Subliminal: how your unconscious mind rules your behavior - Leonard Mlodinow 2013



1. Joseph W. Dauben, “Peirce and the History of Science,” in Peirce and Contemporary Thought, ed. Kenneth Laine Ketner (New York: Fordham University Press, 1995), 146—49.

2. Charles Sanders Peirce, “Guessing,” Hound and Horn 2 (1929): 271.

3. Ran R. Hassin et al., eds., The New Unconscious (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 77—78.

4. T. Sebeok with J. U. Sebeok, “You Know My Method,” in Thomas A. Sebeok, The Play of Musement (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981), 17—52.

5. Carl Jung, ed., Man and His Symbols (London: Aldus Books, 1964), 5.

6. Thomas Naselaris et al., “Bayesian Reconstruction of Natural Images from Human Brain Activity,” Neuron 63 (September 24, 2009): 902—15.

7. Kevin N. Ochsner and Matthew D. Lieberman, “The Emergence of Social Cognitive Neuroscience,” American Psychologist 56, no. 9 (September 2001): 717—28.


1. Yael Grosjean et al., “A Glial Amino-Acid Transporter Controls Synapse Strength and Homosexual Courtship in Drosophila,Nature Neuroscience 1 (January 11, 2008): 54—61.

2. Ibid.

3. Boris Borisovich Shtonda and Leon Avery, “Dietary Choice in Caenorhabditis elegans,Journal of Experimental Biology 209 (2006): 89—102.

4. S. Spinelli et al., “Early Life Stress Induces Long-Term Morphologic Changes in Primate Brain,” Archives of General Psychiatry 66, no. 6 (2009): 658—65; Stephen J. Suomi, “Early Determinants of Behavior: Evidence from Primate Studies,” British Medical Bulletin 53, no. 1 (1997): 170—84.

5. David Galbis-Reig, “Sigmund Freud, MD: Forgotten Contributions to Neurology, Neuropathology, and Anesthesia,” Internet Journal of Neurology 3, no. 1 (2004).

6. Timothy D. Wilson, Strangers to Ourselves: Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2002), 5.

7. See “The Simplifier: A Conversation with John Bargh,” Edge,

8. John A. Bargh, ed., Social Psychology and the Unconscious: The Automaticity of Higher Mental Processes (New York: Psychology Press, 2007), 1.

9. Scientists have found little evidence of the Oedipus complex or penis envy.

10. Heather A. Berlin, “The Neural Basis of the Dynamic Unconscious,” Neuropsychoanalysis 13, no. 1 (2011): 5—31.

11. Daniel T. Gilbert, “Thinking Lightly About Others: Automatic Components of the Social Inference Process,” in Unintended Thought, ed. James S. Uleman and John A. Bargh (New York: Guilford, 1989), 192; Ran R. Hassin et al., eds., The New Unconscious (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 5—6.

12. John F. Kihlstrom et al., “The Psychological Unconscious: Found, Lost, and Regained,” American Psychologist 47, no. 6 (June 1992): 789.

13. John T. Jones et al., “How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Js: Implicit Egotism and Interpersonal Attraction,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87, no. 5 (2004): 665—83. The particular states studied—Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama—were chosen because of the unusual search capabilities provided by their statewide marriage databases.

14. N. J. Blackwood, “Self-Responsibility and the Self-Serving Bias: An fMRI Investigation of Causal Attributions,” Neuroimage 20 (2003): 1076—85.

15. Brian Wansink and Junyong Kim, “Bad Popcorn in Big Buckets: Portion Size Can Influence Intake as Much as Taste,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 37, no. 5 (September—October 2005): 242—45.

16. Brian Wansink, “Environmental Factors That Increase Food Intake and Consumption Volume of Unknowing Consumers,” Annual Review of Nutrition 24 (2004): 455—79.

17. Brian Wansink et al., “How Descriptive Food Names Bias Sensory Perceptions in Restaurants,” Food and Quality Preference 16, no. 5 (July 2005): 393—400; Brian Wansink et al., “Descriptive Menu Labels’ Effect on Sales,” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administrative Quarterly 42, no. 6 (December 2001): 68—72.

18. Norbert Schwarz et al., “When Thinking Is Difficult: Metacognitive Experiences as Information,” in Social Psychology of Consumer Behavior, ed. Michaela Wänke (New York: Psychology Press, 2009), 201—23.

19. Benjamin Bushong et al., “Pavlovian Processes in Consumer Choice: The Physical Presence of a Good Increases Willingness-to-Pay,” American Economic Review 100, no. 4 (2010): 1556—71.

20. Vance Packard, The Hidden Persuaders (New York: David McKay, 1957), 16.

21. Adrian C. North et al., “In-Store Music Affects Product Choice,” Nature 390 (November 13, 1997): 132.

22. Donald A. Laird, “How the Consumer Estimates Quality by Subconscious Sensory Impressions,” Journal of Applied Psychology 16 (1932): 241—46.

23. Robin Goldstein et al., “Do More Expensive Wines Taste Better? Evidence from a Large Sample of Blind Tastings,” Journal of Wine Economics 3, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 1—9.

24. Hilke Plassmann et al., “Marketing Actions Can Modulate Neural Representations of Experienced Pleasantness,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, no. 3 (January 22, 2008): 1050—54.

25. See, for instance, Morten L. Kringelbach, “The Human Orbitofrontal Cortex: Linking Reward to Hedonic Experience,” Nature Reviews: Neuroscience 6 (September 2005): 691—702.

26. M. P. Paulus and L. R. Frank, “Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activation Is Critical for Preference Judgments,” Neuroreport 14 (2003): 1311—15; M. Deppe et al., “Nonlinear Responses Within the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Reveal When Specific Implicit Information Influences Economic Decision-Making,” Journal of Neuroimaging 15 (2005): 171—82; M. Schaeffer et al., “Neural Correlates of Culturally Familiar Brands of Car Manufacturers,” Neuroimage 31 (2006): 861—65.

27. Michael R. Cunningham, “Weather, Mood, and Helping Behavior: Quasi Experiments with Sunshine Samaritan,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37, no. 11 (1979): 1947—56.

28. Bruce Rind, “Effect of Beliefs About Weather Conditions on Tipping,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 26, no. 2 (1996): 137—47.

29. Edward M. Saunders Jr., “Stock Prices and Wall Street Weather,” American Economic Review 83 (1993): 1337—45. See also Mitra Akhtari, “Reassessment of the Weather Effect: Stock Prices and Wall Street Weather,” Undergraduate Economic Review 7, no. 1 (2011),

30. David Hirshleiter and Tyler Shumway, “Good Day Sunshine: Stock Returns and the Weather,” Journal of Finance 58, no. 3 (June 2003): 1009—32.


1. Ran R. Hassin et al., eds., The New Unconscious (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 3.

2. Louis Menand, The Metaphysical Club (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001), 258.

3. Donald Freedheim, Handbook of Psychology, vol. 1 (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2003), 2.

4. Alan Kim, “Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (2006); Robert S. Harper, “The First Psychology Laboratory,” Isis 41 (July 1950): 158—61.

5. Quoted in E. R. Hilgard, Psychology in America: A Historical Survey (Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1987), 37.

6. Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 259—60.

7. William Carpenter, Principles of Mental Physiology (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1874), 526 and 539.

8. Menand, The Metaphysical Club, 159.

9. M. Zimmerman, “The Nervous System in the Context of Information Theory,” in Human Physiology, ed. R. F. Schmidt and G. Thews (Berlin: Springer, 1989), 166—73. Quoted in Ran R. Hassin et al., eds., The New Unconscious, 82.

10. Christof Koch, “Minds, Brains, and Society” (lecture at Caltech, Pasadena, CA, January 21, 2009).

11. R. Toro et al., “Brain Size and Folding of the Human Cerebral Cortex,” Cerebral Cortex 18, no. 10 (2008): 2352—57.

12. Alan J. Pegna et al., “Discriminating Emotional Faces Without Primary Visual Cortices Involves the Right Amygdala,” Nature Neuroscience 8, no. 1 (January 2005): 24—25.

13. P. Ekman and W. P. Friesen, Pictures of Facial Affect (Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1975).

14. See; accessed March 30, 2009. Contact:

15. See, e.g., W. T. Thach, “On the Specific Role of the Cerebellum in Motor Learning and Cognition: Clues from PET Activation and Lesion Studies in Man,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (1996): 411—31.

16. Beatrice de Gelder et al., “Intact Navigation Skills After Bilateral Loss of Striate Cortex,” Current Biology 18, no. 24 (2008): R1128—29.

17. Benedict Carey, “Blind, Yet Seeing: The Brain’s Subconscious Visual Sense,” New York Times, December 23, 2008.

18. Christof Koch, The Quest for Consciousness (Englewood, CO: Roberts, 2004), 220.

19. Ian Glynn, An Anatomy of Thought (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 214.

20. Ronald S. Fishman, “Gordon Holmes, the Cortical Retina, and the Wounds of War,” Documenta Ophthalmologica 93 (1997): 9—28.

21. L. Weiskrantz et al., “Visual Capacity in the Hemianopic Field Following a Restricted Occipital Ablation,” Brain 97 (1974): 709—28; L. Weiskrantz, Blindsight: A Case Study and Its Implications (Oxford: Clarendon, 1986).

22. N. Tsuchiya and C. Koch, “Continuous Flash Suppression Reduces Negative Afterimages,” Nature Neuroscience 8 (2005): 1096—101.

23. Yi Jiang et al., “A Gender- and Sexual Orientation—Dependent Spatial Attentional Effect of Invisible Images,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103, no. 45 (November 7, 2006): 17048—52.

24. I. Kohler, “Experiments with Goggles,” Scientific American 206 (1961): 62—72.

25. Richard M. Warren, “Perceptual Restoration of Missing Speech Sounds,” Science 167, no. 3917 (January 23 1970): 392—93.

26. Richard M. Warren and Roselyn P. Warren, “Auditory Illusions and Confusions,” Scientific American 223 (1970): 30—36.

27. This study was reported in Warren and Warren, “Auditory Illusions and Confusions” and was referred to in other studies but apparently was never published.


1. Jennifer Thompson-Cannino and Ronald Cotton with Erin Torneo, Picking Cotton (New York: St. Martin’s, 2009); see also the transcript of “What Jennifer Saw,” Frontline, show 1508, February 25, 1997.

2. Gary L. Wells and Elizabeth A. Olsen, “Eyewitness Testimony,” Annual Review of Psychology 54 (2003): 277—91.

3. G. L. Wells, “What Do We Know About Eyewitness Identification?” American Psychologist 48 (May 1993): 553—71.

4. See the project website,

5. Erica Goode and John Schwartz, “Police Lineups Start to Face Fact: Eyes Can Lie,” New York Times, August 28, 2011. See also Brandon Garrett, Convicting the Innocent: Where Criminal Prosecutors Go Wrong (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011).

6. Thomas Lundy, “Jury Instruction Corner,” Champion Magazine (May— June 2008): 62.

7. Daniel Schacter, Searching for Memory: The Brain, the Mind, and the Past (New York: Basic Books, 1996), 111—12; Ulric Neisser, “John Dean’s Memory: A Case Study,” in Memory Observed: Remembering in Natural Contexts, ed. Ulric Neisser (San Francisco: Freeman, 1982), 139—59.

8. Loftus and Ketcham, Witness for the Defense.

9. B. R. Hergenhahn, An Introduction to the History of Psychology, 6th ed. (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2008), 348—50; “H. Münsterberg,” in Allen Johnson and Dumas Malone, eds., Dictionary of American Biography, base set (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1928—36).

10. H. Münsterberg, On the Witness Stand: Essays on Psychology and Crime (New York: Doubleday, 1908).

11. Ibid. For the significance of Münsterberg’s work, see Siegfried Ludwig Sporer, “Lessons from the Origins of Eyewitness Testimony Research in Europe,” Applied Cognitive Psychology 22 (2008): 737—57.

12. For a capsule summary of Münsterberg’s life and work, see D. P. Schultz and S. E. Schultz, A History of Modern Psychology (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2004), 246—52.

13. Michael T. Gilmore, The Quest for Legibility in American Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 11.

14. H. Münsterberg, Psychotherapy (New York: Moffat, Yard, 1905), 125.

15. A. R. Luria, The Mind of a Mnemonist: A Little Book About a Vast Memory, trans. L. Solotaroff (New York: Basic Books, 1968); see also Schachter, Searching for Memory, 81, and Gerd Gigerenzer, Gut Feelings (New York: Viking, 2007), 21—23.

16. John D. Bransford and Jeffery J. Franks, “The Abstraction of Linguistic Ideas: A Review,” Cognition 1, no. 2—3 (1972): 211—49.

17. Arthur Graesser and George Mandler, “Recognition Memory for the Meaning and Surface Structure of Sentences,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 104, no. 3 (1975): 238—48.

18. Schacter, Searching for Memory, 103; H. L. Roediger III and K. B. McDermott, “Creating False Memories: Remembering Words Not Presented in Lists,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 21 (1995): 803—14.

19. Private conversation, September 24, 2011. See also Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons, The Invisible Gorilla (New York: Crown, 2009), 66—70.

20. For detailed summaries of Bartlett’s life and his work on memory, see H. L. Roediger, “Sir Frederic Charles Bartlett: Experimental and Applied Psychologist,” in Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology, vol. 4, ed. G. A. Kimble and M. Wertheimer (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2000), 149—61, and H. L. Roediger, E. T. Bergman, and M. L. Meade, “Repeated Reproduction from Memory,” in Bartlett, Culture and Cognition, ed. A. Saito (London, UK: Psychology Press, 2000), 115—34.

21. Sir Frederick Charles Bartlett, Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1932), 68.

22. Friedrich Wulf, “Beiträge zur Psychologie der Gestalt: VI. Über die Veränderung von Vorstellungen (Gedächtniss und Gestalt),” Psychologische Forschung 1 (1922): 333—75; G. W. Allport, “Change and Decay in the Visual Memory Image,” British Journal of Psychology 21 (1930): 133—48.

23. Bartlett, Remembering, 85.

24. Ulric Neisser, The Remembering Self: Construction and Accuracy in the Self-Narrative (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 6; see also Elizabeth Loftus, The Myth of Repressed Memory: False Memories and Allegations of Sexual Abuse (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1996), 91—92.

25. R. S. Nickerson and M. J. Adams, “Long-Term Memory for a Common Object,” Cognitive Psychology 11 (1979): 287—307.

26. For example, Lionel Standing et al., “Perception and Memory for Pictures: Single-Trial Learning of 2500 Visual Stimuli,” Psychonomic Science 19, no. 2 (1970): 73—74, and K. Pezdek et al., “Picture Memory: Recognizing Added and Deleted Details,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 14, no. 3 (1988): 468; quoted in Daniel J. Simons and Daniel T. Levin, “Change Blindness,” Trends in the Cognitive Sciences 1, no. 7 (October 1997): 261—67.

27. J. Grimes, “On the Failure to Detect Changes in Scenes Across Saccades,” in Perception, ed. K. Atkins, vol. 2 of Vancouver Studies in Cognitive Science (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 89—110.

28. Daniel T. Levin and Daniel J. Simons, “Failure to Detect Changes to Attended Objects in Motion Pictures,” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 4, no. 4 (1997): 501—6.

29. Daniel J. Simons and Daniel T. Levin, “Failure to Detect Changes to People During a Real-World Interaction,” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 5, no. 4 (1998): 644—48.

30. David G. Payne et al., “Memory Illusions: Recalling, Recognizing, and Recollecting Events That Never Occurred,” Journal of Memory and Language 35 (1996): 261—85.

31. Kimberly A. Wade et al., “A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Lies: Using False Photographs to Create False Childhood Memories,” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 9, no. 3 (2002): 597—602.

32. Elizabeth F. Loftus, “Planting Misinformation in the Human Mind: A 30-Year Investigation of the Malleability of Memory,” Learning & Memory 12 (2005): 361—66.

33. Kathryn A. Braun et al., “Make My Memory: How Advertising Can Change Our Memories of the Past,” Psychology and Marketing 19, no. 1 (January 2002): 1—23, and Elizabeth Loftus, “Our Changeable Memories: Legal and Practical Implications,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4 (March 2003): 231—34.

34. Loftus, “Our Changeable Memories,” and Shari R. Berkowitz et al., “Pluto Behaving Badly: False Beliefs and Their Consequences,” American Journal of Psychology 121, no. 4 (Winter 2008): 643—60.

35. S. J. Ceci et al., “Repeatedly Thinking About Non-events,” Consciousness and Cognition 3 (1994) 388—407; S. J. Ceci et al, “The Possible Role of Source Misattributions in the Creation of False Beliefs Among Preschoolers,” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 42 (1994), 304—20.

36. I. E. Hyman and F. J. Billings, “Individual Differences and the Creation of False Childhood Memories,” Memory 6, no. 1 (1998): 1—20.

37. Ira E. Hyman et al, “False Memories of Childhood Experiences,” Applied Cognitive Psychology 9 (1995): 181—97.


1. J. Kiley Hamlin et al., “Social Evaluation by Preverbal Infants,” Nature 450 (November 22, 2007): 557—59.

2. James K. Rilling, “A Neural Basis for Social Cooperation,” Neuron 35, no. 2 (July 2002): 395—405.

3. Stanley Schachter, The Psychology of Affiliation (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1959).

4. Naomi I. Eisenberger et al., “Does Rejection Hurt? An fMRI Study of Social Exclusion,” Science 10, no. 5643 (October 2003): 290—92.

5. C. Nathan DeWall et al., “Tylenol Reduces Social Pain: Behavioral and Neural Evidence,” Psychological Science 21 (2010): 931—37.

6. James S. House et al., “Social Relationships and Health,” Science 241 (July 29, 1988): 540—45.

7. Richard G. Klein, “Archeology and the Evolution of Human Behavior,” Evolutionary Anthropology 9 (2000): 17—37; Christopher S. Henshilwood and Curtis W. Marean, “The Origin of Modern Human Behavior: Critique of the Models and Their Test Implication,” Current Anthropology 44, no. 5 (December 2003): 627—51; and L. Brothers, “The Social Brain: A Project for Integrating Primate Behavior and Neurophysiology in a New Domain,” Concepts in Neuroscience 1 (1990): 27—51.

8. Klein, “Archeology and the Evolution of Human Behavior,” and Henshilwood and Marean, “The Origin of Modern Human Behavior.”

9. F. Heider and M. Simmel, “An Experimental Study of Apparent Behavior,” American Journal of Psychology 57 (1944): 243—59.

10. Josep Call and Michael Tomasello, “Does the Chimpanzee Have a Theory of Mind? 30 Years Later,” Cell 12, no. 5 (2008): 187—92.

11. J. Perner and H. Wimmer, “ ’John Thinks That Mary Thinks That … ’: Attribution of Second-Order Beliefs by 5- to 10-Year-Old Children,” Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 39 (1985): 437—71, and Angeline S. Lillard and Lori Skibbe, “Theory of Mind: Conscious Attribution and Spontaneous Trait Inference,” in The New Unconscious, ed. Ran R. Hassin et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 277—78; see also Matthew D. Lieberman, “Social Neuroscience: A Review of Core Processes,” Annual Review of Psychology 58 (2007): 259—89.

12. Oliver Sacks, An Anthropologist on Mars (New York: Knopf, 1995), 272.

13. Robin I. M. Dunbar, “The Social Brain Hypothesis,” Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 6, no. 5 (1998): 178—90.

14. Ibid.

15. R. A. Hill and R. I. M. Dunbar, “Social Network Size in Humans,” Human Nature 14, no. 1 (2003): 53—72, and Dunbar, “The Social Brain Hypothesis.”

16. Robin I. M. Dunbar, Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996).

17. Stanley Milgram, “The Small World Problem,” Psychology Today 1, no. 1 (May 1967): 61—67, and Jeffrey Travers and Stanley Milgram, “An Experimental Study of the Small World Problem,” Sociometry 32, no. 4 (December 1969): 425—43.

18. Peter Sheridan Dodds et al., “An Experimental Study of Search in Global Networks,” Science 301 (August 8, 2003): 827—29.

19. James P. Curley and Eric B. Keveme, “Genes, Brains and Mammalian Social Bonds,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20, no. 10 (October 2005).

20. Patricia Smith Churchland, “The Impact of Neuroscience on Philosophy,” Neuron 60 (November 6, 2008): 409—11, and Ralph Adolphs, “Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Social Behavior,” Nature Reviews 4 (March 2003): 165—78.

21. K. D. Broad et al., “Mother-Infant Bonding and the Evolution of Mammalian Social Relationships,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 361 (2006): 2199—214.

22. Thomas R. Insel and Larry J. Young, “The Neurobiology of Attachment,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2 (February 2001): 129—33.

23. Larry J. Young et al., “Anatomy and Neurochemistry of the Pair Bond,” Journal of Comparative Neurology 493 (2005): 51—57.

24. Churchland, “The Impact of Neuroscience on Philosophy.”

25. Zoe R. Donaldson and Larry J. Young, “Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and the Neurogenetics of Sociality,” Science 322 (November 7, 2008): 900—904.

26. Ibid.

27. Larry J. Young, “Love: Neuroscience Reveals All,” Nature 457 (January 8, 2009): 148; Paul J. Zak, “The Neurobiology of Trust,” Scientific American (June 2008): 88—95; Kathleen C. Light et al., “More Frequent Partner Hugs and Higher Oxytocin Levels are Linked to Lower Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Premenopausal Women,” Biological Psychiatry 69, no. 1 (April 2005): 5—21; and Karten M. Grewen et al., “Effect of Partner Support on Resting Oxytocin, Cortisol, Norepinephrine and Blood Pressure Before and After Warm Personal Contact,” Psychosomatic Medicine 67 (2005): 531—38.

28. Michael Kosfeld et al., “Oxytocin Increases Trust in Humans,” Nature 435 (June 2, 2005): 673—76; Paul J. Zak et al., “Oxytocin Is Associated with Human Trustworthiness,” Hormones and Behavior 48 (2005): 522—27; Angeliki Theodoridou, “Oxytocin and Social Perception: Oxytocin Increases Perceived Facial Trustworthiness and Attractiveness,” Hormones and Behavior 56, no. 1 (June 2009): 128—32; and Gregor Domes et al., “Oxytocin Improves ’Mind-Reading’ in Humans,” Biological Psychiatry 61 (2007): 731—33.

29. Donaldson and Young, “Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and the Neurogenetics of Sociality.”

30. Hassin et al., eds., The New Unconscious, 3—4.

31. Ibid., and Timothy D. Wilson, Strangers to Ourselves: Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious (Cambridge, MA: Belknap, 2002), 4.

32. Ellen Langer et al., “The Mindlessness of Ostensibly Thoughtful Action: The Role of ’Placebic’ Information in Interpersonal Interaction,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 36, no. 6 (1978): 635—42, and Robert P. Abelson, “Psychological Status of the Script Concept,” American Psychologist 36, no. 7 (July 1981): 715—29.

33. William James, The Principles of Psychology (New York: Henry Holt, 1890), 97—99.

34. C. S. Roy and C. S. Sherrington, “On the Regulation of the Blood-Supply of the Brain,” Journal of Physiology (London) 11 (1890): 85—108.

35. Tim Dalgleish, “The Emotional Brain,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5, no. 7 (2004): 582—89; see also Colin Camerer et al., “Neuroeconomics: How Neuroscience Can Inform Economics,” Journal of Economic Literature 43, no. 1 (March 2005): 9—64.

36. Lieberman, “Social Neuroscience.”

37. Ralph Adolphs, “Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Social Behavior,” Nature Reviews 4 (March 2003): 165—78.

38. Lieberman, “Social Neuroscience.”

39. Bryan Kolb and Ian Q. Whishaw, An Introduction to Brain and Behavior (New York: Worth, 2004), 410—11.

40. R. Glenn Northcutt and Jon H. Kaas, “The Emergence and Evolution of Mammalian Neocortex,” Trends in Neuroscience 18, no. 9 (1995): 373—79, and Jon H. Kaas, “Evolution of the Neocortex,” Current Biology 21, no. 16 (2006): R910—14.

41. Nikos K. Logothetis, “What We Can Do and What We Cannot Do with fMRI,” Nature 453 (June 12, 2008): 869—78. By the first research article employing fMRI, Logothetis meant the first employing fMRI that could be done without injections of contrast agents, which are impractical because they complicate the experimental procedure and inhibit the ability of researchers to recruit volunteers.

42. Lieberman, “Social Neuroscience.”


1. See Edward T. Heyn, “Berlin’s Wonderful Horse,” New York Times, September 4, 1904; “ ’Clever Hans’ Again,” New York Times, October 2, 1904; “A Horse—and the Wise Men,” New York Times, July 23, 1911; and “Can Horses Think? Learned Commission Says ’Perhaps,’ ” New York Times, August 31, 1913.

2. B. Hare et al., “The Domestication of Social Cognition in Dogs,” Science 298 (November 22, 2002): 1634—36; Brian Hare and Michael Tomasello, “Human-like Social Skills in Dogs?” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, no. 9 (2005): 440—44; and Á. Miklósi et al., “Comparative Social Cognition: What Can Dogs Teach Us?” Animal Behavior 67 (2004): 995—1004.

3. Monique A. R. Udell et al., “Wolves Outperform Dogs in Following Human Social Cues,” Animal Behavior 76 (2008): 1767—73.

4. Jonathan J. Cooper et al., “Clever Hounds: Social Cognition in the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris),” Applied Animal Behavioral Science 81 (2003): 229—44, and A. Whiten and R. W. Byrne, “Tactical Deception in Primates,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (2004): 233—73.

5. Hare, “The Domestication of Social Cognition in Dogs,” 1634, and E. B. Ginsburg and L. Hiestand, “Humanity’s Best Friend: The Origins of Our Inevitable Bond with Dogs,” in The Inevitable Bond: Examining Scientist-Animal Interactions, ed. H. Davis and D. Balfour (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 93—108.

6. Robert Rosenthal and Kermit L. Fode, “The Effect of Experimenter Bias on the Performance of the Albino Rat,” Behavioral Science 8, no. 3 (1963): 183—89; see also Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson, Pygmalion in the Classroom: Teacher Expectation and Pupils’ Intellectual Development (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1968), 37—38.

7. L. H. Ingraham and G. M. Harrington, “Psychology of the Scientist: XVI. Experience of E as a Variable in Reducing Experimenter Bias,” Psychological Reports 19 (1966): 455—461.

8. Robert Rosenthal and Kermit L. Fode, “Psychology of the Scientist: V. Three Experiments in Experimenter Bias,” Psychological Reports 12 (April 1963): 491—511.

9. Rosenthal and Jacobson, Pygmalion in the Classroom, 29.

10. Ibid.

11. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson, “Teacher’s Expectancies: Determinants of Pupil’s IQ Gains,” Psychological Reports 19 (August 1966): 115—18.

12. Simon E. Fischer and Gary F. Marcus, “The Eloquent Ape: Genes, Brains and the Evolution of Language,” Nature Reviews Genetics 7 (January 2006): 9—20.

13. L. A. Petitto and P. F. Marentette, “Babbling in the Manual Mode: Evidence for the Ontology of Language,” Science 251 (1991): 1493—96, and S. Goldin-Meadow and C. Mylander, “Spontaneous Sign Systems Created by Deaf Children in Two Cultures,” Nature 391 (1998): 279—81.

14. Charles Darwin, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin (1887, repr. New York: Norton, 1969), 141; see also Paul Ekman, “Introduction,” in Emotions Inside Out: 130 Years After Darwin’s “The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals” (New York: Annals of the N.Y. Academy of Science, 2003), 1—6.

15. For example, J. Bulwer, Chirologia; or, The Natural Language of the Hand (London: Harper, 1644); C. Bell, The Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression as Connected with the Fine Arts (London: George Bell, 1806); and G. B. Duchenne de Boulogne, Mécanismes de la Physionomie Humaine, ou Analyse Électrophysiologique de l’Expression des Passions (Paris: Baillière, 1862).

16. Peter O. Gray, Psychology (New York: Worth, 2007), 74—75.

17. Antonio Damasio, Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain (New York: Putnam, 1994), 141—42.

18. Quoted in Mark G. Frank et al., “Behavioral Markers and Recognizability of the Smile of Enjoyment,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64, no. 1 (1993): 87.

19. Ibid., 83—93.

20. Charles Darwin, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872; repr. New York: D. Appleton, 1886), 15—17.

21. James A. Russell, “Is There Universal Recognition of Emotion from Facial Expression? A Review of the Cross-Cultural Studies,” Psychological Bulletin 115, no. 1 (1994): 102—41.

22. See Ekman’s Afterword in Charles Darwin, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872; repr. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 363—93.

23. Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Friesen, “Constants Across Cultures in the Face and Emotion,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 17, no. 2 (1971): 124—29.

24. Paul Ekman, “Facial Expressions of Emotion: An Old Controversy and New Findings,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 335 (1992): 63—69. See also Rachel E. Jack et al., “Cultural Confusions Show That Facial Expressions Are Not Universal,” Current Biology 19 (September 29, 2009): 1543—48. That study found results that, despite the paper’s title, were “consistent with previous observations,” although East Asians confused fear and disgust with surprise and anger in Western faces more often than Westerners themselves did.

25. Edward Z. Tronick, “Emotions and Emotional Communication in Infants,” American Psychologist 44, no. 2 (February 1989): 112—19.

26. Dario Galati et al., “Voluntary Facial Expression of Emotion: Comparing Congenitally Blind with Normally Sighted Encoders,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73, no. 6 (1997): 1363—79.

27. Gary Alan Fine et al., “Couple Tie-Signs and Interpersonal Threat: A Field Experiment,” Social Psychology Quarterly 47, no. 3 (1984): 282—86.

28. Hans Kummer, Primate Societies (Chicago: Aldine-Atherton, 1971).

29. David Andrew Puts et al., “Dominance and the Evolution of Sexual Dimorphism in Human Voice Pitch,” Evolution and Human Behavior 27 (2006): 283—96; Joseph Henrich and Francisco J. Gil-White, “The Evolution of Prestige: Freely Conferred Deference as a Mechanism for Enhancing the Benefits of Cultural Transmission,” Evolution and Human Behavior 22 (2001): 165—96.

30. Allan Mazur et al., “Physiological Aspects of Communication via Mutual Gaze,” American Journal of Sociology 86, no. 1 (1980): 50—74.

31. John F. Dovidio and Steve L. Ellyson, “Decoding Visual Dominance: Attributions of Power Based on Relative Percentages of Looking While Speaking and Looking While Listening,” Social Psychology Quarterly 45, no. 2 (1982): 106—13.

32. R. V. Exline et al., “Visual Behavior as an Aspect of Power Role Relationships,” in Advances in the Study of Communication and Affect, vol. 2, ed. P. Pliner et al. (New York: Plenum, 1975), 21—52.

33. R. V. Exline et al., “Visual Dominance Behavior in Female Dyads: Situational and Personality Factors,” Social Psychology Quarterly 43, no. 3 (1980): 328—36.

34. John F. Dovidio et al., “The Relationship of Social Power to Visual Displays of Dominance Between Men and Women,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54, no. 2 (1988): 233—42.

35. S. Duncan and D. W. Fiske, Face-to-Face Interaction: Research, Methods, and Theory (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1977), and N. Capella, “”Controlling the Floor in Conversation,” in Multichannel Integrations of Nonverbal Behavior, ed. A. W. Siegman and S. Feldstein (Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1985), 69—103.

36. A. Atkinson et al., “Emotion Perception from Dynamic and Static Body Expressions in Point-Light and Full-Light Displays,” Perception 33 (2004): 717—46; “Perception of Emotion from Dynamic Point-Light Displays Represented in Dance,” Perception 25 (1996): 727—38; James E. Cutting and Lynn T. Kozlowski, “Recognizing Friends by Their Walk: Gait Perception Without Familiarity Cues,” Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 9, no. 5 (1977): 353—56; and James E. Cutting and Lynn T. Kozlowski, “Recognizing the Sex of a Walker from a Dynamic Point-Light Display,” Perception and Psychophysics 21, no. 6 (1977): 575—80.

37. S. H. Spence, “The Relationship Between Social-Cognitive Skills and Peer Sociometric Status,” British Journal of Developmental Psychology 5 (1987): 347—56.

38. M. A. Bayes, “Behavioral Cues of Interpersonal Warmth,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 39, no. 2 (1972): 333—39.

39. J. K. Burgoon et al., “Nonverbal Behaviors, Persuasion, and Credibility,” Human Communication Research 17 (Fall 1990): 140—69.

40. A. Mehrabian and M. Williams, “Nonverbal Concomitants of Perceived and Intended Persuasiveness,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 13, no. 1 (1969): 37—58.

41. Starkey Duncan Jr., “Nonverbal Communication,” Psychological Bulletin 77, no. 2 (1969): 118—37.

42. Harald G. Wallbott, “Bodily Expression of Emotion,” European Journal of Social Psychology 28 (1998): 879—96; Lynn A. Streeter et al., “Pitch Changes During Attempted Deception,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35, no. 5 (1977): 345—50; Allan Pease and Barbara Pease, The Definitive Book of Body Language (New York: Bantam, 2004); Bella M. DePaulo, “Nonverbal Behavior and Self Presentation,” Psychological Bulletin 11, no. 2 (1992): 203—43; Judith A. Hall et al., “Nonverbal Behavior and the Vertical Dimension of Social Relations: A Meta-analysis,” Psychological Bulletin 131, no. 6 (2005): 898—924; and Kate Fox, SIRC Guide to Flirting: What Social Science Can Tell You About Flirting and How to Do It, published online by the Social Issues Research Centre,


1. Grace Freed-Brown and David J. White, “Acoustic Mate Copying: Female Cowbirds Attend to Other Females’ Vocalizations to Modify Their Song Preferences,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276 (2009): 3319—25.

2. Ibid.

3. C. Nass et al., “Computers Are Social Actors,” Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference (Reading, MA: Association for Computing Machinery Press, 1994), 72—77; C. Nass et al., “Are Computers Gender Neutral?” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 27, no. 10 (1997): 864—76; and C. Nass and K. M. Lee, “Does Computer-Generated Speech Manifest Personality? An Experimental Test of Similarity-Attraction,” CHI Letters 2, no. 1 (April 2000): 329—36.

4. When we speak with someone we surely react to the content of their speech. But we also react, both consciously and unconsciously, to nonverbal qualities of the person that delivers it. By removing that person from the interaction, Nass and his colleagues focused on their subjects’ automatic reaction to the human voice. But maybe that’s not what was happening. Maybe the subjects were really responding to the physical box, the machine, and not the voice. There is no way, through pure logic, to know which it was, since both choices are equally inappropriate. So the researchers performed another experiment, in which they mixed things up. Some of the students in these experiments made their evaluations on computers that were not the machines that had tutored them but had the same voice. Others made their evaluations on the same computer that had taught them but had a different voice for the evaluation phase. The results showed that it was indeed the voice that the students were responding to, and not the physical machine.

5. Byron Reeves and Clifford Nass, The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 24.

6. Sarah A. Collins, “Men’s Voices and Women’s Choices,” Animal Behavior 60 (2000): 773—80.

7. David Andrew Puts et al., “Dominance and the Evolution of Sexual Dimorphism in Human Voice Pitch,” Evolution and Human Behavior 27 (2006): 283—96.

8. David Andrew Puts, “Mating Context and Menstrual Phase Affect Women’s Preferences for Male Voice Pitch,” Evolution and Human Behavior 26 (2005): 388—97.

9. R. Nathan Pepitone et al., “Women’s Voice Attractiveness Varies Across the Menstrual Cycle,” Evolution and Human Behavior 29, no. 4 (2008): 268—74.

10. Collins, “Men’s Voices and Women’s Choices.” Larger species produce lower-pitched vocalizations than smaller ones, but within a (mammal) species, that is not the case. Recently, however, a number of studies have indicated that the timbre or higher-frequency harmonics called the formant might be a more reliable indicator, at least of height. See Drew Rendall et al., “Lifting the Curtain on the Wizard of Oz: Biased Voice-Based Impressions of Speaker Size,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 33, no. 5 (2007): 1208—19.

11. L. Bruckert et al., “Women Use Voice Parameters to Assess Men’s Characteristics,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 273 (2006): 83—89.

12. C. L. Apicella et al., “Voice Pitch Predicts Reproductive Success in Male Hunter-Gatherers,” Biology Letters 3 (2007): 682—84.

13. Klaus R. Scherer et al., “Minimal Cues in the Vocal Communication of Affect: Judging Emotions from Content-Masked Speech,” Journal of Paralinguistic Research 1, no. 3 (1972): 269—85.

14. William Apple et al., “Effects of Speech Rate on Personal Attributions,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37, no. 5 (1979): 715—27.

15. Carl E. Williams and Kenneth N. Stevens, “Emotions and Speech: Some Acoustical Correlates,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 52, no. 4, part 2 (1972): 1238—50, and Scherer et al., “Minimal Cues in the Vocal Communication of Affect.”

16. Sally Feldman, “Speak Up,” New Humanist 123, no. 5 (September—October, 2008).

17. N. Guéguen, “Courtship Compliance: The Effect of Touch on Women’s Behavior,” Social Influence 2, no. 2 (2007): 81—97.

18. M. Lynn et al., “Reach Out and Touch Your Customers,” Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Quarterly 39, no. 3 (June 1998): 60—65; J. Hornik, “Tactile Stimulation and Consumer Response,” Journal of Consumer Research 19 (December 1992): 449—58; N. Guéguen and C. Jacob, “The Effect of Touch on Tipping: An Evaluation in a French Bar,” Hospitality Management 24 (2005): 295—99; N. Guéguen, “The Effect of Touch on Compliance with a Restaurant’s Employee Suggestion,” Hospitality Management 26 (2007): 1019—23; N. Guéguen, “Nonverbal Encouragement of Participation in a Course: The Effect of Touching,” Social Psychology of Education 7, no. 1 (2003): 89—98; J. Hornik and S. Ellis, “Strategies to Secure Compliance for a Mall Intercept Interview,” Public Opinion Quarterly 52 (1988): 539—51; N. Guéguen and J. Fischer-Lokou, “Tactile Contact and Spontaneous Help: An Evaluation in a Natural Setting,” The Journal of Social Psychology 143, no. 6 (2003): 785—87.

19. C. Silverthorne et al., “The Effects of Tactile Stimulation on Visual Experience,” Journal of Social Psychology 122 (1972): 153—54; M. Patterson et al., “Touch, Compliance, and Interpersonal Affect,” Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 10 (1986): 41—50; and N. Guéguen, “Touch, Awareness of Touch, and Compliance with a Request,” Perceptual and Motor Skills 95 (2002): 355—60.

20. Michael W. Krauss et al., “Tactile Communication, Cooperation, and Performance: An Ethological Study of the NBA,” Emotion 10, no. 5 (October 2010): 745—49.

21. India Morrison et al., “The Skin as a Social Organ,” Experimental Brain Research, published online September 22, 2009; Ralph Adolphs, “Conceptual Challenges and Directions for Social Neuroscience,” Neuron 65, no. 6 (March 25, 2010): 752—67.

22. Ralph Adolphs, interview by author, November 10, 2011.

23. Morrison et al., “The Skin as a Social Organ.”

24. R. I. M. Dunbar, “The Social Role of Touch in Humans and Primates: Behavioral Functions and Neurobiological Mechanisms,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 34 (2008): 260—68.

25. Matthew J. Hertenstein et al., “The Communicative Functions of Touch in Humans, Nonhuman Primates, and Rats: A Review and Synthesis of the Empirical Research,” Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs 132, no. 1 (2006): 5—94.

26. The debate scenario is from Alan Schroeder, Presidential Debates: Fifty Years of High-Risk TV, 2nd ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 2008).

27. Sidney Kraus, Televised Presidential Debates and Public Policy (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2000), 208—12. Note that Kraus incorrectly states that the Southern Governors’ Conference was in Arizona.

28. James N. Druckman, “The Power of Televised Images: The First Kennedy-Nixon Debate Revisited,” Journal of Politics 65, no. 2 (May 2003): 559—71.

29. Shawn W. Rosenberg et al., “The Image and the Vote: The Effect of Candidate Presentation on Voter Preference,” American Journal of Political Science 30, no. 1 (February 1986): 108—27, and Shawn W. Rosenberg et al., “Creating a Political Image: Shaping Appearance and Manipulating the Vote,” Political Behavior 13, no. 4 (1991): 345—66.

30. Alexander Todorov et al., “Inferences of Competence from Faces Predict Election Outcomes,” Science 308 (June 10, 2005): 1623—26.

31. It is interesting to note that while this is quite clear in photographs of Darwin, his nose seems to have been minimized in paintings.

32. Darwin Correspondence Database, 3235.

33. Charles Darwin, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin (1887; repr. Rockville, MD.: Serenity, 2008), 40.


1. David J. Freedman et al., “Categorical Representation of Visual Stimuli in the Primate Prefrontal Cortex,” Science 291 (January 2001): 312—16.

2. Henri Tajfel and A. L. Wilkes, “Classification and Quantitative Judgment,” British Journal of Psychology 54 (1963): 101—14; Oliver Corneille et al., “On the Role of Familiarity with Units of Measurement in Categorical Accentuation: Tajfel and Wilkes (1963) Revisited and Replicated,” Psychological Science 13, no. 4 (July 2002): 380—83.

3. Robert L. Goldstone, “Effects of Categorization on Color Perception,” Psychological Science 6, no. 5 (September 1995): 298—303.

4. Joachim Krueger and Russell W. Clement, “Memory-Based Judgments About Multiple Categories: A Revision and Extension of Tajfel’s Accentuation Theory,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67, no. 1 (July 1994): 35—47.

5. Linda Hamilton Krieger, “The Content of Our Categories: A Cognitive Bias Approach to Discrimination and Equal Employment Opportunity,” Stanford Law Review 47, no. 6 (July 1995): 1161—248.

6. Elizabeth Ewen and Stuart Ewen, Typecasting: On the Arts and Sciences of Human Inequality (New York: Seven Stories, 2008).

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid.

9. The image is from Giambattista della Porta, De Humana Physiognomonia Libri IIII. From the website of the National Library of Medicine: According to http://steven “I found these images at the Historical Anatomies on the Web exhibition which is part of the US National Library of Medicine which has over 70,000 images available online.”

10. Darrell J. Steffensmeier, “Deviance and Respectability: An Observational Study of Shoplifting,” Social Forces 51, no. 4 (June 1973): 417—26; see also Kenneth C. Mace, “The ’Overt-Bluff’ Shoplifter: Who Gets Caught?” Journal of Forensic Psychology 4, no. 1 (December 1972): 26—30.

11. H. T. Himmelweit, “Obituary: Henri Tajfel, FBPsS,” Bulletin of the British Psychological Society 35 (1982): 288—89.

12. William Peter Robinson, ed., Social Groups and Identities: Developing the Legacy of Henri Tajfel (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996), 3.

13. Ibid.

14. Henri Tajfel, Human Groups and Social Categories (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

15. Robinson, ed., Social Groups and Identities, 5.

16. Krieger, “The Content of Our Categories.”

17. Anthony G. Greenwald et al., “Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74, no. 6 (1998): 1464—80; see also Brian A. Nosek et al., “The Implicit Association Test at Age 7: A Methodological and Conceptual Review,” in Automatic Processes in Social Thinking and Behavior, ed. J. A. English (New York: Psychology Press, 2007), 265—92.

18. Elizabeth Milne and Jordan Grafman, “Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Lesions in Humans Eliminate Implicit Gender Stereotyping,” Journal of Neuroscience 21 (2001): 1—6.

19. Gordon W. Allport, The Nature of Prejudice (Cambridge: Addison-Wesley, 1954), 20—23.

20. Ibid., 4—5.

21. Joseph Lelyveld, Great Soul: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle with India (New York: Knopf, 2011).

22. Ariel Dorfman, “Che Guevara: The Guerrilla,” Time, June 14, 1999.

23. Marian L. Tupy, “Che Guevara and the West,” Cato Institute: Commentary (November 10, 2009).

24. Krieger, “The Content of Our Categories,” 1184. Strangely, the woman lost her case. Her lawyers appealed, but the appeals court upheld the verdict, dismissing the statement as a “stray remark.”

25. Millicent H. Abel and Heather Watters, “Attributions of Guilt and Punishment as Functions of Physical Attractiveness and Smiling,” Journal of Social Psychology 145, no. 6 (2005): 687—702; Michael G. Efran, “The Effect of Physical Appearance on the Judgment of Guilt, Interpersonal Attraction, and Severity of Recommended Punishment in a Simulated Jury Task,” Journal of Research in Personality 8, no. 1 (June 1974): 45—54; Harold Sigall and Nancy Ostrove, “Beautiful but Dangerous: Effects of Offender Attractiveness and Nature of the Crime on Juridic Judgment,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31, no. 3 (1975): 410—14; Jochen Piehl, “Integration of Information in the Courts: Influence of Physical Attractiveness on Amount of Punishment for a Traffic Offender,” Psychological Reports 41, no. 2 (October 1977): 551—56; and John E. Stewart II, “Defendant’s Attractiveness as a Factor in the Outcome of Criminal Trials: An Observational Study,” Journal of Applied Psychology 10, no. 4 (August 1980): 348—61.

26. Rosaleen A. McCarthy and Elizabeth K. Warrington, “Visual Associative Agnosia: A Clinico-Anatomical Study of a Single Case,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 49 (1986): 1233—40.


1. Muzafer Sherif et al., Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robbers Cave Experiment (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961).

2. L. Keeley, War Before Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996).

3. N. Chagnon, Yanomamo (Fort Worth: Harcourt, 1992).

4. Blake E. Ashforth and Fred Mael, “Social Identity Theory and the Organization,” Academy of Management Review 14, no. 1 (1989): 20—39.

5. Markus Brauer, “Intergroup Perception in the Social Context: The Effects of Social Status and Group Membership on Perceived Out-Group Homogeneity,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 37 (2001): 15—31.

6. K. L. Dion, “Cohesiveness as a Determinant of Ingroup-Outgroup Bias,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 28 (1973): 163—71, and Ashforth and Mael, “Social Identity Theory.”

7. Charles K. Ferguson and Harold H. Kelley, “Significant Factors in Overevaluation of Own-Group’s Product,” Journal of Personaliity and Social Psychology 69, no. 2 (1064): 223—28.

8. Patricia Linville et al., “Perceived Distributions of the Characteristics of In-Group and Out-Group Members: Empirical Evidence and a Computer Simulation,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57, no. 2 (1989): 165—88, and Bernadette Park and Myron Rothbart, “Perception of Out-Group Homogeneity and Levels of Social Categorization: Memory for the Subordinate Attributes of In-Group and Out-Group Members,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42, no. 6 (1982): 1051—68.

9. Park and Rothbart, “Perception of Out-Group Homogeneity.”

10. Margaret Shih et al., “Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance,” Psychological Science 10, no. 1 (January 1999): 80—83.

11. Noah J. Goldstein and Robert B. Cialdini, “Normative Influences on Consumption and Conservation Behaviors,” in Social Psychology and Consumer Behavior, ed. Michaela Wänke (New York: Psychology Press, 2009), 273—96.

12. Robert B. Cialdini et al., “Managing Social Norms for Persuasive Impact,” Social Influence 1, no. 1 (2006): 3—15.

13. Marilyn B. Brewer and Madelyn Silver, “Ingroup Bias as a Function of Task Characteristics,” European Journal of Social Psychology 8 (1978): 393—400.

14. Ashforth and Mael, “Social Identity Theory.”

15. Henri Tajfel, “Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination,” Scientific American 223 (November 1970): 96—102, and H. Tajfel et al., “Social Categorization and Intergroup Behavior,” European Journal of Social Psychology 1, no. 2 (1971): 149—78.

16. Sherif et al., Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation, 209.

17. Robert Kurzban et al., “Can Race be Erased? Coalitional Computation and Social Categorization,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98, no. 26 (December 18, 2001): 15387—92.


1. Corbett H. Thigpen and Hervey Cleckley, “A Case of Multiple Personalities,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 49, no. 1 (1954): 135—51.

2. Charles E. Osgood and Zella Luria, “A Blind Analysis of a Case of Multiple Personality Using the Semantic Differential,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 49, no. 1 (1954): 579—91.

3. Nadine Brozan, “The Real Eve Sues to Film the Rest of Her Story,” New York Times, February 7, 1989.

4. Piercarlo Valdesolo and David DeSteno, “Manipulations of Emotional Context Shape Moral Judgment,” Psychological Science 17, no. 6 (2006): 476—77.

5. Steven W. Gangestad et al., “Women’s Preferences for Male Behavioral Displays Change Across the Menstrual Cycle,” Psychological Science 15, no. 3 (2004): 203—7, and Kristina M. Durante et al., “Changes in Women’s Choice of Dress Across the Ovulatory Cycle: Naturalistic and Laboratory Task-Based Evidence,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34 (2008): 1451—60.

6. John F. Kihlstrom and Stanley B. Klein, “Self-Knowledge and Self-Awareness,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 818 (December 17, 2006): 5—17, and Shelley E. Taylor and Jonathan D. Brown, “Illusion and Well-Being: A Social Psychological Perspective on Mental Health,” Psychological Bulletin 103, no. 2 (1988): 193—210.

7. H. C. Kelman, “Deception in Social Research,” Transaction 3 (1966): 20—24; see also Steven J. Sherman, “On the Self-Erasing Nature of Errors of Prediction,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39, no. 2 (1980): 211—21.

8. E. Grey Dimond et al., “Comparison of Internal Mammary Artery Ligation and Sham Operation for Angina Pectoris,” American Journal of Cardiology 5, no. 4 (April 1960): 483—86; see also Walter A. Brown, “The Placebo Effect,” Scientific American (January 1998): 90—95.

9. William James, “What Is an Emotion?” Mind 9, no. 34 (April 1884): 188—205.

10. Tor D. Wager, “The Neural Bases of Placebo Effects in Pain,” Current Directions in Psychological Science 14, no. 4 (2005): 175—79, and Tor D. Wager et al., “Placebo-Induced Changes in fMRI in the Anticipation and Experience of Pain,” Science 303 (February 2004): 1162—67.

11. James H. Korn, “Historians’ and Chairpersons’ Judgments of Eminence Among Psychologists,” American Psychologist 46, no. 7 (July 1991): 789—92.

12. William James to Carl Strumpf, February 6, 1887, in The Correspondence of William James, vol. 6, ed. Ignas K. Skrupskelis and Elizabeth M. Berkeley (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992), 202.

13. D. W. Bjork, The Compromised Scientist: William James in the Development of American Psychology (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983), 12.

14. Henry James, ed., The Letters of William James (Boston: Little, Brown, 1926), 393—94.

15. Stanley Schachter and Jerome E. Singer, “Cognitive, Social, and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State,” Psychological Review 69, no. 5 (September 1962): 379—99.

16. Joanne R. Cantor et al., “Enhancement of Experienced Sexual Arousal in Response to Erotic Stimuli Through Misattribution of Unrelated Residual Excitation,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32, no. 1 (1975): 69—75.

17. See

18. Donald G. Dutton and Arthur P. Aron, “Some Evidence for Heightened Sexual Attraction Under Conditions of High Anxiety,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 30, no. 4 (1974): 510—17.

19. Fritz Strack et al., “Inhibiting and Facilitating Conditions of the Human Smile: A Nonobtrusive Test of the Facial Feedback Hypothesis,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54, no. 5 (1988): 768—77, and Lawrence W. Barsalou et al., “Social Embodiment,” Psychology of Learning and Motivation 43 (2003): 43—92.

20. Peter Johansson et al., “Failure to Detect Mismatches Between Intention and Outcome in a Simple Decision Task,” Science 310 (October 7, 2005): 116—19.

21. Lars Hall et al., “Magic at the Marketplace: Choice Blindness for the Taste of Jam and the Smell of Tea,” Cognition 117, no. 1 (October 2010): 54—61.

22. Wendy M. Rahm et al., “Rationalization and Derivation Processes in Survey Studies of Political Candidate Evaluation,” American Journal of Political Science 38, no. 3 (August 1994): 582—600.

23. Joseph LeDoux, The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996), 32—33, and Michael Gazzaniga, “The Split Brain Revisited,” Scientific American 279, no. 1 (July 1998): 51—55.

24. Oliver Sacks, The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998), 108—11.

25. J. Haidt, “The Emotional Dog and Its Rational Tail: A Social Intuitionist Approach to Moral Judgment,” Psychological Review 108, no. 4 (2001): 814—34.

26. Richard E. Nisbett and Timothy DeCamp Wilson, “Telling More Than We Can Know: Verbal Reports on Mental Processes,” Psychological Review 84, no. 3 (May 1977): 231—59.

27. Richard E. Nisbett and Timothy DeCamp Wilson, “Verbal Reports About Causal Influences on Social Judgments: Private Access Versus Public Theories,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35, no. 9 (September 1977): 613—24; see also Nisbett and Wilson, “Telling More Than We Can Know.”

28. E. Aronson et al., “The Effect of a Pratfall on Increasing Personal Attractiveness,” Psychonomic Science 4 (1966): 227—28, and M. J. Lerner, “Justice, Guilt, and Veridicial Perception,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 20 (1971): 127—35.

10. SELF

1. Robert Block, “Brown Portrays FEMA to Panel as Broken and Resource-Starved,” Wall Street Journal, September 28, 2005.

2. Dale Carnegie, How to Win Friends and Influence People (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1936), 3—5.

3. College Board, Student Descriptive Questionnaire (Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1976—77).

4. P. Cross, “Not Can but Will College Teaching Be Improved?” New Directions for Higher Education 17 (1977): 1—15.

5. O. Svenson, “Are We All Less Risky and More Skillful Than Our Fellow Driver?” Acta Psychologica 47 (1981): 143—48, and L. Larwood and W. Whittaker, “Managerial Myopia: Self-Serving Biases in Organizational Planning,” Journal of Applied Psychology 62 (1977): 194—98.

6. David Dunning et al., “Flawed Self-Assessment: Implications for Health, Education, and the Workplace,” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 5, no. 3 (2004): 69—106.

7. B. M Bass and F. J Yamarino, “Congruence of Self and Others’ Leadership Ratings of Naval Officers for Understanding Successful Performance,” Applied Psychology 40 (1991): 437—54.

8. Scott R. Millis et al., “Assessing Physicians’ Interpersonal Skills: Do Patients and Physicians See Eye-to-Eye?” American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 81, no. 12 (December 2002): 946—51, and Jocelyn Tracey et al., “The Validity of General Practitioners’ Self Assessment of Knowledge: Cross Sectional Study,” BMJ 315 (November 29, 1997): 1426—28.

9. Dunning et al., “Flawed Self-Assessment.”

10. A. C. Cooper et al., “Entrepreneurs’ Perceived Chances for Success,” Journal of Business Venturing 3 (1988): 97—108, and L. Larwood and W. Whittaker, “Managerial Myopia: Self-Serving Biases in Organizational Planning,” Journal of Applied Psychology 62 (1977): 194—98.

11. Dunning et al., “Flawed Self-Assessment,” and David Dunning, Self-Insight: Roadblocks and Detours on the Path to Knowing Thyself (New York: Psychology Press, 2005), 6—9.

12. M. L. A. Hayward and D. C. Hambrick, “Explaining the Premiums Paid for Large Acquisitions: Evidence of CEO Hubris,” Administrative Science Quarterly 42 (1997): 103—27, and U. Malmendier and G. Tate, “Who Makes Acquisitions? A Test of the Overconfidence Hypothesis,” Stanford Research Paper 1798 (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University, 2003).

13. T. Odean, “Volume, Volatility, Price, and Profit When All Traders Are Above Average,” Journal of Finance 8 (1998): 1887—934. For Schiller’s survey, see Robert J. Schiller, Irrational Exuberance (New York: Broadway Books, 2005), 154—55.

14. E. Pronin et al., “The Bias Blind Spot: Perception of Bias in Self Versus Others,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28 (2002): 369—81; Emily Pronin, “Perception and Misperception of Bias in Human Judgment,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11, no. 1 (2006): 37—43, and J. Friedrich, “On Seeing Oneself as Less Self-Serving Than Others: The Ultimate Self-Serving Bias?” Teaching of Psychology 23 (1996): 107—9.

15. Vaughan Bell et al., “Beliefs About Delusions,” Psychologist 16, no. 8 (August 2003): 418—23, and Vaughan Bell, “Jesus, Jesus, Jesus,” Slate (May 26, 2010).

16. Dan P. McAdams, “Personal Narratives and the Life Story,” in Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, ed. Oliver John et al. (New York: Guilford, 2008), 242—62.

17. F. Heider, The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations (New York: Wiley, 1958).

18. Robert E. Knox and James A. Inkster, “Postdecision Dissonance at Post Time,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 8, no. 4 (1968): 319—23, and Edward E. Lawler III et al., “Job Choice and Post Decision Dissonance,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 13 (1975): 133—45.

19. Ziva Kunda, “The Case for Motivated Reasoning,” Psychological Bulletin 108, no. 3 (1990): 480—98; see also David Dunning, “Self-Image Motives and Consumer Behavior: How Sacrosanct Self-Beliefs Sway Preferences in the Marketplace,” Journal of Consumer Psychology 17, no. 4 (2007): 237—49.

20. Emily Balcetis and David Dunning, “See What You Want To See: Motivational Influences on Visual Perception,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, no. 4 (2006): 612—25.

21. To be certain they weren’t actually seeing both animals, the researchers also employed an eye-tracking system capable of identifying, from unconscious eye movements, how the subjects really were interpreting the figure.

22. Albert H. Hastorf and Hadley Cantril, “They Saw a Game: A Case Study,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 49 (1954): 129—34.

23. George Smoot and Keay Davidson, Wrinkles in Time: Witness to the Birth of the Universe (New York: Harper Perennial, 2007), 79—86.

24. Jonathan J. Koehler, “The Influence of Prior Beliefs on Scientific Judgments of Evidence Quality,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 56 (1993): 28—55.

25. See Koehler’s article for a discussion of this behavior from the Bayesian point of view.

26. Paul Samuelson, The Collected Papers of Paul Samuelson (Boston: MIT Press, 1986), 53. He was paraphrasing Max Planck, who said, “It is not that old theories are disproved, it is just that their supporters die out.” See Michael Szenberg and Lall Ramrattan, eds., New Frontiers in Economics (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 3—4.

27. Susan L. Coyle, “Physician-Industry Relations. Part 1: Individual Physicians,” Annals of Internal Medicine 135, no. 5 (2002): 396—402.

28. Ibid.; Karl Hackenbrack and Mark W. Wilson, “Auditors’ Incentives and Their Application of Financial Accounting Standards,” Accounting Review 71, no. 1 (January 1996): 43—59; Robert A. Olsen, “Desirability Bias Among Professional Investment Managers: Some Evidence from Experts,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 10 (1997): 65—72; and Vaughan Bell et al., “Beliefs About Delusions,” Psychologist 16, no. 8 (August 2003): 418—23.

29. Drew Westen et al., “Neural Bases of Motivated Reasoning: An fMRI Study of Emotional Constraints on Partisan Political Judgment in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18, no. 11 (2006): 1947—58.

30. Ibid.

31. Peter H. Ditto and David F. Lopez, “Motivated Skepticism: Use of Differential Decision Criteria for Preferred and Nonpreferred Conclusions,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63, no. 4: 568—84.

32. Naomi Oreskes, “The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change,” Science 306 (December 3, 2004): 1686, and Naomi Oreskes and Erik M. Conway, Merchants of Doubt (New York: Bloomsbury, 2010), 169—70.

33. Charles G. Lord et al., “Biased Assimilation and Attitude Polarization: The Effects of Prior Theories on Subsequently Considered Evidence,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37, no. 11 (1979): 2098—109.

34. Robert P. Vallone et al., “The Hostile Media Phenomenon: Biased Perception and Perceptions of Media Bias in Coverage of the Beirut Massacre,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 49, no. 3 (1985): 577—85.

35. Daniel L. Wann and Thomas J. Dolan, “Attributions of Highly Identified Sports Spectators,” Journal of Social Psychology 134, no. 6 (1994): 783—93, and Daniel L. Wann and Thomas J. Dolan, “Controllability and Stability in the Self-Serving Attributions of Sport Spectators,” Journal of Social Psychology 140, no. 2 (1998): 160—68.

36. Stephen E. Clapham and Charles R. Schwenk, “Self-Serving Attributions, Managerial Cognition, and Company Performance,” Strategic Management Journal 12 (1991): 219—29.

37. Ian R. Newby-Clark et al., “People Focus on Optimistic Scenarios and Disregard Pessimistic Scenarios While Predicting Task Completion Times,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 6, no. 3 (2000): 171—82.

38. David Dunning, “Strangers to Ourselves?” Psychologist 19, no. 10 (October 2006): 600—604; see also Dunning et al., “Flawed Self-Assessment.”

39. R. Buehler et al., “Inside the Planning Fallacy: The Causes and Consequences of Optimistic Time Predictions,” in Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment, ed. T. Gilovitch et al. (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 251—70.

40. Eric Luis Uhlmann and Geoffrey L. Cohen, “Constructed Criteria,” Psychological Science 16, no. 6 (2005): 474—80.

41. Regarding all the experiments in this series, see Linda Babcock and George Loewenstein, “Explaining Bargaining Impasse: The Role of Self-Serving Biases,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 11, no. 1 (Winter 1997): 109—26. See also Linda Babcock et al., “Biased Judgments of Fairness in Bargaining,” American Economic Review 85, no. 5 (1995): 1337—43, and the authors’ other related work cited in Babcock and Loewenstein.

42. Shelley E. Taylor and Jonathan D. Brown, “Illusion and Well-Being: A Social Psychological Perspective on Mental Health,” Psychological Bulletin 103, no. 2 (1988): 193—210.

43. David Dunning et al., “Self-Serving Prototypes of Social Categories,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61, no. 6 (1991): 957—68.

44. Harry P. Bahrick et al., “Accuracy and Distortion in Memory for High School Grades,” Psychological Science 7, no. 5 (September 1996): 265—71.

45. Steve Jobs, Stanford University commencement address, 2005.

46. Stanley Meisler, “The Surreal World of Salvador Dalí,” Smithsonian Magazine (April 2005).

47. Taylor and Brown, “Illusion and Well-Being”; Alice M. Isen et al., “Positive Affect Facilitates Creative Problem Solving,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52, no. 6 (1987): 1122—31; and Peter J. D. Carnevale and Alice M. Isen, “The Influence of Positive Affect and Visual Access on the Discovery of Integrative Solutions in Bilateral Negotiations,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 37 (1986): 1—13.

48. Taylor and Brown, “Illusion and Well-Being,” and Dunning, “Strangers to Ourselves?”

49. Taylor and Brown, “Illusion and Well-Being.”