p. 191.


“Remember what happens to me is your responsibility…” The Odd Couple, Gene Sacks (1968).

It begins with a dream Freud had in 1895. Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) (Dover, 2015), pp. 80—108.

Freud called this inner monologue the “voice of the Father.” Sigmund Freud, “The Ego and the Id” (1923), in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 19, ed. and trans. James Strachey in collaboration with Anna Freud (Hogarth Press, 1961), pp. 3—66.

a “combination of self-accusation and repentance”… Alfred Adler, “More on Individual Psychological Dream Theory” (1927), in The Collected Clinical Works of Alfred Adler: Journal Articles: 1927—1931, ed. Henry T. Stein (Adlerian Translation Project, 2004), p. 22.


“If we lived in paradise…” Park Kyung-ni, “The Feelings and Thoughts of the Korean People in Literature,” speech delivered at the University of Paris, November 1994.


“Even if the feeling of happiness this gives me…” Karl Ove Knausgaard, A Death in the Family (2009), trans. Don Bartlett (Vintage, 2013), p. 31.

“Ask yourself if you are happy, and you cease to be so.” John Stuart Mill, Collected Works of John Stuart Mill: Autobiography and Literary Essays, vol. 1, ed. John M. Robertson and Jack Stillinger (Routledge, 1996), p. 249.

“O Happiness! Our Being’s End and Aim!”… Alexander Pope, “An Essay on Man: Epistle IV,” repr. in The Works of Alexander Pope (10 vols.), vol. 3 (Cadell and Davies, 1807), p. 145.

“catalogue of pleasures.” Jeremy Bentham, “Value of a Lot of Pleasure or Pain, How to be Measured,” in Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789) (Clarendon Press, 1907), XVI.14.

“Let your self-consciousness, your scrutiny…” John Stuart Mill, Collected Works of John Stuart Mill: Autobiography and Literary Essays, vol. 1, ed. John M. Robertson and Jack Stillinger (Routledge, 1996), p. 146.

It may not even always be desirable… M. Joshanloo and D. Weijers, “Aversion to Happiness Across Cultures: A Review of Where and Why People Are Averse to Happiness,” Journal of Happiness Studies 15(3) (2013), 717—35.

“perfect bridge over the crocodiles.” Stephen Dunn, “Happiness,” in Between Angels (W. W. Norton, 1989), p. 92.


Abdel, a local youth from the banlieues… La Haine, Mathieu Kassovitz (1995).

“For if we believe that someone is a certain kind of person”… Aristotle, Rhetoric 2.4, 1382a, l. 14.

Many legal scholars… Paul Iganski, Hate Crime and the City (Policy Press, 2008).

“We grow tired of everything…” William Hazlitt, “On the Pleasure of Hating” (1823), repr. in The Oxford Book of Essays, ed. John Gross (Oxford University Press, 1991), pp. 112—22.

Hoard, The Urge to

“For it is invariably oneself that one collects”… Jean Baudrillard, “The System of Collecting,” in John Elsner and Roger Cardinal (eds.), The Cultures of Collecting (Reaktion Books, 1968), p. 24.

As the psychoanalyst Stephen Grosz has suggested… Stephen Grosz, The Examined Life: How We Lose and Find Ourselves (W. W. Norton, 2014), p. 113.

Oscar the Grouch knew this. Jeff Moss, “I Love Trash” (sung by Oscar the Grouch).


“I felt myself in home’s way.” John Clare, “Journey Out of Essex” (1841) in John Clare by Himself, ed. David Powell and Eric Robinson (Routledge, 2002), pp. 257—65, p. 264.

The writer Iain Sinclair… Radio 3 Free Thinking documentary, May 20, 2014.


By the American Civil War… Susan Matt, Homesickness: An American History (Oxford University Press, 2011).

Families and friends are also urged to write… “Social Media Guide for Military Families,”

Some psychologists have even called it a taboo… Roger Brown, Social Psychology (Free Press, 2003), p. 536.

“unhealable rift…” Edward Said, “Reflections on Exile,” in Reflections on Exile: And Other Literary and Cultural Essays (Granta, 2001), pp. 173—86, p. 173.


When the sociologist Barbara Ehrenreich was diagnosed… Barbara Ehrenreich, Smile or Die: How Positive Thinking Fooled America and the World (Granta, 2009), pp. 32—33.

Ehrenreich also cites a 2004 study… Patricia L. Tomich and Vicki S. Helgeson, “Is Finding Something Good in the Bad Always Good? Benefit Finding Among Women with Breast Cancer,” Health Psychology 23(1) (January 2004), 16—23.

Huff, In a

The ancients took for granted… Shiegehisa Kuriyama, The Expressiveness of the Body and the Divergence of Greek and Chinese Medicine (Zone, 1999), p. 237.

“bitter-blowing winds…” Sophocles, Antigone, trans. by and quoted in Ruth Padel, In and Out of the Mind: Greek Images of the Tragic Self (Princeton University Press, 1992), p. 91.


“a day of national humiliation.” Abraham Lincoln, “Proclamation 97: Appointing a Day of National Humiliation, Fasting and Prayer,” March 30, 1863.

“all the cruel and brutal things…” “Guest Biography: Kofi Annan,” Maya Angelou’s Black History Month Special (2013);

“nuclear bomb of the emotions”… Evelin Linder, Making Enemies: Humiliation and International Conflict (Greenwood Press, 2006), p. xii.

“many of those who are humiliated are not humble…” Bernard of Clairvaux, Sermons on the Song of Songs (1136—1153), Sermon 34, repr. in The Works of Bernard of Clairvaux, vol. 2, trans. Kilian Walsh and Irene M. Edmonds (Cistercian Publications, 1976).

“check your privilege”… For more on this see Roxanne Gay, Bad Feminist: Essays (Corsair, 2014).


But our emotions also lead us to overeat. For more on this idea see: Susie Orbach, Fat Is a Feminist Issue (Paddington Books, 1978).

“The ambiowa cries for me…” In Jane Fajans, They Make Themselves: Work and Play Among the Baining of Papua New Guinea (University of Chicago Press, 1997), p. 119.


“I think I can I think I can I think I can”… Watty Piper, The Little Engine That Could (Platt & Munk, 1930).

as did Churchill… Thomas Dixon, Weeping Britannia: Portrait of a Nation in Tears (Oxford University Press, 2015).


“strange excitement”… Roger Caillois, Man, Play and Games (1958), trans. Meyer Barash (Free Press, 2001), p. 24.


It was these waiting-room chairs… Meyer Friedman and Ray H. Rosenman, Treating Type A Behavior—And Your Heart (Fawcett, 1985).

“the greatest poets did not disdain…” Friedrich Nietzsche, Human, All Too Human (1878), trans. Gary Handwerk (Stanford University Press, 1995), p. 60.

“Time goes on crutches till love have all his rites”… William Shakespeare, Much Ado About Nothing, II.i.357—58.


“majestic in his wrath…” Theodore Stanton and Harriet Stanton Blanche (eds.), Elizabeth Cady Stanton, As Revealed in Letters, Diary and Reminiscences (Harper & Brothers, 1922), pp. 311—12.

Aristotle thought indignation… David Konstan, The Emotions of the Ancient Greeks: Studies in Aristotle and Classical Literature (University of Toronto Press, 2007), pp. 114—15.

“anger for great Hurt…” Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (Andrew Crooke, 1651), pp. 26, 182—83.

Think of the pyrotechnics of the speech… Transcript of Julia Gillard speech, Sydney Morning Herald, October 10, 2012.

“scathing denunciations of slaveholders…” Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave. Written by Himself (1845), intro. Robert B. Stepto (Harvard University Press, 2009), p. 114.


“love of continuity…” Sidney Smith, The Principles of Phrenology (William Tait, 1838), p. 98.


“On the pleasures of being booed”… Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Manifesto of the Futurist Dramatists (1911), in Marinetti, Selected Writings, ed. R.W. Flint (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1972), pp. 113—15.

“irritable muscles”… Edwin Clarke and L. S. Jacyna, Nineteenth-Century Origins of Neuroscientific Concepts (University of California Press, 1987), p. 105.

“irritable heart.” Charles F. Wooley, The Irritable Heart of Soldiers and the Origins of Anglo-American Cardiology: The US Civil War to World War I (Ashgate, 2002).


“He who is not jealous can not love”… Andreas Capellanus, The Art of Courtly Love (1180) in The Broadview Anthology of British Literature, vol. 1, ed. Joseph Black et al. (Broadview Press, 2009), pp. 366—68.

“green-eyed monster.” William Shakespeare, Othello, III:iii:169.

“directed the executioner to burn him gently…” Collected in Sir Thomas Raymond, Reports of Divers Special Cases, Adjudged in the Courts of King’s Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer in the Reign of King Charles II (James Moore, 1793), p. 212.

“the rage of a man…” R v. Mawgridge (1707) 84 Eng. Rep. 1107. Lord Chief Justice Holt’s argument that “jealousy is the rage of a man” was a quotation from the King James Bible, Proverbs 6:34.

The jealous man suffers “four times over”… Roland Barthes, A Lover’s Discourse (Vintage, 2002), pp. 145—46.

research has shown that judges still show sympathy… Jeremy Horder, interviewed on Woman’s Hour, BBC Radio 4, October 15, 2014,


“Although Bertha Young was thirty…” Katherine Mansfield, Bliss” (1920), in The Collected Works of Katherine Mansfield (Penguin, 2007), pp. 32—41.

“Joy is pleasure…” Baruch Spinoza, Ethics III: On the Origin and Nature of Emotions (1677), XVI, trans. R. H. M. Elwes, repr. in What Is an Emotion?: Classic and Contemporary Readings, ed. Robert C. Solomon (Oxford University Press, 2003), pp. 32—43, p. 38.

“the clammy joys.” James Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, “The Imperfect Enjoyment,” in Selected Poems, ed. Paul Davis (Oxford University Press, 2013), pp. 39—40.

“She hovered like a hawk suspended…” Virginia Woolf, To the Lighthouse (1927) (Broadview Press, 2000), pp. 158—59.


“If it were not for liget…” Michelle Z. Rosaldo, Knowledge and Passion: Ilongot Notions of Self and Social Life (1980) (Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. 44.

the rage of grief… Renato Rosaldo, Culture and Truth: The Remaking of Social Analysis (Beacon Press, 1989).


“a state of torment…” Milan Kundera, Book of Laughter and Forgetting (1979), trans. Michael H. Heim (Alfred A. Knopf, 1980), p. 122.


The passengers climb in… Taxi Driver, Martin Scorsese (1976).

“Solitude produces ignorance…” John Evelyn, Public Employment and an Active Life Prefer’d to Solitude (1667), in The Miscellaneous Writings of John Evelyn, ed. William Upcott (Henry Colburn, 1825), p. 552.

“utter lonesomeness”… Georg Simmel, “The Metropolis and Mental Life” (1903), repr. in Charles Harrison and Paul Wood (eds.), Art in Theory, 1900—1990: An Anthology of Changing Ideas (Blackwell, 1993), pp. 130—34, p. 132.

And the stakes are high… This claim is based on research described in John T. Cacioppo, Loneliness and the Need for Social Connection (W. W. Norton, 2009).

In Japan, hikikomori… Tamaki Saito, Hikikomori: Adolescence Without End, trans. Jeffrey Angles (University of Minnesota Press, 2013).


Oh that you were, my Susie… Emily Dickinson to Susan Gilbert, June 11, 1852, in The Collected Letters of Emily Dickenson, ed. Thomas H. Johnson and Theodora Ward (Harvard University Press, 1986), pp. 211—12.

“My lost voice stutters…” Sappho, Stung with Love: Poems and Fragments, trans. Aaron Poochigian (Penguin, 2009), p. 23.

“We ought to move on…” Stendhal, On Love (1822), trans. Gilbert and Suzanne Sale (Penguin Classics, 1975), p. 73.

Ibn-Sīna… For a discussion of these terms and the medical history of lovesickness, see Marion A. Wells, The Secret Wound: Love-Melancholy and Early Modern Romance (Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 19—95.

Day-long I stretch, all times, like a bird preening… Arnaut Daniel, “Sweet Cries and Cracks,” repr. and trans. in Lark in the Morning: The Verses of the Troubadours, ed. Robert Kehew, trans. Ezra Pound, W. D. Snodgrass and Robert Kehew (University of Chicago Press, 2005), p. 205.

“I love you,” says Alec… Brief Encounter, David Lean (1945).


A Tahitian named Tano… Robert Levy, Tahitians: Mind and Experience in the Society Islands (University of Chicago Press, 1973), p. 151.


a “sugarcoated misery.” In the song “Sentimental and Melancholy” by Johnny Mercer and Richard Whiting.

“at every trifle… inflamed”… Thomas Wright, The Passions of the Minde in General (London, 1604).

“terrible monstrous fictions…” Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621) (J. W. More, 1857), p. 254.

In the mid-fifteenth century… Marsilio Ficino, Three Books on Life (1489) ed. Carol V. Kaske and John R. Clarke (Arizona State University Press, 1989).

“but the trappings and the suits of woe.” William Shakespeare, Hamlet, I.ii.85—86.

Mono no Aware

“The autumn flowers were gone…” Murasaki Shikibu, “The Sacred Tree,” from The Tale of Genji, repr. in Traditional Japanese Literature: An Anthology, Beginnings to 1600, ed. Haruo Shirane (Columbia University Press, 2007), pp. 343—45.

Morbid Curiosity

In The Republic… Plato, The Republic, trans. Desmond Lee (Penguin, 1988), IV, 439e—440a, pp. 215—16.

“as to a theater play”… Immanuel Kant, Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (1798), trans. Robert B. Louden (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 135.

“shadow aspect”… The idea of a shadow and its integration is discussed in chapter 2 of Carl Jung, Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self (1951), repr. in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, trans. R.F. C. Hull, vol. 9, part 2 (Princeton University Press, 1959).

“The rest of us are voyeurs…” Susan Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others (Hamish Hamilton, 2003), p. 37.


“it is not enough to succeed. Others must fail.” Gore Vidal, attributed to a quote by Gerard Irvine, “Antipanegyric for Tom Driberg,” [memorial service for Driberg], December 8, 1976.


“I didn’t know they made Ninth Place ribbons”… Meet the Fockers, Jay Roach (2004).


For the Pintupi… J. A. Russell, “Culture and the Categorization of Emotions,” Psychological Bulletin 110(3) (1991), 426—50.


“frequent sighs” and “disturbed sleep.” Johannes Hofer, “Medical Dissertation on Nostalgia (1688),” trans. Carolyn Kiser Anspach, Bulletin of the History of Medicine 2(6) (August 1934), 376—91.

In the early twentieth century… For the history of nostalgia see: Jean Starobinski, “The Idea of Nostalgia,” trans. William S. Kemp, Diogenes 14 (Summer 1966), 81.

a “coherence in things, a stability”… Virginia Woolf, To the Lighthouse (1927) (Broadview Press, 2000), p. 158.

[fn.] “US Dept. of Retro Warns…” The Onion, November 4, 1997,

A surprising number… One early and influential study is Clay Routledge et al., “The Past Makes the Present Meaningful: Nostalgia as an Existential Resource,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101(3) (2001), 638—52.

“nostalgia workouts”… Clay Routledge, “Nostalgia Is Good Medicine,” Psychology Today, August 11, 2009,

A team of researchers in southern China… Xinyue Zhon et al., “Heartwarming Memories: Nostalgia Maintains Physiological Comfort,” Emotion 12(4) (August 2012), 678—84.

Overwhelmed, Feeling

she “excelled” in poetry… Ibn Bashkuwal, Kitab al-Silla, vol. 2 (Cairo, 2008), p. 324.

“Is there anywhere on earth exempt…” Desiderius Erasmus, The Adages of Erasmus, ed. William Barker (University of Toronto Press, 2001) II.i.1, p. 145.

One more practical response… Ann M. Blair, Too Much to Know: Managing Scholarly Information Before the Modern Age (Yale University Press, 2010).

“hard study…” Samuel Johnson, The Adventurer 115 (December 11, 1753), in W. J. Bate, John M. Bullitt and L. F. Powell (eds.), The Idler and The Adventurer (Yale University Press, 1963), pp. 456—61.


“we’ve got a panic on our hands.” Jaws, Steven Spielberg (1975).

They believed that when individuals became part of a crowd… Gustave Le Bon, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (T. Fisher Unwin, 1896).


Inspired in part by the memoirs of a German judge… Daniel Paul Schreber, Memoirs of my Nervous Illness (1903), trans. and ed. Ida Macalpine and Richard A. Hunter (W. Dawson, 1955).

“There is nothing… more banal and bourgeois…” Vladimir Nabokov, Pnin (1957) (Penguin, 2010), p. 82.

Daniel Freeman, who has studied… Daniel Freeman and Jason Freeman, Paranoia: The 21st-Century Fear (Oxford University Press, 2008).

Penny Garner, who became interested in dementia… Oliver James, Contented Dementia: 24-Hour Wraparound Care for Lifelong Well-being (Ebury Press, 2008).


“The more reason deters us from the brink…” Edgar Allan Poe, “The Imp of the Perverse,” Graham’s Magazine (July 1845), repr. in The Complete Tales and Poems of Edgar Allan Poe (Penguin, 2011), pp. 280—85, p. 282.

Peur des Espaces

Madame B cluttered up her apartment with furniture. Henri Legrand du Saulle, “Etude Clinique sur la Peur des Espaces (Agoraphobie des Allemands),” Annales Médico-Psychologiques 34 (1878), 405—33.

Carl Otto Westphal came up with the name… Carl Friedrich Otto Westphal, “Die Agoraphobie, ein neuropathische Erscheinung,” Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten 3 (1871), 138—61.

Researchers at University College London and Southampton University… L. Yardley et al., “Relationship Between Balance System Function and Agoraphobic Avoidance,” Behavior Research and Therapy 33(4) (June 1995), 435—39.

Feminist critics… Joyce Davidson, “’… the world was getting smaller’: Women, Agoraphobia and Bodily Boundaries,” Area 32(1) (2000), 31—40.


“the glowing impulse…” Johann Gaspar Spurzheim, Outlines of Phrenology (Treuttel, Wurtz and Richer, 1827), p. 26.

“a slave to maternal duties.” Samuel Robert Wells, New Physiognomy (Samuel R. Wells, 1875), p. 133.


“Nothing… dries more quickly…” Cicero attributes this to Apollonius the rhetorician, in Marcus Tullius Cicero, Treatise on Rhetorical Invention, vol. 1, trans. C. D. Yonge (Digireads, 2009), p. 45.

In medieval Christian Europe… For more on this era’s emotional culture of pity see Sarah McNamer, Affective Meditation and the Invention of Medieval Compassion (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011).

“How well you’re looking today, and how splendidly you’re walking…” Stefan Zweig, Beware of Pity (1939), trans. Anthea Bell (Puskin Press, 2012), p. 110.

“since the world began…” Theodore Zeldin, An Intimate History of Humanity (Vintage, 1998), p. 243.

Postal, Going

Among the Gurumba tribe of New Guinea… Philip Newman, “Wild Man Behavior in a New Guinea Highlands Community,” American Anthropologist 66(1) (1964), 1—19.

Compare this to amok… J. E. Carr and E. K. Tan, “In Search of the True Amok: Amok as Viewed with the Malay Culture,” American Journal of Psychiatry 133(11) (1976), 1295—99.


“She was right. But how could I explain…” Alice Munro, “Pride,” in Dear Life (Chatto & Windus, 2012), pp. 133—53, p. 151.

In 2010 the director of the British Museum… “In Conversation with Wole Soyinka,”


“grossly out of proportion”… “Intermittent Explosive Disorder,” Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-V (American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013).

“only where there is reason…” Hannah Arendt, Crises of the Republic (Harcourt, 1972), p. 160.


“For this deed thou shalt…” Francis Rous, Thule, or Vertues Historie, II (1598) (The Spencer Society, 1878).

Researchers from Stanford University’s School of Business… Rebecca L. Schaumberg and Francis J. Flyn, “Uneasy Lies the Head that Wears the Crown: The Link Between Guilt-Proneness and Leadership,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 103(2) (August 2012), pp. 327—42.


“Would you mind if I cry a little?”… Fanny and Alexander, Ingmar Bergman (1982).

“If tears reduce stress…” Robert R. Provine, Curious Behavior: Yawning, Laughing, Hiccupping, and Beyond (Harvard University Press, 2012), p. 80.


“You must know again…” Amelia Earhart to George Putnam, February 7, 1931, repr. in Letters of Note, ed. Shaun Usher (Canongate, 2013), no. 45.


In the painting by… Antonio Vivarini, Saint Peter Martyr Healing the Leg of a Young Man.

It is in childhood… Melanie Klein, “Love, Guilt and Reparation” (1937), in The Writings of Melanie Klein, vol. 1 (Hogarth Press, 1975).

An apology, to use the philosopher J. L. Austin’s theory… J. L. Austin, “Lecture I: Performatives and Constatives,” repr. in How to Do Things with Words: The William James Lectures Delivered at Harvard University in 1955, ed. J. O. Urmson and Marina Sbisa (Clarendon Press, 1962), pp. 1—11.

On November 7, 1497… Durham Cathedral Archives and Library: Court Book of Prior’s Official, 1487—1498, repr. and trans. Philippa Maddern.


In Cesare Ripa’s Iconologia… Cesare Ripa, Iconologia, or, Moral Emblems (1593) (Benji Mott, 1709), p. 255.

terrorism is motivated by the “perversion” of resentment. Slavoj Žižek, Violence (Picador, 2008), p. 74.

“the human soul became deep.” Friedrich Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morality (1887), ed. Keith Ansell-Pearson (Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 18.


According to the psychologist David Laramie… Laramie’s research was reported in “Do You Suffer from Ringxiety,” Guardian, June 1, 2006,


“warre of every one against every one.” Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (Andrew Crooke, 1651), p. 82.

“It is best they should die”… Herbert Spencer, Social Statics: or the Conditions Essential to Human Happiness Specified… (London, 1851), pp. 379—80.

In the first decades of the twentieth century… Peter Stearns, “The Rise of Sibling Jealousy in the Twentieth Century,” Symbolic Interaction 13(1) (Spring 1990), 83—101.

“The competition is maddening!” Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman (1949) I. i (Heinemann, 1994), p. 7.

children display ingenuity and creativity… Claire Hughes, Social Understanding and Social Lives: From Toddlerhood Through to the Transition to School (Psychology Press, 2011), pp. 105—21.

“ease and slack facility…” Michel de Montaigne, “Of the Disadvantage of Greatness” (1585—88), repr. in his The Complete Works, trans. Donald M. Frame (Everyman’s Library, 2003), pp. 849—53.

Road Rage

In a now classic study on prosocial behavior… K. J. Haley and D. M. T. Fessler, “Nobody’s Watching? Subtle Cues Affect Generosity in an Anonymous Economic Game,” Evolutionary Human Behavior 26 (2005), 245—56.


From its earliest incarnations… This idea is suggested by Erin Sullivan in Beyond Melancholy: Sadness and Selfhood in Renaissance England (Oxford University Press, 2016). I am grateful to Erin for sharing her work with me prior to publication.

“I am a lonely thing”… Paull Franklin Baum, Anglo-Saxon Riddles of the Exeter Book (Duke University Press, 1963), 49 [K-D.5].

In his Castell of Helth… Thomas Elyot, The Castell of Helth (1595), 100—102.

Among those who fear… A. Horwitz and J. C. Wakefield, The Loss of Sadness: How Psychiatry Transformed Normal Sorrow into Depressive Disorder (Oxford University Press, 2007).

“pain can’t be borne…” Susie Orbach, “Prozac,” in Toward Emotional Literacy (Virago, 1999), pp. 237—41, p. 240.


“You’re a fake and a phony…,” Grease, Randal Kleiser (1978).

The origins of this “smile revolution”… Colin Jones, The Smile Revolution in Eighteenth Century Paris (Oxford University Press, 2014).

a “secret joy”…Satisfaction,” in Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts and Crafts, ed. Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert (Briasson, David, Le Breton and Durand, 1751—72).


“it is sweet to perceive…” Lucretius, Lucretius on the Nature of Things, trans. Cyril Bailey (Clarendon Press, 1910), p. 65.

“a glow of excitement and pleasure…” Iris Murdoch, A Severed Head (1961) (Random House, 2008), p. 33.


Marvin the Paranoid Android… Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (Pan, 1979).

“regards himself ’as if he were someone else’”… Max Scheler, “Fellow Feeling, Benevolence, Forms and Kind of Love,” On Feeling, Knowing, and Valuing: Selected Writings, ed. Harold J. Bershady (University of Chicago Press, 1992), pp. 70—82, p. 72.


“one of the greatest shaking cracks that our soul can receive.” Plutarch, Moralia (1603), trans. P. Holland (Dent, 1911), p. 187.

an “internal hemorrhage.” Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness: An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, trans. Hazel Barnes (Washington Square Press, 1966), p. 345.

“How shall I behold the face…” John Milton, Paradise Lost (1674), Book 9, 1080—90, repr. in John Milton, The Complete Poems, ed. John Leonard (Penguin, 2005).

In the 1940s… Ruth Benedict, The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture (Houghton Mifflin, 1946).

Feeling ashamed… “is not the exclusive property of the East.” Salman Rushdie, Shame (1983) (Random House, 2011), p. 28.

“to be present at the whipping post…” Quoted in John Demos, “Shame and Guilt in Early New England,” in Rom Harré and W. Gerrod Parrott (eds.), The Emotions: Social, Cultural and Biological Dimensions (Sage, 2000), pp. 74—88, p. 76.

They have initiated a “gay shame” movement. Helen Love, Feeling Backwards: Loss and the Politics of Queer History (Harvard University Press, 2009).


the strange symptoms were caused… C. S. Myers, “A Contribution to the Study of Shell-Shock,” The Lancet 1 (February 13, 1915), 316—20.

“shocke of armes.” William Shakespeare, Richard III, V: iii. 3565.

He had carefully dissected the corpses of hanged criminals… For the results of these labors, see Thomas Willis, Cerebri Anatome: cui accessit nervorum desciptio et usus (1664).

“our senses have been opened…” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774), trans. David Constantine (Oxford University Press, 2012), p. 22.


“Handsome, clever, and rich”… Jane Austen, Emma (1815), in The Complete Novels of Jane Austen (Wordsworth, 2007), p. 777.


Those who live on the Pacific island of the Ifaluk… Catherine Lutz, Unnatural Emotions: Everyday Sentiments on a Micronesian Atoll and Their Challenge to Western Theory (University of Chicago Press, 1988).


“with the firm determination…” Charles Darwin, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (John Murray, 1872), p. 38.

Like the early-twentieth-century theorist of laughter… Henri Bergson, Laughter: An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic (Le Rire) (1900), trans. Cloudesley Brereton and Fred Rothwell (London: Macmillan, 1911), p. 9.

a “sudden surprise of the soul.” René Descartes, The Passions of the Soul, trans. Stephen H. Vass (Hackett, 1989), p. 56.


Aristotle observed… Aristotle, Rhetoric, bk II, ch. 2 (Dover, 2002), p. 60.


“It’s when the lights go out…”

“in terror, even the most intrepid men…” Angelo Mosso, Fear (1884), trans. E. Lough and Frederich Kiesow (Longmans, 1896), p. 11.

“The axe, the wheel, sawdust and the bloodstained sheet”… Henry Fuseli, The Life and Writings of Henry Fuseli, vol. 3 (Henry Colburn, 1831), p. 91.

“terror and wonder”… Edmund Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful (1757) (J. Dodsley, 1767), p. 98.

“huge and mighty forms…” William Wordsworth, The Prelude; or, Growth of a Poet’s Mind (D. Appleton, 1850), I.19.

“It is natural to wonder…” “President Bush Addresses the Nation,” Washington Post, September 20, 2001.

“the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” Franklin D. Roosevelt, Inaugural Address, March 4, 1933.


“a dull ache… a longing with nothing to long for”… Vladimir Nabokov, Eugene Onegin, a Novel in Verse, vol. 2 (Princeton University Press, 1991), p. 141.


the “dreadful screech”… J. M. Barrie, Peter Pan (1915) (Sovereign, 2013), p. 25.


“All things are so very uncertain…” Tove Jansson, Moominland Midwinter, trans. Thomas Warburton (Ernest Benn Ltd, 1958), p. 28.

“capable of being in uncertainties…” John Keats to George and Tom Keats, December 27, 1817, Selected Letters of John Keats, revised ed., ed. Grant F. Scott (Harvard University Press, 2002), p. 60.


“Dishonor consists not…” Jeremy Bentham, “Honorary Satisfaction,” in Collected Works, vol. 2, ed. John Bowring (William Tait, 1838), p. 379.

“wild, cruel, prone to violent outbursts”… Norbert Elias, The Civilizing Process: The History of Manners (1939) (Polity Press, 1994), p. 319.

“Revenge is a kind of wild justice…” Francis Bacon, “Of Revenge,” in Bacon’s Essays, ed. Richard Whately (John W. Parker, 1858), pp. 53—100, p. 53.

Hieronimo, “tears the papers”… Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy (Bloomsbury, 2013), p. 92.

Vergüenza Ajena

These apparently contradictory impulses… Immaculada Iglesias, “Verguenza ajena,” in Rom Harré and W. Gerrod Parrott (eds.), The Emotions: Social, Cultural and Biological Dimensions (Sage, 1996), pp. 122—31.


“I was shy at our first union…” Quoted and discussed in William M. Reddy, The Making of Romantic Love: Longing and Sexuality in Europe, South Asia and Japan, 900—1200 CE (University of Chicago Press, 2012), pp. 256—66.

“Batter my heart… ravish me.” John Donne, “Batter my heart, three-personed God,” Holy Sonnet 14 (1633), repr. in John Donne, The Complete English Poems (Penguin, 1982), pp. 314—15.


“Tread softly…” W. B. Yeats, “He Wishes for the Cloths of Heaven,” repr. in W. B. Yeats Collected Poems, ed. Augustine Martin (Vintage, 1992), p. 68.

In the last ten years… Brené Brown, “The Power of Vulnerability,”

Even precariats working in the creative industries… Guy Standing, The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class (Bloomsbury, 2011).


“pathological tourism”… Philippe Tissié wrote up his account of Dada’s case in his PhD thesis: Philippe Auguste Tissié, “Les aliénés voyageurs: essai médico-physiologique thèse de médicine de Bordeaux no. 29” (1887). The case is discussed in detail in Ian Hacking, Mad Travelers: Reflections on the Reality of Transient Mental Illnesses (University Press of Virginia, 1998).

Such transient mental illnesses are sometimes thought to be a kind of folie à deux… Ibid., p. 18.

“Wanderlust arises as an emotional epidemic”… Daniel Garrison Brinton and Livingston Farrand, The Basis of Social Relations: A Study in Ethnic Psychology (G. P. Putnam & Sons, 1902), p. 113.

Warm Glow

Larry is alight with pride when he arrives… Curb Your Enthusiasm, season 6, episode 2: “The Anonymous Donor.”

“altruistic pleasure.” Herbert Spencer, The Data of Ethics (Williams and Norgate, 1879), pp. 201—18.

The idea that humans are naturally selfish… For the evolution of this idea, see Barbara Taylor, “A Short History of Kindness,” in Barbara Taylor and Adam Phillips, On Kindness (Penguin, 2009), pp. 15—47 (Calvin is discussed on p. 22).

Over the past ten years… See: J. Moll et al., “Human Fronto-Mesolimbic Networks Guide Decisions About Charitable Donation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(42) (October 17, 2006), pp. 15623—28.


Between the twelfth and seventeenth centuries… Lorraine Daston and Katharine Park, Wonders and the Order of Nature, 1150—1750 (Zone, 1998).

[fn] Ambroise Paré, “Concerning Poisons etc.”, repr. in The Workes of That Famous Chirurgion Ambrose Parey [sic], trans. Thomas Johnson (Richard Cotes, 1649), pp. 529—30.

“like wonder-wounded hearers”… William Shakespeare, Hamlet, V.i. 257.

a “sudden surprise of the soul…” René Descartes, The Passions of the Soul (1649), trans. Stephen H. Vass (Hackett, 1989), p. 56.

Saint Augustine warned… Saint Augustine, Confessions (Book 5.3.4), trans. Henry Chadwick (Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 74.

“All men by nature desire to know”… Aristotle, Metaphysics (980), in The Complete Works of Aristotle, vol. 1, ed. Jonathan Barnes (Princeton University Press, 1984), p. 1552.

“to make wonders cease.” Albertus Magnus, “Metaphysica,” 1.2.6, in Opera Omnia, 40 vols., vol. 16, ed. Bernhard Geyer (Aschendorff, 1951).


“in great worry, crying and taking on.” Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1853) (Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 37.

like Little Nell… Charles Dickens, The Old Curiosity Shop (Chapman & Hall, 1841).

“Cheerfulness enables nature to recruit its strength…” Samuel Smiles, Character (Harper & Brothers, 1872), p. 225.

a longitudinal study… W. E. Lee, M. E. J. Wadsworth and M. Hotop, “The Protective Role of Trait Anxiety: A Longitudinal Cohort Study,” Psychological Medicine 36 (2006), 345—51.

Some researchers have even suggested that there may be a “worry gene”… Christian Montag et al., “COMT Genetic Variation Affects Fear Processing: Psychophysiological Evidence,” Behavioral Neuroscience 122(4) (2008), 901—9.

“Things to worry about…” “F. Scott Fitzgerald to his 11-Year-Old Daughter in Camp,” New York Times Magazine, June 15, 1933.


“the soil of his heart.” Franz Liszt, The Life of Chopin, trans. Martha Walker Cook (Leypoldt and Holt, 1863), p. 77.

* There is some evidence that the Darwin household was not altogether supportive of his investigations. While they were still engaged, his fiancée, Emma Wedgwood, expressed her concern: “You will be forming theories about me & if I am cross or out of temper you will only consider ’What does that prove?’”

* Emotionologists—those of us who study emotions from different fields—argue about this “basic emotions” theory a lot. The most well-known recent advocate of the idea that there are universal and basic emotions is the psychologist Paul Ekman. Recent researchers have disputed his claims, arguing that the facial expressions he has identified as universal in fact reflect a Western bias. Being suspicious about the universal emotions theory is not to say that we don’t express and feel some emotions in very similar ways, or that we can’t understand emotions from other cultures. After all, imagining the emotions of other people from past cultures is the most enjoyable part of being a historian of emotions. But saying something is very similar is not the same as saying it is identical in every way.

* The philosopher Peter Goldie has suggested that a word for lassitude felt at the arrival of family and friends could also be useful.

* An experiment: try holding a pencil lengthways between your teeth and see if it improves your mood. Philosophers have long wondered whether our facial expressions of smiling and frowning can change how we feel. Today’s psychologists call this idea “the facial feedback hypothesis.” In 2008 a group of researchers at the Max Planck Institute in Berlin devised an ingenious experiment to test it. They compared the emotional responses of women having Botox injections before and after treatment. Before the injections, the women were asked to imitate a photograph of an angry face while in a brain scanner. Their scans showed significant activity in both sides of the amygdala, the brain region associated with emotional arousal. After the Botox, which immobilized their frown muscles, imitating the same expression produced significantly less activity in the left side of the amygdala. It remains unclear whether this effect is to do with self-consciousness (perceiving yourself as angry might make you feel so), or whether there is a direct causal link between frowning and the part of the brain that controls anger. But this question aside, the experiment seems to provide the first tentative fMRI evidence that the way our faces move might really change the way we feel.

* Even American presidents are expected to be cheerful—at least, in their official portraits. While the founding fathers looked rather stern, by the 1940s small smiles had begun to sprout up. Harry Truman smiles in his official portrait (1947), but it’s only when you get to Ronald Reagan’s portrait (completed in 1991) that you see the full toothy smile that we’ve become familiar with today.

* And if you are in a polyamorous relationship and you do feel a bit twingey with jealousy, then don’t worry—you’re just having a touch of the wibbles.

* In case you are fondly imagining that in the old days everyone used to walk around glowing with euphory, sometimes drugs were also required. The writer of a 1701 tract on opium suggested imbibing small doses of the drug in the morning “to cause Euphory or brisk Effects,” noting that the poppy encouraged “a blithe, gay and good Humor” and, enticingly, “promptitude to venery,” or in other words, it ramped up one’s sex drive—nowadays, it’s thought to decrease it.

* Smith’s theory would certainly make sense to the indigenous Utku of Canada, who don’t distinguish between feeling kindness and gratitude, but use one word for both: hatuq. In positive psychology literature, a version of this phenomenon is called “paying it forward.”

* Kingsley Amis realized he had met a kindred spirit in Philip Larkin when he discovered he also defined a bore as someone who “when he sees an unusual car in the street GOES OVER AND HAS A LOOK AT IT.”

* It’s this baffled feeling that causes what the French call l’esprit d’escalier, or “staircase wit”: thinking of the killer retort only when you’ve left the scene of the argument and are on the stairs on the way out.

* Advertisers and businesses capitalize on these warm fuzzies. Cupcakes, vintage-clothes stalls, the craze for eighties revival.… Has it gotten out of hand? According to a report by the American satirical paper The Onion, it might have: “US Dept. of Retro Warns: ’We May Be Running Out of Past.’”

* And even paranoiacs, as the old joke goes, have enemies.

* In case you were wondering, phrenology has been completely debunked.

* Some languages acknowledge this difference: in Ifaluk, rus is a nasty surprise, ker a nice one.

* The Flumps was a 1970s animated children’s TV series, presenting the home life of a family of round furry creatures who lived in northern England. Perkin feels umpty in an episode called “The Cloud.”

* When we witness a friend or loved one (and especially, parent) dancing or singing badly, we might feel a twang of embarrassment, but of a different kind—that shudder comes because we fear being caught up in their orbit, shamed by association.

* Bezoar stones may be familiar from Harry Potter’s potions classes, but they were really used by medieval doctors. They are a smooth, and surprisingly light, ball made from the compacted indigestible stuff that makes its way into the stomachs of goats and other ruminants—fruit and vegetable fibers, twigs, and especially hair. Some medieval doctors advised grinding up the valuable and sought-after stones and dissolving them in remedies; others kept the stones on display in ornately decorated stands. In 1575 the French surgeon Ambroise Paré described conducting an experiment to test the effectiveness of bezoar against poison, on a cook who was condemned to be hanged for stealing two silver dishes. The prisoner agreed instead to take poison—and the bezoar antidote—to see if he survived. Unfortunately, he did not.