Insight: Why We're Not as Self-Aware as We Think, and How Seeing Ourselves Clearly Helps Us Succeed at Work and in Life - Tasha Eurich 2017
Chapter 1: The Meta-Skill of the Twenty-First Century
“I heard the bullets whistle”: George Washington. Letter to John A. Washington. May 31, 1754. MS. N.p.
“I shall not fear the attack”: George Washington. Letter to Robert Dinwiddie. June 3, 1754. MS. N.p.
“advancing when he should”: Ron Chernow. Washington: A Life. Penguin, 2010, p. 49.
“Any ape can reach”: Vilayanur S. Ramachandran. The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Quest for What Makes Us Human. W. W. Norton & Company, 2012, p. 4.
Some have even argued: Mark R. Leary and Nicole R. Buttermore. “The evolution of the human self: Tracing the natural history of self-awareness.” Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 33.4 (2003): 365—404.
it came with a survival: Donna Hart and Robert W. Sussman. Man the Hunted: Primates, Predators, and Human Evolution. Basic Books, 2005, pp. 159—164.
people who know themselves: This finding comes from our self-awareness research program.
They make smarter decisions: D. Scott Ridley, et al. “Self-regulated learning: The interactive influence of metacognitive awareness and goal-setting.” Journal of Experimental Education 60.4 (1992): 293—306; Saundra H. Glover, et al. “Re-examining the influence of individual values on ethical decision making.” From the Universities to the Marketplace: The Business Ethics Journey. Springer Netherlands, 1997. 109—119.
They have better personal: Stephen L. Franzoi, Mark H. Davis, and Richard D. Young. “The effects of private self-consciousness and perspective taking on satisfaction in close relationships.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48.6 (1985): 1584—1594.
and professional relationships: Clive Fletcher and Caroline Bailey. “Assessing self-awareness: Some issues and methods.” Journal of Managerial Psychology 18.5 (2003): 395—404; John J. Sosik and Lara E. Megerian. “Understanding leader emotional intelligence and performance: The role of self-other agreement on transformational leadership perceptions.” Group & Organization Management 24.3 (1999): 367—390.
They raise more mature children: Heather K. Warren and Cynthia A. Stifter. “Maternal emotion-related socialization and preschoolers’ developing emotion self-awareness.” Social Development 17.2 (2008): 239—258.
They’re smarter: Vladimir D. Shadrikov. “The role of reflection and reflexivity in the development of students’ abilities.” Psychology in Russia: State of the Art 6.2 (2013).
choose better careers: Chris Brown, Roberta George-Curran, and Marian L. Smith. “The role of emotional intelligence in the career commitment and decision-making process.” Journal of Career Assessment 11.4 (2003): 379—392; Romila Singh and Jeffrey H. Greenhaus. “The relation between career decision-making strategies and person-job fit: A study of job changers.” Journal of Vocational Behavior 64.1 (2004): 198—221.
more creative: See Paul J. Silvia and Maureen E. O’Brien. “Self-awareness and constructive functioning: Revisiting ’the human dilemma.’ ” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 23.4 (2004): 475, 480—481.
more confident: Anna Sutton, Helen M. Williams, and Christopher W. Allinson. “A longitudinal, mixed method evaluation of self-awareness training in the workplace.” European Journal of Training and Development 39.7 (2015): 610—627.
better communicators: Ibid.
less aggressive: Peter Fischer, Tobias Greitemeyer, and Dieter Frey. “Unemployment and aggression: The moderating role of self-awareness on the effect of unemployment on aggression.” Aggressive Behavior 34.1 (2008): 34—45.
less likely to lie: See Paul J. Silvia and Maureen E. O’Brien. “Self-awareness and constructive functioning: Revisiting ’the human dilemma.’ ” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 23.4 (2004): 475, 479—480.
better performers at work: Allan H. Church, “Managerial self-awareness in high-performing individuals in organizations.” Journal of Applied Psychology 82.2 (1997): 281—292.
get more promotions: Bernard M. Bass and Francis J. Yammarino. “Congruence of self and others’ leadership ratings of naval officers for understanding successful performance.” Applied Psychology 40.4 (1991): 437—454.
more effective leaders: Bass and Yammarino, “Congruence of self and others’ leadership ratings”; Malcolm Higgs and Deborah Rowland. “Emperors with clothes on: The role of self-awareness in developing effective change leadership.” Journal of Change Management 10.4 (2010): 369—385.
more enthusiastic employees: Kenneth N. Wexley, et al. “Attitudinal congruence and similarity as related to interpersonal evaluations in manager-subordinate dyads.” Academy of Management Journal 23.2 (1980): 320—330.
lead more profitable: Atuma Okpara, et al. “Self awareness and organizational performance in the Nigerian banking sector.” European Journal of Research and Reflection in Management Sciences 3.1 (2015); Harry Schrage. “The R&D entrepreneur: Profile of success.” Harvard Business Review, November—December, 1965, 56—69; Korn Ferry Institute. “Korn Ferry Institute study shows link between self-awareness and company financial performance,” kornferry.com, June 15, 2015, http://www.kornferry.com/press/korn-ferry-institute-study-shows-link-between-self-awareness-and-company-financial-performance/.
600 percent more likely: PDI Ninth House. “Accurate self-insight decreases derailment risk,” Leadership Research Bulletin, January 24, 2013, http://www.kornferry.com/institute/565-accurate-self-insight-decreases-derailment-risk.
a staggering $50 million: J. Evelyn Orr, Victoria V. Swisher, King Y. Tang, and Kenneth De Meuse. “Illuminating blind spots and hidden strengths,” kornferry.com, September 2010, http://www.kornferry.com/media/lominger_pdf/Insights_Illuminating_Blind_Spots_and_Hidden_Strengths.pdf.
trouble figuring out: University of Phoenix School of Business. “Nearly three-fourths of US workers in their 30s want a career change,” University of Phoenix News release, July 29, 2015, http://www.phoenix.edu/news/releases/2015/07/uopx-survey-reveals-three-fourths-us-workers-in-their-thirties-want-career-change.html; http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/nlsoy.pdf.
“are often flawed”: David Dunning, Chip Heath, and Jerry M. Suls. “Flawed self-assessment implications for health, education, and the workplace.” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 5.3 (2004): 69—106.
“more than most, Washington’s biography”: W. W. Abbot, “An Uncommon Awareness of Self,” Prologue: Quarterly Journal of the National Archives and Records Administration 29 (1989): 7—19; repr. in George Washington Reconsidered, ed. Don Higginbotham (University Press of Virginia: 2001).
Washington 2.0 reveled: Chernow, p. 603.
“I can bear to hear”: Ibid., p. 603.
“studied every side”: Ibid., p. 521.
“consult[ing] with our means”: Ibid., p. 378.
“While I realize the arduous nature”: Ibid., p. 560.
After surveying thousands: If you’re wondering whether a sample of 50 people is enough to glean meaningful conclusions about self-awareness, it may be important to point out the difference between quantitative and qualitative research. Though much of our research was quantitative—that is, giving people numeric surveys—our examination of our self-awareness unicorns was qualitative in nature. Qualitative research delves deeper into each participant—in our case, with extensive interviews—in order to look for themes and patterns. And for a qualitative study, 50 is actually a pretty high number, especially considering that the unicorns were so difficult to find!
nearly 30 million Nigerians: “INEC Officially Announces Buhari as Winner of Presidential Race,” pulse.ng, April 1, 2015, http://pulse.ng/politics/nigeria-elections-2015-inec-officially-announces-buhari-as-winner-of-presidential-race-id3619743.html.
Chapter 2: The Anatomy of Self-Awareness
They built massive palaces: History.com staff. “Mayan scientific achievements,” History.com, 2010, http://www.history.com/topics/mayan-scientific-achievements.
Mayans reached an all-time high: Michon Scott. “Mayan mysteries,” earthobservatory.nasa.gov, August 24, 2004, http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Maya/.
by AD 950, 95 percent: Ibid.
combination of massive: Billie L. Turner and Jeremy A. Sabloff. “Classic Period collapse of the Central Maya Lowlands: Insights about human—environment relationships for sustainability.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109.35 (2012): 13908—13914.
survivors moved away: Joseph Stromberg. “Why did the Mayan civilization collapse? A new study points to deforestation and climate change,” smithsonianmag.com, August 23, 2012, http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-did-the-mayan-civilization-collapse-a-new-study-points-to-deforestation-and-climate-change-30863026/?no-ist.
Diamond finally solved: Brian Wu. “Blue hole of Belize may explain what happened to the Mayans,” sciencetimes.com, December 30, 2014, http://www.sciencetimes.com/articles/2257/20141230/blue-hole-of-belize-may-explain-what-happened-to-the-mayans.htm.
topic of self-awareness: Greg C. Ashley and Roni Reiter-Palmon. “Self-awareness and the evolution of leaders: The need for a better measure of self-awareness.” Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management 14.1 (2012): 2—17.
happiness was achieved: D. Brett King, William Douglas Woody, and Wayne Viney. History of Psychology: Ideas and Context. Routledge, 2015.
“enquiry into the truth”: Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries. Telling Fairy Tales in the Boardroom: How to Make Sure Your Organization Lives Happily Ever After. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 28.
“the prerequisite for any”: Rabbi Shlomo Wolbe, Alei Shur, Volume 1. Bais Hamussar, 1968, p. 141.
“self-awareness is essential”: Deborah L. Black. “Avicenna on self-awareness and knowing that one knows,” in S. Rahman et al. (eds.), The Unity of Science in the Arabic Tradition. Springer, 2008, pp. 63—87, http://individual.utoronto.ca/dlblack/articles/blackselfknrev.pdf.
“everyone’s looking at me”: Paul J. Silvia and T. Shelley Duval. “Objective self-awareness theory: Recent progress and enduring problems.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 5.3 (2001): 230—241.
self-awareness being more akin: Allan Fenigstein, Michael F. Scheier, and Arnold H. Buss. “Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 43.4 (1975): 522—527.
from introspection: Paul D. Trapnell and Jennifer D. Campbell. “Private self-consciousness and the five-factor model of personality: Distinguishing rumination from reflection.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76.2 (1999): 284—304.
pondering how other people: Arthur I. Wohlers and Manuel London. “Ratings of managerial characteristics: evaluation difficulty, co-worker agreement, and self-awareness.” Personnel Psychology 42.2 (1989): 235—261.
difference between how: John T. Kulas and Lisa M. Finkelstein. “Content and reliability of discrepancy-defined self-awareness in multisource feedback.” Organizational Research Methods 10.3 (2007): 502—522.
“not a single moral principle”: Benjamin Franklin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Garden City Publishing Company, 1916, 1179 out of 2559 in eBook.
along with inventing: The Independent Hall Association. “The electric Benjamin Franklin,” ushistory.org, http://www.ushistory.org/franklin/info/inventions.htm.
“evergreen shoots”: Ben Huh. “I cheated on my life goals and life actually got better,” medium.com, August 27, 2015, https://medium.com/@benhuh/i-cheated-on-my-life-goals-and-life-actually-got-better-78121bdf1790#.al1gu1kan.
2,500 personality assessments: Lucy Ash. “Personality tests: Can they indentify the real you?” BBC News Magazine, July 6, 2012, http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-18723950.
perspective-taking: Jeffrey A. Joireman, Les Parrott III, and Joy Hammersla. “Empathy and the self-absorption paradox: Support for the distinction between self-rumination and self-reflection.” Self and Identity 1.1 (2002): 53—65.
“neutral third party”: I’d like to thank Chip Heath for informing me about this study! Eli J. Finkel, et al. “A brief intervention to promote conflict reappraisal preserves marital quality over time.” Psychological Science (2013): 1595—1601.
“Zoom In, Zoom Out”: Richard Weissbourd. “The children we mean to raise,” huffingtonpost.com, July 16, 2014, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/richard-weissbourd/the-children-we-mean-to-raise_b_5589259.html.
“[My friend] kindly informed”: Benjamin Franklin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Garden City Publishing Company, 1916.
early formative experiences: Charles Margerison and A. Kakabadse. “How American chief executives succeed.” New York: American Management Association (1984).
“challenges values or norms”: Seana Moran. “Purpose: Giftedness in intrapersonal intelligence.” High Ability Studies 20.2 (2009): 143—159.
Because earthquake events: Morgan W. McCall, Jr., Michael M. Lombardo, and Ann M. Morrison. Lessons of Experience: How Successful Executives Develop on the Job. Simon and Schuster, 1988, p. 96.
“is absorbing the suffering”: Ibid., p. 91.
Chapter 3: Blindspots
“almost unlimited ability”: Daniel Kahneman. Thinking, Fast and Slow. Macmillan, 2011, p. 201.
we’re smarter: Linda A. Schoo, et al. “Insight in cognition: Self-awareness of performance across cognitive domains.” Applied Neuropsychology: Adult 20.2 (2013): 95—102.
funnier: Justin Kruger and David Dunning. “Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77.6 (1999): 1121—1134.
thinner: Pew Research Center. “Americans see weight problems everywhere but in the mirror,” pewsocialtrends.org, April 11, 2006, http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2006/04/11/americans-see-weight-problems-everywhere-but-in-the-mirror/.
better-looking: Nicholas Epley and Erin Whitchurch. “Mirror, mirror on the wall: Enhancement in self-recognition.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34.9 (2008): 1159—1170.
more socially skilled: Paul A. Mabe and Stephen G. West. “Validity of self-evaluation of ability: A review and meta-analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 67.3 (1982): 180—196.
more gifted at sports: Richard B. Felson. “Self-and reflected appraisal among football players: A test of the Meadian hypothesis.” Social Psychology Quarterly (1981): 116—126.
superior students: Paul A. Mabe and Stephen G. West. “Validity of self-evaluation of ability: A review and meta-analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 67.3 (1982): 180—196.
better drivers: Half of drivers believe themselves to be in the top 20 percent of driving ability, and 92 percent believe they’re safer than the average driver! Ola Svenson. “Are we all less risky and more skillful than our fellow drivers?” Acta Psychologica 47.2 (1981): 143—148.
almost no relationship: Paul A. Mabe and Stephen G. West. “Validity of self-evaluation of ability: A review and meta-analysis.” Journal of Applied Psychology 67.3 (1982): 180—196.
nearly 1,000 engineers: Todd R. Zenger. “Why do employers only reward extreme performance? Examining the relationships among performance, pay, and turnover.” Administrative Science Quarterly (1992): 198—219.
94 percent of college: K. Patricia Cross. “Not can but will college teaching be improved?” New Directions for Higher Education, 17, (1977): 1—15.
surgical residents’ self-rated: D. A. Risucci, A. J. Tortolani, and R. J. Ward. “Ratings of surgical residents by self, supervisors and peers.” Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics 169.6 (1989): 519—526.
employees who lack self-awareness: Erich C. Dierdorff and Robert S. Rubin. “Research: We’re not very self-aware, especially at work,” Harvard Business Review, March 12, 2015, https://hbr.org/2015/03/research-were-not-very-self-aware-especially-at-work.
those with poor financial: “Study shows link between self-awareness and company financial performance,” Korn Ferry Institute, June 15, 2015, http://www.kornferry.com/press/korn-ferry-institute-study-shows-link-between-self-awareness-and-company-financial-performance/.
more likely to derail: PDI Ninth House. “You’re not all that: Self-promoters six times more likely to derail,” prnewswire.com, April 17, 2012, http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/youre-not-all-that-self-promoters-six-times-more-likely-to-derail-according-to-pdi-ninth-house-and-university-of-minnesota-study-147742375.html.
underestimate their top performers’: David Dunning. “On identifying human capital: Flawed knowledge leads to faulty judgments of expertise by individuals and groups.” Advances in Group Processes. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, pp. 149—176.
Early successes give way: Ulrike Malmendier and Geoffrey Tate. “CEO overconfidence and corporate investment.” Journal of Finance 60.6 (2005): 2661—2700.
executives more dramatically overvalue: Fabio Sala. “Executive blind spots: Discrepancies between self-and other-ratings.” Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 55.4 (2003): 222—229.
experienced leaders: Cheri Ostroff, Leanne E. Atwater, and Barbara J. Feinberg. “Understanding self-other agreement: A look at rater and ratee characteristics, context, and outcomes.” Personnel Psychology 57.2 (2004): 333—375.
older managers tend: John W. Fleenor, et al. “Self-other rating agreement in leadership: A review.” The Leadership Quarterly 21.6 (2010): 1005—1034.
business students, compared: Phillip L. Ackerman, Margaret E. Beier, and Kristy R. Bowen. “What we really know about our abilities and our knowledge.” Personality and Individual Differences 33 (2002): 587—605.
aren’t reliable mechanisms: Margaret Diddams and Glenna C. Chang. “Only human: Exploring the nature of weakness in authentic leadership.” The Leadership Quarterly 23.3 (2012): 593—603.
“walls, mirrors and liars”: Alison Boulton. “Power corrupts but it also plays with your mind: Lloyd George, Chamberlain, and Thatcher all suffered from ’hubris syndrome,’ ” independent.co.uk, September 21, 2013, http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/power-corrupts-but-it-also-plays-with-your-mind-lloyd-george-chamberlain-and-thatcher-all-suffered-8831839.html.
no one lets their packages: Rachel M. Hayes and Scott Schaefer. “CEO pay and the Lake Wobegon effect.” Journal of Financial Economics 94.2 (2009): 280—290.
emotionally distant personal: Per F. Gjerde, Miyoko Onishi, and Kevin S. Carlson. “Personality characteristics associated with romantic attachment: A comparison of interview and self-report methodologies.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30.11 (2004): 1402—1415.
overestimate the number of words: Gary Wolf. “The data-driven life,” The New York Times Magazine, April 28, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/02/magazine/02self-measurement-t.html?_r=0.
great financial management: Greenwald & Associates, Inc. Parents, youth, and money: Executive summary. 2001, https://www.ebri.org/surveys/pym-es.pdf.
Two percent: College Board. Student descriptive questionnaire. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. 1976—1977.
whopping 38 out of 40: Mark D. Alicke, et al. “Personal contact, individuation, and the better-than-average effect.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68.5 (1995): 804—825.
least competent people: Justin Kruger and David Dunning. “Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77.6 (1999): 1121—1134.
skills like driving: E. Kunkel. “On the relationship between estimate of ability and driver qualification.” Psychologie und Praxis (1971).
academic performance: Beth A. Lindsey and Megan L. Nagel. “Do students know what they know? Exploring the accuracy of students’ self-assessments.” Physical Review Special Topics—Physics Education Research 11.2 (2015): 020103; Douglas J. Hacker, et al. “Test prediction and performance in a classroom context.” Journal of Educational Psychology 92.1 (2000): 160—170.
job performance: Daniel E. Haun, et al. “Assessing the competence of specimen-processing personnel.” Laboratory Medicine 31.11 (2000): 633—637.
incentivized to be accurate: Joyce Ehrlinger, et al. “Why the unskilled are unaware: Further explorations of (absent) self-insight among the incompetent.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 105.1 (2008): 98—121.
“blessed with inappropriate confidence”: David Dunning. “We are all confident idiots,” psmag.com, October 27, 2014, http://www.psmag.com/health-and-behavior/confident-idiots-92793.
series of ingenious studies: Oliver J. Sheldon, David Dunning, and Daniel R. Ames. “Emotionally unskilled, unaware, and uninterested in learning more: Reactions to feedback about deficits in emotional intelligence.” Journal of Applied Psychology 99.1 (2014): 125—137.
Our first awareness: Michael Lewis, et al. “Self development and self-conscious emotions.” Child Development (1989): 146—156.
despite repeated revelations: Susan Harter. The Construction of the Self: A Developmental Perspective. Guilford Press, 1999, p. 318.
“What am I like”: Ibid.
predictable progression toward: This finding is from our self-awareness research program. See also: Andreas Demetriou and Karin Bakracevic. “Reasoning and self-awareness from adolescence to middle age: Organization and development as a function of education.” Learning and Individual Differences 19.2 (2009): 181—194.
“they rated themselves”: Constantine Sedikides, et al. “Behind bars but above the bar: Prisoners consider themselves more prosocial than non-prisoners.” British Journal of Social Psychology 53.2 (2014): 396—403, p. 400.
“top-down thinking”: David Dunning, et al. “Why people fail to recognize their own incompetence.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 12.3 (2003): 83—87.
ESPN published the predictions: Ira Stoll. “How the experts struck out on World Series baseball,” nysun.com, October 28, 2013, http://www.nysun.com/national/how-the-experts-struck-out-on-world-series/88471/.
experts are wrong: S. Atir, E. Rosenzweig, and D. Dunning. “When knowledge knows no bounds: self-perceived expertise predicts claims of impossible knowledge.” Psychological Science 26.8 (2015): 1295—1303.
important role of experience: Berndt Brehmer. “In one word: Not from experience.” Acta Psychologica 45.1 (1980): 223—241.
brains secretly and simplistically: Daniel Kahneman. Thinking, Fast and Slow. Macmillan, 2011, p. 99.
To illustrate Emotion Blindness: Norbert Schwarz. “Stimmung als Information: Untersuchungen zum Einflufs von Stimmungen auf die Bewertung des eigenen Lebens” [Mood as information: The influence of moods and emotions on evaluative judgments]. Psychologische Rundschau 39 (1987): 148—159.
students were asked two questions: Fritz Strack, Leonard L. Martin, and Norbert Schwarz. “Priming and communication: Social determinants of information use in judgments of life satisfaction.” European Journal of Social Psychology 18.5 (1988): 429—442.
participants were given a series: Wilhelm Hofmann, Tobias Gschwendner, and Manfred Schmitt. “The road to the unconscious self not taken: Discrepancies between self- and observer-inferences about implicit dispositions from nonverbal behavioural cues.” European Journal of Personality 23.4 (2009): 343—366.
we typically assume: Chris Argyris. Teaching Smart People How to Learn. Harvard Business Review Press, 2008.
simple, practical process: Peter F. Drucker. “Managing oneself.” Harvard Business Review 83.1 (2005): 100—109.
overconfident poor performers: Justin Kruger and David Dunning. “Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77.6 (1999): 1121. See also D. Ryvkin, M. Krajč, and A. Ortmann. “Are the unskilled doomed to remain unaware?” Journal of Economic Psychology 33.5 (2012): 1012—1031.
“amusing yet accurate”: Bob Sutton. “Great Piece on Narcissistic CEOs in The New York Times,” Work Matters blog, March 7, 2012, http://bobsutton.typepad.com/my_weblog/2012/03/great-piece-on-narcissistic-ceos-in-the-new-york-times.html.
Great leaders have people: Thanks to my friends Mike Herron and Chuck Blakeman for this point.
Chapter 4: The Cult of Self
analyzed the names given: Jean M. Twenge, Emodish M. Abebe, and W. Keith Campbell. “Fitting in or standing out: Trends in American parents’ choices for children’s names, 1880—2007.” Social Psychological and Personality Science 1.1 (2010): 19—25.
“Parents used to give”: Gina Jacobs. “Unique baby names not just a celebrity fad,” newscenter.sdsu.edu, May 20, 2009, http://newscenter.sdsu.edu/sdsu_newscenter/news_story.aspx?sid=71319.
Cult of Self is a fairly: Roy F. Baumeister, et al. “Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles?” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 4.1 (2003): 1—44.
The seeds were first sown: Stanley Coopersmith. The Antecedents of Self-Esteem. Consulting Psychologists Press, 1967.
we didn’t need to become: Jean M. Twenge and W. Keith Campbell. The Narcissism Epidemic: Living in the Age of Entitlement. Simon and Schuster, 2009, p. 62.
“profound consequences for every”: Nathaniel Branden. The Six Pillars of Self-Esteem. Bantam Dell Publishing Group, 1995, p. 5, as cited in Roy F. Baumeister, Laura Smart, and Joseph M. Boden. “Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem.” Psychological Review 103.1 (1996): 5.
“couldn’t think of a single”: Nathaniel Branden. “In defense of self.” Association for Humanistic Psychology (1984): 12—13, p. 12, as cited in Roy F. Baumeister, Laura Smart, and Joseph M. Boden. “Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem.” Psychological Review 103.1 (1996): 5—33.
“between self-esteem and teenage”: Andrew M. Mecca, Neil J. Smelser, and John Vasconcellos. The Social Importance of Self-Esteem. University of California Press, 1989, p. 105.
“we all know in our gut”: Ibid.
“the man who destroyed”: Will Storr. “The man who destroyed America’s ego,” medium.com, February 25, 2014, https://medium.com/matter/the-man-who-destroyed-americas-ego-94d214257b5#.dasai1u4q.
military cadets’ self-esteem: Martin M. Chemers, Carl B. Watson, and Stephen T. May. “Dispositional affect and leadership effectiveness: A comparison of self-esteem, optimism, and efficacy.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26.3 (2000): 267—277.
College students’ self-esteem: Duane Buhrmester, et al. “Five domains of interpersonal competence in peer relationships.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55.6 (1988): 991—1008.
Professionals with high self-esteem: Julia A. Bishop and Heidi M. Inderbitzen. “Peer acceptance and friendship: An investigation of their relation to self-esteem.” Journal of Early Adolescence 15.4 (1995): 476—489.
boosting the self-esteem of the unsuccessful: D. R. Forsyth and N. A. Kerr. “Are adaptive illusions adaptive.” Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA (1999), cited in Baumeister et al., 1996.
neither “a major predictor”: Roy F. Baumeister, et al. “Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles?” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 4.1 (2003): 1—44.
“bemoan[ing] the lack”: Ibid.
more violent and aggressive: Baumeister et al. “Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem.” Psychological Review 103.1 (1996): 5—33.
When their romantic: Caryl E. Rusbult, Gregory D. Morrow, and Dennis J. Johnson. “Self-esteem and problem-solving behaviour in close relationships.” British Journal of Social Psychology 26.4 (1987): 293—303.
more likely to cheat: Thalma E. Lobel and Ilana Levanon. “Self-esteem, need for approval, and cheating behavior in children.” Journal of Educational Psychology 80.1 (1988): 122—123.
drink, and do drugs: Meg Gerrard, et al. “Self-esteem, self-serving cognitions, and health risk behavior.” Journal of Personality 68.6 (2000): 1177—1201.
“special and unique.”: Richard Adams. “Headteacher whose praise for pupils went viral falls foul of Ofsted,” theguardian.com, September 24, 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/education/2015/sep/24/headteacher-whose-praise-for-pupils-went-viral-falls-foul-of-ofsted.
“robs the victim”: Zole O’Brien. “Children are never naughty, says head,” express.co.uk, June 28, 2015, http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/587459/Children-teachers-bad-behaviour.
“You know I think you’re wonderful”: Allison Pearson. “Sparing the rod has spoilt these teachers,” telegraph.co.uk, June 30, 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/primaryeducation/11707847/Allison-Pearson-Sparing-the-rod-has-spoilt-these-teachers.html.
“you have emptied”: Ibid.
“tried their best during”: “Barrowford school’s KS2 ’proud’ letter to pupils goes viral,” bbc.com, July 16, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-lancashire-28319907.
a “fantasy”: Jaya Narain. “Inspectors slam primary school where there’s no such thing as a naughty child and teachers are banned from raising their voices—and give it Ofsted’s lowest possible rating,” dailymail.co.uk, September 25, 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3249078/Inspectors-slam-primary-school-s-no-thing-naughty-child-teachers-banned-raising-voices-Ofsted-s-lowest-possible-rating.html.
“very positive and excited”: Ibid.
hands out roughly 3,500 awards: Ashley Merryman. “Losing is good for you,” nytimes.com, September 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/25/opinion/losing-is-good-for-you.html?_r=0.
banned all competitive sports: Dilvin Yasa. “Has the self-esteem movement failed our kids,” childmags.com.au, September 22, 2014, http://www.childmags.com.au/family/relationships/6766-has-the-self-esteem-movement-failed-our-kids.
they’re too “negative”: William Turvill. “School bans red ink—and tells teachers to mark in green instead (and get pupils to respond in purple),” dailymail.co.uk, March 19, 2014, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2584672/School-bans-red-ink-tells-teachers-mark-green-inst.
“I Love Me” lessons: Richard Lee Colvin. “Losing faith in self-esteem movement,” latimes.com, January 25, 1999, http://articles.latimes.com/1999/jan/25/news/mn-1505.
with 30 valedictorians: Frank Bruni. “Common core battles the cult of self-esteem,” dallasnews.com, December 1, 2013, http://www.dallasnews.com/opinion/latest-columns/20131201-common-core-battles-the-cult-of-self-esteem.ece.
grade inflation: Valerie Strauss. “Why grade inflation (even at Harvard) is a big problem,” washingtonpost.com, December 20, 2013, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2013/12/20/why-grade-inflation-even-at-harvard-is-a-big-problem/?utm_term=.6b4ef3d0ee6d.
grades awarded were A’s: Matthew Q. Clarida and Nicholas P. Fandos. “Substantiating fears of grade inflation, dean says median grade at Harvard College is A-, most common grade is A,” thecrimson.com, December 4, 2013, http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2013/12/3/grade-inflation-mode-a/.
72 percent of students polled: Kristin Touissant. “Harvard class with A- average not worried about grade inflation,” boston.com, May 27, 2015, http://www.boston.com/news/local-news/2015/05/27/harvard-class-with-a-average-not-worried-about-grade-inflation.
“a more consistently excellent”: Robert McGuire. “Grade expectations,” yalealumnimagazine.com, September/October 2013, https://yalealumnimagazine.com/articles/3735.
college freshmen were overconfident: Richard W. Robins and Jennifer S. Beer. “Positive illusions about the self: Short-term benefits and long-term costs.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80.2 (2001): 340—352.
“guileful and deceitful”: C. Randall Colvin, Jack Block, and David C. Funder. “Overly positive self-evaluations and personality: negative implications for mental health.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68.6 (1995): 1152, 1156.
“complex, interesting, and intelligent”: C. Randall Colvin, Jack Block, and David C. Funder. “Overly positive self-evaluations and personality: negative implications for mental health.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68.6 (1995): 1152—1162.
entrepreneurs and founders tend: Keith M. Hmieleski and Robert A. Baron. “Entrepreneurs’ optimism and new venture performance: A social cognitive perspective.” Academy of Management Journal 52.3 (2009): 473—488.
“dead certain”: Arnold C. Cooper, Carolyn Y. Woo, and William C. Dunkelberg. “Entrepreneurs’ perceived chances for success.” Journal of Business Venturing 3.2 (1988): 97—108.
Canadian Innovation Centre: Thomas Åstebro and Samir Elhedhli. “The effectiveness of simple decision heuristics: Forecasting commercial success for early-stage ventures.” Management Science 52.3 (2006): 395—409.
“I believe that someone”: Daniel Kahneman. Thinking, Fast and Slow. Macmillan, 2011, p. 264.
post the most selfies: Laura E. Buffardi and W. Keith Campbell. “Narcissism and social networking web sites.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34.10 (2008): 1303—1314.
“moral shallowing hypothesis”: Paul Trapnell and Lisa Sinclair. “Texting frequency and the moral shallowing hypothesis.” Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, San Diego, CA. 2012.
anyone who takes selfies: Jesse Fox and Margaret C. Rooney. “The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites.” Personality and Individual Differences 76 (2015): 161—165.
narcissism increased, a full 30 percent: Jean M. Twenge, et al. “Egos inflating over time: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.” Journal of Personality 76.4 (2008): 875—902.
roughly 80 percent: Cassandra Rutledge Newsom, et al. “Changes in adolescent response patterns on the MMPI/MMPI-A across four decades.” Journal of Personality Assessment 81.1 (2003): 74—84.
increase in self-focused: William J. Chopik, Deepti H. Joshi, and Sara H. Konrath. “Historical changes in American self-interest: State of the Union addresses 1790 to 2012.” Personality and Individual Differences 66 (2014): 128—133.
maintaining our relationships: Sonja Utz. “The function of self-disclosure on social network sites: Not only intimate, but also positive and entertaining self-disclosures increase the feeling of connection.” Computers in Human Behavior 45 (2015): 1—10.
11 percent less likely: Sara H. Konrath, Edward H. O’Brien, and Courtney Hsing. “Changes in dispositional empathy in American college students over time: A meta-analysis.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 15.2 (2010): 180—198.
narcissists indeed use social media: Eric B. Weiser. “# Me: Narcissism and its facets as predictors of selfie-posting frequency.” Personality and Individual Differences 86 (2015): 477—481; Soraya Mehdizadeh. “Self-presentation 2.0: Narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook.” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 13.4 (2010): 357—364.
spent 35 minutes online: E. Freeman and J. Twenge. “Using MySpace increases the endorsement of narcissistic personality traits.” Society for Personality and Social Psychology (2010).
personality disorder characterized: American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013.
overrate their performance: John W. Fleenor, et al. “Self—other rating agreement in leadership: A review.” The Leadership Quarterly 21.6 (2010): 1005—1034.
dominate decision processes: Robert Hogan, Robert Raskin, and Dan Fazzini. “The dark side of charisma.” Measures of Leadership (1990).
seek excessive recognition: Carolyn C. Morf and Frederick Rhodewalt. “Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: A dynamic self-regulatory processing model.” Psychological Inquiry 12.4 (2001): 177—196.
show less empathy: Seth A. Rosenthal and Todd L. Pittinsky. “Narcissistic leadership.” The Leadership Quarterly 17.6 (2006): 617—633.
behave unethically: Michael Maccoby. “Narcissistic leaders: The incredible pros, the inevitable cons.” Harvard Business Review 78.1 (2000): 68—78.
lowest in effectiveness: Timothy A. Judge, Jeffery A. LePine, and Bruce L. Rich. “Loving yourself abundantly: Relationship of the narcissistic personality to self- and other perceptions of workplace deviance, leadership, and task and contextual performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 91.4 (2006): 762—776.
less responsive to objective: Arijit Chatterjee and Donald C. Hambrick. “Executive personality, capability cues, and risk taking: How narcissistic CEOs react to their successes and stumbles.” Administrative Science Quarterly 56.2 (2011): 202—237.
measured the size of CEO: Charles Ham, et al. “Narcissism is a bad sign: CEO signature size, investment, and performance.” UNC Kenan-Flagler Research Paper 2013—1 (2014).
overly favorable impression: Shanyang Zhao, Sherri Grasmuck, and Jason Martin. “Identity construction on Facebook: Digital empowerment in anchored relationships.” Computers in Human Behavior 24.5 (2008): 1816—1836.
Facebook status updates: Trudy Hui Chua and Leanne Chang. “Follow me and like my beautiful selfies: Singapore teenage girls’ engagement in self-presentation and peer comparison on social media.” Computers in Human Behavior 55 (2016): 190—197.
dating profiles: Nicole Ellison, Rebecca Heino, and Jennifer Gibbs. “Managing impressions online: Self-presentation processes in the online dating environment.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 11.2 (2006): 415—441.
Twitter feeds of congresspeople: David S. Lassen and Benjamin J. Toff. “Elite ideology across media: Constructing a measure of Congressional candidates’ ideological self-presentation on social media.” Unpublished manuscript (2015).
fewer negative words: Natalya N. Bazarova, et al. “Managing impressions and relationships on Facebook: Self-presentational and relational concerns revealed through the analysis of language style.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology 32.2 (2012): 121—141.
goal of creating a favorable: L. Bareket-Bojmel, S. Moran, and G. Shahar G. “Strategic self-presentation on Facebook: Personal motives and audience response to online behavior. Computers in Human Behavior 55 (2016): 788—795.
shutting down her social: Megan McCluskey. “Teen Instagram Star Speaks Out About the Ugly Truth Behind Social Media Fame.” Time.com, November 2, 2015, http://time.com/4096988/teen-instagram-star-essena-oneill-quitting-social-media/.
“Let’s be Game Changers”: “Essena O’Neill invites us to ’Let’s be Game Changers,’ as she exposes the ’fakeness’ of social media,” mybodymyimage.com, November 3, 2015, http://www.mybodymyimage.com/essena-oneill-invites-us-to-lets-be-game-changers-as-she-exposes-the-fakeness-of-social-media.
60 percent of our talking: Robin I. M. Dunbar, Anna Marriott, and Neil D. C. Duncan. “Human conversational behavior.” Human Nature 8.3 (1997): 231—246.
whopping 80 percent: Mor Naaman, Jeffrey Boase, and Chih-Hui Lai. “Is it really about me?: message content in social awareness streams.” Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. ACM, 2010.
one of two categories: Ibid.
“a merchant”: Andrew Anthony. “Angela Ahrendts: the woman aiming to make Apple a luxury brand,” theguardian.com, January 9, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/jan/10/profile-angela-ahrendts-apple-executive-luxury-brand.
impressive company turnaround: Jennifer Reingold. “What the heck is Angela Ahrendts doing at Apple?” fortune.com, September 10, 2015, http://fortune.com/2015/09/10/angela-ahrendts-apple/.
“executives…who are touching”: Tim Hardwick. “Angela Ahrendts says she views Apple Store staff as ’executives,’ ” macrumors.com, January 28, 2016, http://www.macrumors.com/2016/01/28/angela-ahrendts-apple-store-staff-executives/.
“What the heck is Angela”: Jennifer Reingold. “What the heck is Angela Ahrendts doing at Apple?” fortune.com, September 10, 2015, http://fortune.com/2015/09/10/angela-ahrendts-apple/.
2015 marked the company’s: “Apple reports record fourth quarter results,” apple.com, October 27, 2015, http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2015/10/27Apple-Reports-Record-Fourth-Quarter-Results.html.
skyrocketed to 81 percent: AppleInsider staff. “Angela Ahrendts treats Apple Store employees like execs, retained 81% of workforce in 2015,” appleinsider.com, January 28, 2016, http://appleinsider.com/articles/16/01/28/angela-ahrendts-treats-apple-store-employees-like-execs-retained-81-of-workforce-in-2015.
teams with humble leaders: Bradley P. Owens, Michael D. Johnson, and Terence R. Mitchell. “Expressed humility in organizations: Implications for performance, teams, and leadership.” Organization Science 24.5 (2013): 1517—1538.
humility is actually a necessary: R. A. Emmons. The Psychology of Ultimate Concerns: Motivation and Spirituality in Personality. Guilford Press, 1999, p. 33, as cited in June Price Tangney. “Humility: Theoretical perspectives, empirical findings and directions for future research.” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 19.1 (2000): 70—82.
aren’t dependent on external: Kristin D. Neff and Roos Vonk. “Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: Two different ways of relating to oneself.” Journal of Personality 77.1 (2009): 23—50.
“really, really want[ed]”: Neff, Kristin D., Kristin L. Kirkpatrick, and Stephanie S. Rude. “Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning.” Journal of Research in Personality 41.1 (2007): 139—154.
also less creative: Steven G. Rogelberg, et al. “The executive mind: leader self-talk, effectiveness and strain.” Journal of Managerial Psychology 28.2 (2013): 183—201.
“I am unconscious of intentional”: George Washington. Washington’s Farewell Address . First National Bank of Miami.
Chapter 5: Thinking Isn’t Knowing
enjoy stronger relationships: Rick Harrington and Donald A. Loffredo. “Insight, rumination, and self-reflection as predictors of well-being.” Journal of Psychology 145.1 (2010): 39—57.
calmer and more content: Anthony M. Grant, John Franklin, and Peter Langford. “The self-reflection and insight scale: A new measure of private self-consciousness.” Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal 30.8 (2002): 821—835.
thinking about ourselves: Paul J. Silvia and Ann G. Phillips. “Evaluating self-reflection and insight as self-conscious traits.” Personality and Individual Differences 50.2 (2011): 234—237.
the less self-knowledge: Anthony M. Grant, John Franklin, and Peter Langford. “The self-reflection and insight scale: A new measure of private self-consciousness.” Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal 30.8 (2002): 821—835, p. 824.
no more self-insight: J. Gregory Hixon and William B. Swann. “When does introspection bear fruit? Self-reflection, self-insight, and interpersonal choices.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64.1 (1993): 35—43.
Though chimpanzees: David Premack and Guy Woodruff. “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1.04 (1978): 515—526.
dolphins: Heidi E. Harley. “Consciousness in dolphins? A review of recent evidence.” Journal of Comparative Physiology A 199.6 (2013): 565—582.
elephants: Joshua M. Plotnik, Frans B. M. De Waal, and Diana Reiss. “Self-recognition in an Asian elephant.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.45 (2006): 17053—17057.
even pigeons: Robert Epstein, Robert P. Lanza, and Burrhus Frederic Skinner. “Self-awareness in the pigeon.” Science 212.4495 (1981): 695—696.
engaged in introspection: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, Angela McBride, and Judith Larson. “Rumination and psychological distress among bereaved partners.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72.4 (1997): 855—862.
associated with poorer well-being: Julie J. Park and Melissa L. Millora. “The relevance of reflection: An empirical examination of the role of reflection in ethic of caring, leadership, and psychological well-being.” Journal of College Student Development 53.2 (2012): 221—242.
have more anxiety: Anthony M. Grant, John Franklin, and Peter Langford. “The self-reflection and insight scale: A new measure of private self-consciousness.” Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal 30.8 (2002): 821—835.
less positive social experiences: John B. Nezlek. “Day-to-day relationships between self-awareness, daily events, and anxiety.” Journal of Personality 70.2 (2002): 249—276.
more negative attitudes: Daniel Stein and Anthony M. Grant. “Disentangling the relationships among self-reflection, insight, and subjective well-being: The role of dysfunctional attitudes and core self-evaluations.” Journal of Psychology 148.5 (2014): 505—522.
let’s look at Karen: I’d like to thank the clinical psychologist who shared this example with me, whose name I’m not mentioning to maintain the confidentiality of his patient.
Timothy Wilson calls “disruptive”: Timothy. D. Wilson, Strangers to Ourselves. Harvard University Press, 2004.
“belief in this image”: Tarthang Tulku. Skillful Means. Dharma Publishing, 1978, pp. 102—103.
cleverly represses important: Sigmund Freud. An Outline of Psycho-Analysis. W. W. Norton, 1949.
excavate these sometimes: Timothy D. Wilson and Elizabeth W. Dunn. “Self-knowledge: Its limits, value, and potential for improvement.” Psychology 55 (2004): 493—518.
“no other notable figure”: Todd Dufresne. “Psychoanalysis is dead…so how does that make you feel?,” latimes.com, February 18, 2004, http://articles.latimes.com/2004/feb/18/opinion/oe-dufresne18.
falsifying patient files: Adopf Grünbaum. “Précis of the foundations of psychoanalysis: A philosophical critique.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1986): 217—284.
worsened some of his patients’: Daniel Goleman. “As a therapist, Freud fell short, scholars find,” nytimes.com, March 6, 1990, http://www.nytimes.com/1990/03/06/science/as-a-therapist-freud-fell-short-scholars-find.html?pagewanted=all.
his life a “catastrophe”: Todd Dufresne. “Psychoanalysis is dead…so how does that make you feel?,” latimes.com, February 18, 2004, http://articles.latimes.com/2004/feb/18/opinion/oe-dufresne18.
we can’t uncover them: Timothy D. Wilson. Strangers to Ourselves. Harvard University Press, 2004.
placebo effects may explain: Bruce E. Wampold, et al. “A meta-analysis of outcome studies comparing bona fide psychotherapies: Empirically, all must have prizes.” Psychological Bulletin 122.3 (1997): 203—215.
relationship she has with her client: Jennifer A. Lyke. “Insight, but not self-reflection, is related to subjective well-being.” Personality and Individual Differences 46.1 (2009): 66—70.
“hinder the search for”: Omer Faruk Simsek. “Self-absorption paradox is not a paradox: illuminating the dark side of self-reflection.” International Journal of Psychology 48.6 (2013): 1109—1121.
showed male college students: Zoë Chance and Michael I. Norton. “I read Playboy for the articles.” The Interplay of Truth and Deception: New Agendas in Theory and Research 136 (2009).
hire men over women: Michael I. Norton, Joseph A. Vandello, and John M. Darley. “Casuistry and social category bias.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87.6 (2004): 817—831.
conducted a creative study: Donald G. Dutton and Arthur P. Aron. “Some evidence for heightened sexual attraction under conditions of high anxiety.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 30.4 (1974): 510—517.
“so convenient a thing”: To see another excellent example of this phenomenon, check out this recent and fascinating study: Mitesh Kataria and Tobias Regner. “Honestly, why are you donating money to charity? An experimental study about self-awareness in status-seeking behavior.” Theory and Decision 79.3 (2015): 493—515.
most plausible answer: Timothy D. Wilson, et al. “Introspection, attitude change, and attitude-behavior consistency: The disruptive effects of explaining why we feel the way we do.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 22 (1989): 287—343.
reasons why your relationship: Timothy D. Wilson, et al. “Effects of analyzing reasons on attitude-behavior consistency.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47.1 (1984): 1—5.
self-described basketball experts: Jamin Brett Halberstadt and Gary M. Levine. “Effects of reasons analysis on the accuracy of predicting basketball games.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29.3 (1999): 517—530.
reduces our satisfaction: Timothy Wilson et al. “Introspecting about reasons can reduce post-choice satisfaction.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 19.3 (1993): 331—39.
negative impact it has: Ethan Kross, Ozlem Ayduk, and Walter Mischel. “When asking ’why’ does not hurt distinguishing rumination from reflective processing of negative emotions.” Psychological Science 16.9 (2005): 709—715.
write about why: E. D. Watkins. “Adaptive and maladaptive ruminative self-focus during emotional processing.” Behaviour Research and Therapy 42.9 (2004): 1037—1052.
“sociability, likeability and interestingness”: J. Gregory Hixon and William B. Swann. “When does introspection bear fruit? Self-reflection, self-insight, and interpersonal choices.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64.1 (1993): 35—43.
“rationaliz[ing], justify[ing], and explain[ing]”: Ibid.
five minutes of what: Timothy D. Wilson, et al. “Introspection, attitude change, and attitude-behavior consistency: The disruptive effects of explaining why we feel the way we do.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 22 (1989): 287—343.
that “an emotion, which is a passion”: R. H. M. Elwes. The Chief Works of Benedict de Spinoza, 1887, p. 248.
act of translating our emotions: Matthew D. Lieberman, et al. “Putting feelings into words affect labeling disrupts amygdala activity in response to affective stimuli.” Psychological Science 18.5 (2007): 421—428.
don’t understand why: James C. Collins. How the Mighty Fall: And Why Some Companies Never Give In. Jim Collins, 2009.
Charley Kempthorne has been keeping: Clare Ansberry. “The power of daily writing in a journal,” wsj.com, January 26, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-power-of-daily-writing-in-a-journal-1453837329.
more self-reflection but less insight: Anthony M. Grant, John Franklin, and Peter Langford. “The self-reflection and insight scale: A new measure of private self-consciousness.” Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal 30.8 (2002): 821—835.
“deepest thoughts and feelings”: James W Pennebaker. “Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process.” Psychological Science 8.3 (1997): 162—166.
distressing in the short term: Brian A. Esterling, et al. “Empirical foundations for writing in prevention and psychotherapy: Mental and physical health outcomes.” Clinical Psychology Review 19.1 (1999): 79—96.
longer-term improvements: James W. Pennebaker, Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser, and Ronald Glaser. “Disclosure of traumas and immune function: health implications for psychotherapy.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56.2 (1988): 239—245.
and well-being: Crystal L. Park and Carol Joyce Blumberg. “Disclosing trauma through writing: Testing the meaning-making hypothesis.” Cognitive Therapy and Research 26.5 (2002): 597—616.
have better memories: Kitty Klein and Adriel Boals. “Expressive writing can increase working memory capacity.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130.3 (2001): 520—533.
higher grade point averages: James W. Pennebaker and Martha E. Francis. “Cognitive, emotional, and language processes in disclosure.” Cognition & Emotion 10.6 (1996): 601—626.
less absenteeism from work: Martha E. Francis and James W. Pennebaker. “Putting stress into words: The impact of writing on physiological, absentee, and self-reported emotional well-being measures.” American Journal of Health Promotion 6.4 (1992): 280—287.
quicker re-employment: Stefanie P. Spera, Eric D. Buhrfeind, and James W. Pennebaker. “Expressive writing and coping with job loss.” Academy of Management Journal 37.3 (1994): 72-—733.
help collegiate tennis players: V. B. Scott, et al. “Emotive writing moderates the relationship between mood awareness and athletic performance in collegiate tennis players.” North American Journal of Psychology 5.2 (2003): 311—324.
stronger immune systems: James W. Pennebaker, Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser, and Ronald Glaser. “Disclosure of traumas and immune function: health implications for psychotherapy.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56.2 (1988): 239—245.
showed less personal growth: Sonja Lyubomirsky, Lorie Sousa, and Rene Dickerhoof. “The costs and benefits of writing, talking, and thinking about life’s triumphs and defeats.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 90.4 (2006): 692—708.
“Happiness is a mystery”: G. K. Chesterton. Heretics. Butler and Tanner, 1905, p. 103.
“who talk about things”: Bridget Murray. “Writing to heal,” apa.org, June 2002, http://www.apa.org/monitor/jun02/writing.aspx.
writes “short narrative scenes”: Clare Ansberry. “The power of daily writing in a journal,” wsj.com, January 26, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-power-of-daily-writing-in-a-journal-1453837329.
neither on its own is effective: James W. Pennebaker and Sandra K. Beall. “Confronting a traumatic event: Toward an understanding of inhibition and disease.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95.3 (1986): 274—281.
True insight only happens: Christopher D. B. Burt. “An analysis of a self-initiated coping Child Study Journal 24.3 (1994): 171—189.
when journalers use more causal: James W. Pennebaker. “Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process.” Psychological Science 8.3 (1997): 162—66; James W. Pennebaker, Tracy J. Mayne, and Martha E. Francis. “Linguistic predictors of adaptive bereavement.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 72.4 (1997): 863—871.
writing every few days: James W. Pennebaker. “Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process.” Psychological Science 8.3 (1997): 162—166.
“I’m not even convinced”: Jordan Gaines Lewis, Ph.D. “Turning Trauma into Story: The Benefits of Journaling,” psychologytoday.com, August 17, 2012, https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/brain-babble/201208/turning-trauma-story-the-benefits-journaling.
we don’t measure up: T. Pyszczynski and J. Greenberg. “Self-regulatory perseveration and the depressive self-focusing style: A self-awareness theory of reactive depression.” Psychological Bulletin 102.1 (1987): 122—138. See also Ann G. Phillips and Paul J. Silvia. “Self-awareness and the emotional consequences of self-discrepancies.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31.5 (2005): 703—713.
related to lower grades: V. B. Scott and William D. McIntosh. “The development of a trait measure of ruminative thought.” Personality and Individual Differences 26.6 (1999): 1045—1056.
impaired problem solving: Sonja Lyubomirsky, et al. “Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: clues from the phenomenology of dysphoric rumination.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77.5 (1999): 1041—1060.
worse moods: Nilly Mor and Jennifer Winquist. “Self-focused attention and negative affect: a meta-analysis.” Psychological Bulletin 128.4 (2002): 638—662.
poorer-quality sleep: Jacob A. Nota and Meredith E. Coles. “Duration and timing of sleep are associated with repetitive negative thinking.” Cognitive Therapy and Research 39 (2015): 253—261.
stuck in ruminative thought patterns: T. Pyszczynski and J. Greenberg. “Self-regulatory perseveration and the depressive self-focusing style: A self-awareness theory of reactive depression.” Psychological Bulletin 102.1 (1987): 122—138.
survey of more than 32,000 people: Peter Kinderman, et al. “Psychological processes mediate the impact of familial risk, social circumstances and life events on mental health.” PLOS One 8.10 (2013): e76564.
rumination can often masquerade: J. Paul Hamilton et al. “Depressive rumination, the default-mode network, and the dark matter of clinical neuroscience.” Biological Psychiatry 78.4 (2015): 224—230.
ruminators are less accurate: Joseph Ciarrochi and Greg Scott. “The link between emotional competence and well-being: A longitudinal study.” British Journal of Guidance & Counselling 34.2 (2006): 231—243.
miss the larger picture: Rick Harrington and Donald A. Loffredo. “Insight, rumination, and self-reflection as predictors of well-being.” Journal of Psychology 145.1 (2010): 39—57.
effectively an avoidance strategy: Steven C. Hayes, et al. “Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: A functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 64.6 (1996): 1152.
correlation between rumination: Rick E. Ingram. “Self-focused attention in clinical disorders: Review and a conceptual model.” Psychological Bulletin 107.2 (1990): 156—176.
ruminators were 70 percent: Jay G. Hull. “A self-awareness model of the causes and effects of alcohol consumption.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 90.6 (1981): 586—600.
avoid the people and situations: S. Rachman, J. Grüter-Andrew, and R. Shafran. “Post-event processing in social anxiety.” Behaviour Research and Therapy 38.6 (2000): 611—617.
poor perspective-takers: Jeffrey A. Joireman, Les Parrott III, and Joy Hammersla. “Empathy and the self-absorption paradox: Support for the distinction between self-rumination and self-reflection.” Self and Identity 1.1 (2002): 53—65.
help us combat rumination: Carol I. Diener and Carol S. Dweck. “An analysis of learned helplessness: Continuous changes in performance, strategy, and achievement cognitions following failure.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 36 (1978): 451—462; Carol I. Diener and Carol S. Dweck. “An analysis of learned helplessness: II. The processing of success.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39.5 (1980): 940—952.
learn-well reps had significantly: Don VandeWalle, et al. “The influence of goal orientation and self-regulation tactics on sales performance: A longitudinal field test.” Journal of Applied Psychology 84.2 (1999): 249—259.
I call hitting pause: Allison Abbe, Chris Tkach, and Sonja Lyubomirsky. “The art of living by dispositionally happy people.” Journal of Happiness Studies 4.4 (2003): 385—404.
whatever ruminative thought came into: R. S. Stern, M. S. Lipsedge, and I. M. Marks. “Obsessive ruminations: A controlled trial of thought-stopping technique.” Behaviour Research and Therapy 11.4 (1973): 659—662.
Chapter 6: Internal Self-Awareness Tools That Really Work
Harvard psychologist Ellen Langer: Cara Feinberg. “The mindfulness chronicles,” harvardmagazine.com, September/October 2010, http://harvardmagazine.com/2010/09/the-mindfulness-chronicles.
“out of the Zen meditation”: Ibid.
“the process of actively noticing”: Ibid.
“The people I know won’t sit still”: Ibid.
“people prefer to be doing”: Timothy D. Wilson, et al. “Just think: The challenges of the disengaged mind.” Science 345.6192 (2014): 75.
celebrities like Angelina Jolie: Alexia Bure. “Surprising celebrities who meditate,” wellandgood.com, December 26, 2012, http://www.wellandgood.com/good-advice/surprising-celebs-who-meditate/slide/9/.
Anderson Cooper: “The newly mindful Anderson Cooper,” cbsnews.com, September 6, 2015, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-newly-mindful-anderson-cooper/.
Ellen DeGeneres: “What Gisele Bundchen, Ellen DeGeneres & other celebrities say about meditation,” choosemuse.com, http://www.choosemuse.com/blog/9-top-celebrity-meditation-quotes/.
corporations like Google: David Hochman. “Mindfulness: Getting its share of attention,” nytimes.com, November 3, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/03/fashion/mindfulness-and-meditation-are-capturing-attention.html.
McKinsey: David Gelles. “The hidden price of mindfulness inc.,” nytimes.com, March 19, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/20/opinion/sunday/the-hidden-price-of-mindfulness-inc.html?_r=2.
Nike, General Mills, Target, and Aetna: David Hochman. “Mindfulness: Getting its share of attention,” nytimes.com, November 3, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/03/fashion/mindfulness-and-meditation-are-capturing-attention.html?_r=0.
reaching more than 300,000 students: Lauren Cassani Davis. “When mindfulness meets the classroom,” theatlantic.com, August 31, 2015, http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/08/mindfulness-education-schools-meditation/402469/.
U.S. Marines and professional sports: Associated Press. “U.S. Marine Corps members learn mindfulness meditation and yoga in pilot program to help reduce stress,” January 23, 2013, http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/health/u-s-marines-learn-meditate-stress-reduction-program-article-1.1245698.
one-billion-dollar cottage industry: David Gelles. “The hidden price of mindfulness inc.,” nytimes.com, March 19, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/20/opinion/sunday/the-hidden-price-of-mindfulness-inc.html?_r=2.
38 million Americans admit: CashStar, Inc. “More than 38 million* online Americans shopped while on the toilet,” prnewswire.com, November 19, 2012, http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/more-than-38-million-online-americans-shopped-while-on-the-toilet-179955401.html.
nearly half reported being distracted: Matthew A. Killingsworth and Daniel T. Gilbert. “A wandering mind is an unhappy mind.” Science 330.6006 (2010): 932.
researchers asked dieters: Todd F. Heatherton, et al. “Self-Awareness, Task Failure, and Disinhibition: How Attentional Focus Affects Eating.” Journal of Personality 61.1 (1993): 49—61.
who practice it are happier: Kirk Warren Brown and Richard M. Ryan. “The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84.4 (2003): 822—848.
healthier: Paul Grossman, et al. “Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: A meta-analysis.” Journal of Psychosomatic Research 57.1 (2004): 35—43.
more creative: E. J. Langer, D. Heffernan, and M. Kiester. “Reducing burnout in an institutional setting: An experimental investigation.” Unpublished manuscript, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (1988).
more productive: Kwang-Ryang Park. An experimental study of theory-based team building intervention: A case of Korean work groups.” Unpublished manuscript, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (1990).
more authentic: Michael H. Kernis and Brian M. Goldman. “A multicomponent conceptualization of authenticity: Theory and research.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 38 (2006): 283—357.
more in control of their behavior: Kirk Warren Brown and Richard M. Ryan. “The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84.4 (2003): 822—848.
more satisfied in their marriages: Leslie C. Burpee and Ellen J. Langer. “Mindfulness and marital satisfaction.” Journal of Adult Development 12.1 (2005): 43—51.
more relaxed: Ellen J. Langer, Irving L. Janis, and John A. Wolfer. “Reduction of psychological stress in surgical patients.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 11.2 (1975): 155—165.
less aggressive: Whitney L. Heppner, et al. “Mindfulness as a means of reducing aggressive Aggressive Behavior 34.5 (2008): 486—496.
less burnt-out: E. J. Langer, D. Heffernan, and M. Kiester. “Reducing burnout in an institutional setting: An experimental investigation.” Unpublished manuscript, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (1988).
even thinner: Eric B. Loucks, et al. “Associations of dispositional mindfulness with obesity and central adiposity: The New England Family Study.” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 23.2 (2016): 224—233.
mindfulness meditation can save us: Chen Hemo and Lilac Lev-Ari. “Focus on your breathing: Does meditation help lower rumination and depressive symptoms?” International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy 15.3 (2015): 349—359.
intensive mindfulness training retreat: Richard Chambers, Barbara Chuen Yee Lo, and Nicholas B. Allen. “The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect.” Cognitive Therapy and Research 32.3 (2008): 303—322.
enjoy greater self-insight: Kelly C. Richards, C. Estelle Campenni, and Janet L. Muse-Burke. “Self-care and well-being in mental health professionals: The mediating effects of self-awareness and mindfulness.” Journal of Mental Health Counseling 32.3 (2010): 247—264.
because it increases insight: Yadollah Ghasemipour, Julie Ann Robinson, and Nima Ghorbani. “Mindfulness and integrative self-knowledge: Relationships with health-related variables.” International Journal of Psychology 48.6 (2013): 1030—1037.
“Mindfulness offers a strategy”: Personal communication.
better control our behavior: Shannon M. Erisman and Lizabeth Roemer. “A preliminary investigation of the effects of experimentally induced mindfulness on emotional responding to film clips.” Emotion 10.1 (2010): 72—82.
They asked students to write: Whitney L. Heppner, et al. “Mindfulness as a means of reducing aggressive Aggressive Behavior 34.5 (2008): 486—496.
only the mindfulness group: J. David Creswell, et al. “Alterations in Resting-State Functional Connectivity Link Mindfulness Meditation with Reduced Interleukin-6: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Biological Psychiatry (2016).
“the essence of mindfulness”: Ellen Langer. “The third metric for success,” ellenlanger.com, 2009, http://www.ellenlanger.com/blog/171/the-third-metric-for-success.
reframing our experiences: I’d like to thank my superstar research assistant Lauren Tronick for spotting this interesting trend in the data.
“going to the balcony”: William Ury. Getting Past No: Negotiating with Difficult People. Bantam Books, 1992.
“But how to speak about”: Gustave Flaubert, translated by Lowell Bair. Madame Bovary. Bantam Books, 1959, p. 35.
rarely take time to reflect: Giada Di Stefano, et al. “Learning by thinking: Overcoming the bias for action through reflection.” Harvard Business School NOM Unit Working Paper 14-093 (2015): 14—093.
call-center trainees who took: Ibid.
“biographers of our lives”: Timothy D. Wilson. Strangers to Ourselves. Harvard University Press, 2004, p. 16.
“Think about your life”: Note: I’ve adapted this slightly to serve the purpose of self-awareness. Dan P. McAdams, et al. “Continuity and change in the life story: A longitudinal study of autobiographical memories in emerging adulthood.” Journal of Personality 74.5 (2006): 1371—1400.
life stories are associated: Ibid.
Chase discovered his theme: Jennifer L. Pals. “Authoring a second chance in life: Emotion and transformational processing within narrative identity.” Research in Human Development 3.2—3 (2006): 101—120.
achievement…relationships: McAdams and his colleagues call these “agency” and “communion” respectively.
struggling with their grades: Timothy D. Wilson and Patricia W. Linville. “Improving the academic performance of college freshmen: Attribution therapy revisited.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42.2 (1982): 367—376.
“I was dead, but the doctors”: Dan P. McAdams. “The redemptive self: Generativity and the stories Americans live by.” Research in Human Development 3.2—3 (2006): 81—100, p. 90.
even the most horrific experiences: Dan P. McAdams, et al. “When bad things turn good and good things turn bad: Sequences of redemption and contamination in life narrative and their relation to psychosocial adaptation in midlife adults and in students.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 27.4 (2001): 474—485.
less introspection and more self-awareness: Anthony M. Grant. “The impact of life coaching on goal attainment, metacognition and mental health.” Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal 31.3 (2003): 253—263.
people sustained this progress: L. S. Green, L. G. Oades, and A. M. Grant. “Cognitive-behavioral, solution-focused life coaching: Enhancing goal striving, well-being, and hope.” Journal of Positive Psychology 1.3 (2006): 142—149.
solutions-mining is a powerful: Edward R. Watkins, Celine B. Baeyens, and Rebecca Read. “Concreteness training reduces dysphoria: proof-of-principle for repeated cognitive bias modification in depression.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 118.1 (2009): 55—64.
Solutions Focused Brief Therapy: Steve De Shazer. Clues: Investigating Solutions in Brief Therapy. W. W. Norton & Co, 1988. Note that I’ve slightly adapted this question for brevity.
produced dramatic improvements: Jacqueline Corcoran and Vijayan Pillai. “A review of the research on solution-focused therapy.” British Journal of Social Work 39.2 (2009): 234—242.
populations such as parents, prisoners: Wallace J. Gingerich and Sheri Eisengart. “Solution-focused brief therapy: A review of the outcome research.” Family Process 39.4 (2000): 477—498.
adolescents…struggling with their marriages: Jacqueline Corcoran and Vijayan Pillai. “A review of the research on solution-focused therapy.” British Journal of Social Work 39.2 (2009): 234—242.
insight and psychological growth: Wei Zhang, et al. “Brief report: Effects of solution-focused brief therapy group-work on promoting post-traumatic growth of mothers who have a child with ASD.” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 44.8 (2014): 2052—2056.
reduce their putting yips: Robert J. Bell, Christopher H. Skinner, and Leslee A. Fisher. “Decreasing putting yips in accomplished golfers via solution-focused guided imagery: A single-subject research design.” Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 21.1 (2009): 1—14.
college students were asked to write: Jack J. Bauer and Dan P. McAdams. “Eudaimonic growth: Narrative growth goals predict increases in ego development and subjective well-being 3 years later.” Developmental Psychology 46.4 (2010): 761—772.
Chapter 7: The Truth We Rarely Hear
the words of a drunk: Bruce D. Bartholow, et al. “Alcohol effects on performance monitoring and adjustment: affect modulation and impairment of evaluative cognitive control.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 121.1 (2012): 173—186.
infinitely less accurate: Timothy W. Smith, et al. “Hostile personality traits and coronary artery calcification in middle-aged and older married couples: Different effects for self-reports versus spouse ratings.” Psychosomatic Medicine 69.5 (2007): 441—448.
only the subordinates could: Bernard M. Bass, and Francis J. Yammarino. “Congruence of self and others’ leadership ratings of naval officers for understanding successful performance.” Applied Psychology 40.4 (1991): 437—454.
anticipate our future behavior: Tara K. MacDonald and Michael Ross. “Assessing the accuracy of predictions about dating relationships: How and why do lovers’ predictions differ from those made by observers?” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 25.11 (1999): 1417—1429.
match for all but three: David C. Funder, David C. Kolar, and Melinda C. Blackman. “Agreement among judges of personality: Interpersonal relations, similarity, and acquaintanceship.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69.4 (1995): 656—672.
different aspects of who we are: Simine Vazire and Erika N. Carlson. “Others sometimes know us better than we know ourselves.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 20.2 (2011): 104—108. Simine Vazire and Matthias R. Mehl. “Knowing me, knowing you: The accuracy and unique predictive validity of self-ratings and other-ratings of daily behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95.5 (2008): 1202—1216.
This clever experiment: Sidney Rosen and Abraham Tesser. “On reluctance to communicate undesirable information: The MUM effect.” Sociometry (1970): 253—263.
“devised to keep people”: Herbert H. Blumberg. “Communication of interpersonal evaluations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 23.2 (1972): 157—162.
jeopardize our social standing: Charles F. Bond and Evan L. Anderson. “The reluctance to transmit bad news: Private discomfort or public display?” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 23.2 (1987): 176—187.
social rejection activates: Kipling D. Williams, Christopher K. T. Cheung, and Wilma Choi. “Cyberostracism: Effects of being ignored over the Internet.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79.5 (2000): 748—762.
asked them to evaluate: Bella M. DePaulo and Kathy L. Bell. “Truth and investment: Lies are told to those who care.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71.4 (1996): 703—716.
more successful and promotable: Bernard M. Bass and Francis J. Yammarino. “Congruence of self and others’ leadership ratings of naval officers for understanding successful performance.” Applied Psychology 40.4 (1991): 437—454; Mike Young and Victor Dulewicz. “Relationships between emotional and congruent self-awareness and performance in the British Royal Navy.” Journal of Managerial Psychology 22.5 (2007): 465—478.
predictor of leadership success: J. P. Flaum. “When it comes to business leadership, nice guys finish first,” greenpeakpartners.com, http://greenpeakpartners.com/resources/pdf/6%208%2010%20Executive%20study%20GP %20commentary%20article_Final.pdf.
less likely you are to be self-aware: Fabio Sala. “Executive Blind Spots: Discrepancies Between Self-and Other-Ratings.” Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research 55.4 (2003): 222—229.
labeled CEO Disease: John A. Byrne, William C. Symonds, and Julia Flynn Silver. “CEO disease.” The Training and Development Sourcebook 263 (1994).
future for the automaker: Richard Whittington. What Is Strategy—And Does It Matter? Cengage Learning EMEA, 2001.
succeeded his father: William Engdahl. “Who is Pehr Gyllenhammar, and what are the Aspen-Skandia networks?” larouchepub.com, August 31, 1982, http://www.larouchepub.com/eiw/public/1982/eirv09n33-19820831/eirv09n33-19820831_043-who_is_pehr_gyllenhammar_and_wha.pdf.
“cheeky” and “provocative”: “Volvo cars and Volvo museum exhibited Pehr G Gyllenhammar’s cars,” volvo.cars.com, April 15, 2014, http://www.volvocars.com/international/about/our-company/heritage/heritage-news/volvo-cars-and-volvo-museum-exhibited-pehr-g-gyllenhammars-cars.
nickname “The Emperor”: Robert F. Bruner. “An analysis of value destruction and recovery in the alliance and proposed merger of Volvo and Renault.” Journal of Financial Economics 51.1 (1999): 125—166.
“an impenetrable mess”: Paula Dwyer. “Why Volvo kissed Renault goodbye,” Business Week, December 19, 1993, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/1993-12-19/why-volvo-kissed-renault-goodbye.
upped the deal’s projected savings: Ibid.
“We didn’t realize Mr. Gyllenhammar”: Ibid.
“envious vendetta” against him: Robert F. Bruner. “An analysis of value destruction and recovery in the alliance and proposed merger of Volvo and Renault.” Journal of Financial Economics 51.1 (1999): 125—166.
regularly solicit feedback: The top performing leaders were the top 10 percent and the bottom performing leaders were the bottom 10 percent. Joseph Folkman. “Top ranked leaders know this secret: ask for feedback,” forbes.com, January 8, 2015, http://www.forbes.com/sites/joefolkman/2015/01/08/top-ranked-leaders-know-this-secret-ask-for-feedback/#b958b9e608fe.
socially and professionally rewarded: Susan J. Ashford and Anne S. Tsui. “Self-regulation for managerial effectiveness: The role of active feedback seeking.” Academy of Management Journal 34.2 (1991): 251—280.
With a rich history: David W. Bracken, et al. Should 360-Degree Feedback Be Used Only for Developmental Purposes? Center for Creative Leadership, 1997.
anywhere from 30 percent: David W. Bracken, Carol W. Timmreck, and Allan H. Church, eds. The Handbook of Multisource Feedback. John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
to 90 percent: Mark Robert Edwards and Ann J. Ewen. 360 - Feedback: The Powerful New Model for Employee Assessment & Performance Improvement. AMACOM, 1996.
higher-quality homework: Jesse Pappas and J. Madison. “Multisource feedback for STEM students improves academic performance.” Annual Conference Proceedings of American Society of Engineering Education. 2013.
subordinates fear the repercussions: Arthur Morgan, Kath Cannan, and Joanne Cullinane. “360 feedback: a critical enquiry.” Personnel Review 34.6 (2005): 663—680.
“[If my 360 tells me] anything critical”: Ibid.
Chapter 8: Receiving, Reflecting on, and Responding to Difficult or Surprising Feedback
performance of female chess players: Hank Rothgerber and Katie Wolsiefer. “A naturalistic study of stereotype threat in young female chess players.” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 17.1 (2014): 79—90.
dubbed stereotype threat: Claude M. Steele and Joshua Aronson. “Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69.5 (1995): 797—811.
scored 12 percent lower: Thomas S. Dee. “Stereotype threat and the student-athlete.” Economic Inquiry 52.1 (2014): 173—182.
women hold only 22 percent: National Science Report, 2000, as cited in Joyce Ehrlinger and David Dunning. “How chronic self-views influence (and potentially mislead) estimates of performance.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84.1 (2003): 5.
ability to reason about science: Joyce Ehrlinger and David Dunning. “How chronic self-views influence (and potentially mislead) estimates of performance.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84.1 (2003): 5—17.
“psychological immune system”: Daniel T. Gilbert, et al. “Immune neglect: A source of durability bias in affective forecasting.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75.3 (1998): 617—638.
40-percent reduction: Geoffrey L. Cohen, et al. “Reducing the racial achievement gap: A social-psychological intervention.” Science 313.5791 (2006): 1307—1310.
it reduces our levels: J. David Creswell, et al. “Does self-affirmation, cognitive processing, or discovery of meaning explain cancer-related health benefits of expressive writing?” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 33.2 (2007): 238—250, p. 242.
open to difficult feedback: Clayton R. Critcher and David Dunning. “Self-affirmations provide a broader perspective on self-threat.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 41.1 (2015): 3—18.
help us hear tough truths: Brandon J. Schmeichel and Andy Martens. “Self-affirmation and mortality salience: Affirming values reduces worldview defense and death-thought accessibility.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31.5 (2005): 658—667.
“more open to ideas”: David K. Sherman and Geoffrey L. Cohen. “The psychology of self-defense: Self-affirmation theory.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 38 (2006): 183—242.
less likely to hold delusional: Matthew Vess, et al. “Nostalgia as a resource for the self.” Self and Identity 11.3 (2012): 273—284.
reminiscing reduces rumination: Sander L. Koole, et al. “The cessation of rumination through self-affirmation.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77.1 (1999): 111—125.
increases well-being: Fred B. Bryant, Colette M. Smart, and Scott P. King. “Using the past to enhance the present: Boosting happiness through positive reminiscence.” Journal of Happiness Studies 6.3 (2005): 227—260.
before getting threatening feedback: Clayton R. Critcher, David Dunning, and David A. Armor. “When self-affirmations reduce defensiveness: Timing is key.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 36.7 (2010): 947—959.
Chapter 9: How Leaders Build Self-Aware Teams and Organizations
lost a whopping 25 percent: Sarah Miller Caldicott. “Why Ford’s Alan Mulally is an innovation CEO for the record books,” forbes.com, June 25, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/sarahcaldicott/2014/06/25/why-fords-alan-mulally-is-an-innovation-ceo-for-the-record-books/#c35aeec779bb.
“[Bill] Ford found himself”: B. G. Hoffman. American Icon: Alan Mulally and the Fight to Save Ford Motor Company. Crown, 2012, p. 3.
“This company means a lot”: Ibid., p. 56.
“We’ll all be here again”: Ibid., p. 106.
“nothing short of bovine scatology: Ibid.
Somebody has to figure out: Ibid., p. 124.
self-aware teams are: Susan M. Carter and Michael A. West. “Reflexivity, effectiveness, and mental health in BBC-TV production teams.” Small Group Research 29.5 (1998): 583—601; Michaéla C. Schippers, Deanne N. Den Hartog, and Paul L. Koopman. “Reflexivity in teams: A measure and correlates.” Applied Psychology 56.2 (2007): 189—211.
likely to stay MUM: Susan J. Ashford and Anne S. Tsui. “Self-regulation for managerial effectiveness: The role of active feedback seeking.” Academy of Management Journal 34.2 (1991): 251—280.
constellation of behaviors as “authentic leadership”: Remus Ilies, Frederick P. Morgeson, and Jennifer D. Nahrgang. “Authentic leadership and eudaemonic well-being: Understanding leader-follower outcomes.” The Leadership Quarterly 16.3 (2005): 373—394; Fred O. Walumbwa, et al. “Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure.” Journal of Management 34.1 (2008): 89—126.
more productive than those: Joanne Lyubovnikova, et al. “How authentic leadership influences team performance: The mediating role of team reflexivity.” Journal of Business Ethics (2015): 1—12.
children were happier: Heather K. Warren and Cynthia A. Stifter. “Maternal emotion-related socialization and preschoolers’ developing emotion self-awareness.” Social Development 17.2 (2008): 239—258.
followers tend to imitate: Albert Bandura and Richard H. Walters. “Social learning theory.” General Learning Press, 1997.
“a super-intensive getting-to-know-you”: Cathy Olofson. “GE brings good managers to life,” fastcompany.com, September 30, 1998, http://www.fastcompany.com/35516/ge-brings-good-managers-life.
better, more trusting relationships: Steven V. Manderscheid and Alexandre Ardichvili. “New leader assimilation: Process and outcomes.” Leadership & Organization Development Journal 29.8 (2008): 661—677.
science of team self-awareness: Amy C. Edmondson. “Learning from mistakes is easier said than done: Group and organizational influences on the detection and correction of human error.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 32.1 (1996): 5—28.
480 and 960 potential errors: The average hospital patient received between 10 and 20 doses of medication each day with an average stay of 4.8 days. Amy C. Edmondson. “Learning from mistakes is easier said than done: Group and organizational influences on the detection and correction of human error.” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 32.1 (1996): 5—28.
kill hundreds and injure: “Medication error reports,” fda.gov, October 20, 2016, http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/MedicationErrors/ucm080629.htm.
“The term,” Edmondson explains: Amy Edmondson. “Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams.” Administrative Science Quarterly 44.2 (1999): 350—383.
reached a similar conclusion: Charles Duhigg. “What Google learned from its quest to build the perfect team,” nytimes.com, February 28, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/28/magazine/what-google-learned-from-its-quest-to-build-the-perfect-team.html?_r=0.
create clear norms: Vanessa Urch Druskat and D. Christopher Kayes. “The antecedents of team competence: Toward a fine-grained model of self-managing team effectiveness.” Research on Managing Groups and Teams 2.2 (1999): 201—231.
“leading by being self-aware”: Edwin E. Catmull and Amy Wallace. Creativity, Inc.: Overcoming the Unseen Forces That Stand in the Way of True Inspiration. New York: Random House, 2014. Print, xvi.
“unhindered communication”: Ibid., p. 4.
“The year is 2017”: Ibid., p. 283.
“broke[n] the logjam”: Ibid., p. 292.
“made it safer for people”: Ibid., p. 293.
“collaboration, determination and candor”: Ed Catmull. Creativity, Inc.: Overcoming the Unseen Forces That Stand in the Way of True Inspiration. Random House, 2014, p. 277.
“radical truth” and “radical transparency”: James Freeman. “The soul of a hedge fund ’machine,’ ” wsj.com, June 6, 2014, http://www.wsj.com/articles/james-freeman-the-soul-of-a-hedge-fund-machine-1402094722.
a fireable offense: Richard Feloni. “Ray Dalio explains why 25% of Bridgewater employees don’t last more than 18 months at the hedge fund giant,” businessinsider.com, March 23, 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/biggest-challenges-new-bridgewater-employees-face-2016-3.
“digital baseball card”: Eliza Gray. “Questions to answer in the age of optimized hiring,” time.com, June 11, 2015, http://time.com/3917703/questions-to-answer-in-the-age-of-optimized-hiring/.
give one another “dots”: Ibid.
“What we’re trying to do”: Bess Levin. “Bridgwater associates truth probings are about to get turbo-charged,” dealbreaker.com, July 18, 2011, http://dealbreaker.com/2011/07/bridgwater-associates-truth-probings-are-about-to-get-turbo-charged/.
more money than any other hedge fund: Nishant Kumar. “Bridgewater’s Dalio trumps Soros as most profitable hedge fund,” bloomberg.com, January 26, 2016, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-01-26/bridgewater-s-dalio-trumps-soros-as-most-profitable-hedge-fund.
And indeed, many employees: James Freeman. “The soul of a hedge fund ’machine,’ ” wsj.com, June 6, 2014, http://www.wsj.com/articles/james-freeman-the-soul-of-a-hedge-fund-machine-1402094722.
“constant drumbeat of criticism”: Michelle Celarier and Lawrence Delevingne. “Ray Dalio’s radical truth,” March 2, 2011, http://www.institutionalinvestor.com/Article.aspx?ArticleID=2775995&p=3.
“What you see at Bridgewater”: Michelle Celarier and Lawrence Delevingne. “Ray Dalio’s radical truth,” March 2, 2011, http://www.institutionalinvestor.com/Article.aspx?ArticleID=2775995&p=3.
30 percent of new hires: Michelle Celarier and Lawrence Delevingne. “Ray Dalio’s radical truth,” March 2, 2011, http://www.institutionalinvestor.com/Article/2775995/Channel/199225/Ray-Dalios-radical-truth.html?ArticleId=2775995&p=4#/.V04K15MrK8U.
trying to conjure a name: Elizabeth Brayer. George Eastman: A Biography. University of Rochester Press, 2006.
“strong [and] incisive”: Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc. “The story behind Kodak Trademark.” Kiplinger’s Personal Finance, April 1962, p. 40.
85 percent of cameras: Henry C. Lucas. The Search for Survival: Lessons from Disruptive Technologies. Praeger, 2012, p. 16.
hurt their film business: Ernest Scheyder and Liana B. Baker. “As Kodak struggles, Eastman Chemical thrives,” reuters.com, December 24, 2011, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-eastman-kodak-idUSTRE7BN06B20111224.
“That’s cute—but don’t tell”: Paul B. Carroll and Chunka Mui. Billion Dollar Lessons: What You Can Learn from the Most Inexcusable Business Failures of the Last Twenty-five Years. Portfolio, 2008, p. 93.
company filed for Chapter 11: Reuters. “Kodak files for bankruptcy, plans biz overhaul.” business-standard.com, January 19, 2012, http://www.business-standard.com/article/international/kodak-files-for-bankruptcy-plans-biz-overhaul-112011900119_1.html.
“Take two of these”: B. G. Hoffman. American Icon: Alan Mulally and the Fight to Save Ford Motor Company. Crown, 2012, p. 248.
Chapter 10: Surviving and Thriving in a Delusional World
just one unaware person: Erich C. Dierdorff and Robert S. Rubin. “Research: We’re not very self-aware, especially at work,” Harvard Business Review, March 12, 2015, https://hbr.org/2015/03/research-were-not-very-self-aware-especially-at-work.
unaware bosses have a detrimental: Dan F. Moshavi, William Brown, and Nancy G. Dodd. “Leader self-awareness and its relationship to subordinate attitudes and performance.” Leadership & Organization Development Journal 24.7 (2003): 407—418.
asked 13,500 employees: Sherri Dalphonse. “Washington’s real-life horrible bosses,” washingtonian.com, December 4, 2013, https://www.washingtonian.com/2013/12/04/real-life-horrible-bosses/.
“suffer the severe disorientation”: William B. Swann Jr., Peter J. Rentfrow, and Jennifer S. Guinn. “Self-verification: The search for coherence.” In M. R. Leary and J. J. P. Tangney, eds. Handbook of Self and Identity. Guilford Press, 2003, p. 376.
appealing to their self-interest: Erika N. Carlson, Simine Vazire, and Thomas F. Oltmanns. “You probably think this paper’s about you: Narcissists’ perceptions of their personality and reputation.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101.1 (2011): 185—201.
cornerstone of narcissism: John F. Rauthmann. “The Dark Triad and interpersonal perception: Similarities and differences in the social consequences of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy.” Social Psychological and Personality Science 3.4 (2012): 487—496.
one of the best ways: Sander van der Linden and Seth A. Rosenthal. “Measuring narcissism with a single question? A replication and extension of the Single-Item Narcissism Scale (SINS).” Personality and Individual Differences 90 (2016): 238—241.
view them as positive!: Sara Konrath, Brian P. Meier, and Brad J. Bushman. “Development and validation of the single item narcissism scale (SINS).” PLOS One 9.8 (2014): e103469.
“believe they are superior”: Mary Elizabeth Dallas. “Need to spot a narcissist? Just ask them,” healthday.com, August 5, 2014, http://consumer.healthday.com/mental-health-information-25/psychology-and-mental-health-news-566/need-to-spot-a-narcissist-just-ask-them-690338.html.
others are just too dim: Erika N. Carlson, Simine Vazire, and Thomas F. Oltmanns. “You probably think this paper’s about you: Narcissists’ perceptions of their personality and reputation.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101.1 (2011): 185—201.
rated lowest in effectiveness: Timothy A. Judge, Jeffery A. LePine, and Bruce L. Rich. “Loving yourself abundantly: Relationship of the narcissistic personality to self—and other perceptions of workplace deviance, leadership, and task and contextual performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 91.4 (2006): 762—776.
positive correlation between stress: Delroy L. Paulhus, Peter Graf, and Mark Van Selst. “Attentional load increases the positivity of self-presentation.” Social Cognition 7.4 (1989): 389—400.
would prepare him to hear: Geoffrey L. Cohen, Joshua Aronson, and Claude M. Steele. “When beliefs yield to evidence: Reducing biased evaluation by affirming the self.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26.9 (2000): 1151—1164.
it is often possible: Leanne Atwater, Paul Roush, and Allison Fischthal. “The influence of upward feedback on self-and follower ratings of leadership.” Personnel Psychology 48.1 (1995): 35—59.
require repeated evidence: Zoe Chance, et al. “The slow decay and quick revival of self-deception.” Frontiers in Psychology 6 (2015).
“a better and happier man”: Benjamin Franklin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Garden City Publishing Company, 1916.
Self-awareness transforms us into supernovas: If you’re reading this endnote, perhaps you’re a science-minded individual. Yes, technically supernovas are dying stars, but I hope that you choose to remember the spirit of the quote!