Literature and Further Reading

Our Senses: An Immersive Experience - Rob DeSalle 2018

Literature and Further Reading


For a wonderful review of the early life on Earth, see Lane (2010). Microbial life on our bodies is described nicely by Dunn (2011) and microbial distribution in general in DeSalle and Perkins (2015). Dunn’s provocation is described in Dunn (2009). Galileo’s take on the senses is described in the scholarly work of Piccolino and Wade (2008). Anishkin et al. (2014) present their argument for mechano-sensation as the original sense, and Bassler and Miller (2013) describe quorum sensing. Magnetobacteria are discussed in Uebe and Schüler (2016), and the dancing bacteria can be viewed at Horizontal transfer in magnetotactic bacteria is discussed in Lefèvre and Bazylinski (2013). The case for plant neurobiology is made in Baluška et al. (2006), but Pollan (2013) makes the case for plant intelligent behavior.

Anishkin, Andriy, Stephen H. Loukin, Jinfeng Teng, and Ching Kung. 2014. “Feeling the Hidden Mechanical Forces in Lipid Bilayer Is an Original Sense.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, no. 22: 7898—7905.

Baluška, František, Stefano Mancuso, and Dieter Volkmann, eds. 2006. Communication in Plants: Neuronal Aspects of Plant Life. Springer.

Bassler, Bonnie L., and Melissa B. Miller. 2013. “Quorum Sensing.” In The Prokaryotes: Prokaryotic Biology and Symbiotic Associations, ed. Eugene Rosenberg et al., 495—509. Springer.

DeSalle, Rob, Susan L. Perkins, and Patricia J. Wynne. 2015. Welcome to the Microbiome: Getting to Know the Trillions of Bacteria and Other Microbes In, On, and Around You. Yale University Press.

Dunn, Rob. 2009. Every Living Thing: Man’s Obsessive Quest to Catalog Life, from Nanobacteria to New Monkeys. HarperCollins.

———. 2011. The Wild Life of Our Bodies. HarperCollins.

Lane, Nick. 2010. Life Ascending: The Ten Great Inventions of Evolution. Profile Books.

Lefèvre, Christopher T., and Dennis A. Bazylinski. 2013. “Ecology, Diversity, and Evolution of Magnetotactic Bacteria.” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 77, no. 3: 497—526.

Piccolino, Marco, and Nicholas J. Wade. 2008. “Galileo’s Eye: A New Vision of the Senses in the Work of Galileo Galilei.” Perception 37, no. 9: 1312—1340.

Pollan, Michael. 2013. “The Intelligent Plant.” New Yorker, December 23 and 30.

Uebe, René, and Dirk Schüler. 2016. “Magnetosome Biogenesis in Magnetotactic Bacteria.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 14, no. 10: 621—637.


For more information on placozoa, see Eitel et al. (2013). Information on these deep phyla of animals can also be found in Brusca and Brusca (2003). A discussion of the history of the triune brain idea is in Pessoa and Hof (2015). The original paper by Gould and Lewontin (1979) has been republished in many venues. A good paper on sneezing sponges is Ludeman et al. (2014). A detailed comparison of invertebrate and vertebrate neurons and connections can be found in Sanes and Zipursky (2010).

Brusca, R. C., and G. J Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sinauer.

Eitel, Michael, Hans-Jürgen Osigus, Rob DeSalle, and Bernd Schierwater. 2013. “Global Diversity of the Placozoa.” PLoS One 8, no. 4: e57131.

Gould, Stephen Jay, and Richard C. Lewontin. 1979. “The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Ser. B, 205, no. 1161: 581—598.

Ludeman, Danielle A., et al. 2014. “Evolutionary Origins of Sensation in Metazoans: Functional Evidence for a New Sensory Organ in Sponges.” BMC Evolutionary Biology 14, no. 1: 3.

Pessoa, Luiz, and Patrick R. Hof. 2015. “From Paul Broca’s Great Limbic Lobe to the Limbic System.” Journal of Comparative Neurology 523, no. 17: 2495—2500.

Sanes, Joshua R., and S. Lawrence Zipursky. 2010. “Design Principles of Insect and Vertebrate Visual Systems.” Neuron 66, no. 1: 15—36.


A nice historical treatment of the homunculus can be found in Schott (1993), and the hermunculus is discussed by Di Noto et al. (2013). Griggs (1988) discusses the historical aspects of Mrs. Cantlie’s homunculus drawings. Catania (2012) is the author of the star-nosed mole studies, and the movie of this mole foraging is at Catania (Catania and Remple, 2002) is also the author of the naked mole-rat study. The naked mole-rat’s visual acuity is discussed in Kott et al. (2010). The work from the O’Leary lab is published in Zembrzycki et al. (2013). Gould and Lewontin (1979) make a reprise in this chapter with their ideas about the spandrels. Leeuwenhoek’s remark about ommatidia is quoted in Resh and Cardé (2009). Jessel’s lecture on developing a Cyclops can be found at

Catania, Kenneth C. 2012. “Evolution of Brains and Behavior for Optimal Foraging: A Tale of Two Predators.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109, suppl. 1: 10701—10708.

Catania, Kenneth C., and Michael S. Remple. 2002. “Somatosensory Cortex Dominated by the Representation of Teeth in the Naked Mole-Rat brain.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99, no. 8: 5692—5697.

Di Noto, Paula M., Leorra Newman, Shelley Wall, and Gillian Einstein. 2013. “The Hermunculus: What Is Known about the Representation of the Female Body in the Brain?” Cerebral Cortex 23, no. 5: 1005—1013.

Gould, Stephen Jay, and Richard C. Lewontin. 1979. “The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Ser. B, 205, no. 1161: 581—598.

Griggs, Richard A. 1988. “Who Is Mrs. Cantlie and Why Are They Doing Those Terrible Things to Her Homunculi?” Teaching of Psychology 15, no. 2: 105—106.

Kott, Ondřej, Radim Šumbera, and Pavel Němec. 2010. “Light Perception in Two Strictly Subterranean Rodents: Life in the Dark or Blue?” PloS One 5, no. 7: e11810.

Resh, Vincent H., and Ring T. Cardé, eds. 2009. Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press.

Schott, Geoffrey D. 1993. “Penfield’s Homunculus: A Note on Cerebral Cartography.” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 56, no. 4: 329—333.

Zembrzycki, Andreas, et al. 2013. “Sensory Cortex Limits Cortical Maps and Drives Top-Down Plasticity in Thalamocortical Circuits.” Nature Neuroscience 16, no. 8: 1060—1067.


The inner neural workings of taste reception are discussed in Simon et al. (2006). Insect taste receptors are described in Isono and Morita (2010). Bitter taste reception genes in animals is the focus of a paper by Li and Zhang (2014), and Feng et al. (2014) examine cetacean taste receptors. Bird taste receptors are discussed in Wang and Zhao (2015), and Zhao et al. (2015) focus specifically on penguin taste receptors. The Drosophila olfactory work is described in Woodard et al. (1989) and the Nobel Prize—winning animal olfactory work is covered in Buck and Axel (1991). Odorant receptor numbers in animals are discussed in Vandewege et al. (2016). Fabre’s (1919) book on caterpillars is also mentioned. Bushdid et al. (2014) report the work on the massive number of odors we could potentially differentiate, and controversy about the estimate can be found in Gerkin (2015).

Buck, Linda, and Richard Axel. 1991. “A Novel Multigene Family May Encode Odorant Receptors: A Molecular Basis for Odor Recognition.” Cell 65, no. 1: 175—187.

Bushdid, Caroline, Marcelo O. Magnasco, Leslie B. Vosshall, and Andreas Keller. 2014. “Humans Can Discriminate More Than 1 Trillion Olfactory Stimuli.” Science 343, no. 6177: 1370—1372.

Fabre, Jean-Henri. 1919. The Life of the Caterpillar. Dodd, Mead.

Feng, Ping, et al. 2014. “Massive Losses of Taste Receptor Genes in Toothed and Baleen Whales.” Genome Biology and Evolution 6, no. 6: 1254—1265.

Gerkin, Richard C., and Jason B. Castro. 2015. “The Number of Olfactory Stimuli That Humans Can Discriminate Is Still Known.” Elife 4: e08127.

Isono, Kunio, and Hiromi Morita. 2010. “Molecular and Cellular Designs of Insect Taste Receptor System.” Frontiers in Neuroscience 4: 1—16.

Li, Diyan, and Jianzhi Zhang. 2014. “Diet Shapes the Evolution of the Vertebrate Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 31, no. 2: 303—309.

Simon, Sidney A., Ivan E. de Araujo, Ranier Gutierrez, and Miguel A. L. Nicolelis. 2006. “The Neural Mechanisms of Gustation: A Distributed Processing Code.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7, no. 11: 890—901.

Wang, Kai, and Huabin Zhao. 2015. “Birds Generally Carry a Small Repertoire of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes.” Genome Biology and Evolution 7, no. 9: 2705—2715.

Woodard, Craig, et al. 1989. “Genetic Analysis of Olfactory Behavior in Drosophila: A New Screen Yields the ota Mutants.” Genetics 123, no. 2: 315—326.

Vandewege, Michael W., et al. 2016. “Contrasting Patterns of Evolutionary Diversification in the Olfactory Repertoires of Reptile and Bird Genomes.” Genome Biology and Evolution 8, no. 3: 470—480.

Zhao, Huabin, Jianwen Li, and Jianzhi Zhang. 2015. “Molecular Evidence for the Loss of Three Basic Tastes in Penguins.” Current Biology 25, no. 4: R141—R142.


Hearing in insects is reviewed in Göpfert and Hennig (2015). Billet et al. (2012) describe the vestigial status of the vestibular system in sloths, and Jerry Coyne’s discussion of this phenomenon can be found at Ekdale (2016) reviews the structure of the mammalian inner ear, and Schneider et al. (2016) review electroreception in monotremes.

Billet, Guillaume, et al. 2012. “High Morphological Variation of Vestibular System Accompanies Slow and Infrequent Locomotion in Three-Toed Sloths.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 279, no. 1744: 3932—3939.

Ekdale, Eric G. 2016. “Form and Function of the Mammalian Inner Ear.” Journal of Anatomy 228, no. 2: 324—337.

Göpfert, Martin C., and R. Matthias Hennig. 2016. “Hearing in Insects.” Annual Review of Entomology 61: 257—276.

Schneider, Eve R., Elena O. Gracheva, and Slav N. Bagriantsev. 2016. “Evolutionary Specialization of Tactile Perception in Vertebrates.” Physiology 31, no. 3: 193—200.


The description of Joy Milne’s unique capacity to smell Parkinson’s is detailed in Morgan (2016). Devanand et al. (2015) and Growdon et al. (2015) report on the use of diminished olfaction as a diagnostic of Alzheimer’s disorder. Turin et al. (2015) and Block et al. (2015) present the arguments for the plausibility and implausibility of the vibrational hypothesis. Bloomquist et al. (2015) report on the similarity of the development of teeth and taste buds. Supertasters and fungiform papillae number was examined by Fischer et al., 2013. Cortright et al. (2007) provide an excellent review of TRP receptors and how pain is related to the receptors, and Cox et al. (2006) and Sawal et al. (2016) discuss the relation of SCN9A and nonresponse to pain. Cemre Candar’s antics can be viewed at

Block, Eric, et al. 2015. “Implausibility of the Vibrational Theory of Olfaction.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, no. 21: E2766—E2774.

Bloomquist, Ryan F., et al. 2015. “Coevolutionary Patterning of Teeth and Taste Buds.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, no. 44: E5954—E5962.

Cortright, Daniel N., James E. Krause, and Daniel C. Broom. 2007. “TRP Channels and Pain.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—Molecular Basis of Disease 1772, no. 8: 978—988.

Cox, James J., et al. 2006. “An SCN9A Channelopathy Causes Congenital Inability to Experience Pain.” Nature 444, no. 7121: 894—898.

Devanand, D. P., et al. 2015. “Olfactory Deficits Predict Cognitive Decline and Alzheimer Dementia in an Urban Community.” Neurology 84, no. 2: 182—189.

Fischer, Mary E., Karen J. Cruickshanks, Carla R. Schubert, Alex Pinto, Ronald Klein, Nathan Pankratz, James S. Pankow, and Guan-Hua Huang. 2013. “Factors Related to Fungiform Papillae Density: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study.” Chemical Senses 38, no. 8: 669—677.

Growdon, Matthew E., et al. 2015. “Odor Identification and Alzheimer Disease Biomarkers in Clinically Normal Elderly.” Neurology 84, no. 21: 2153—2160.

Morgan, Jules. 2016. “Joy of Super Smeller: Sebum Clues for PD Diagnostics.” Lancet Neurology 15, no. 2: 138.

Sawal, H. A., et al. 2016. “Biallelic Truncating SCN9A Mutation Identified in Four Families with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain from Pakistan.” Clinical Genetics 90, no. 6: 563—565.

Turin, Luca, Simon Gane, Dimitris Georganakis, Klio Maniati, and Efthimios M. C. Skoulakis. 2015. “Plausibility of the Vibrational Theory of Olfaction.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, no. 25: E3154—E3154.


Muller et al. (2016) discuss the filtering out of Brownian motion in balance. For a full discussion of balance disorders, see For a detailed explanation of spinning rooms after drinking wine especially, see Tattersall and DeSalle (2015).

Muller, Mees, Kier Heeck, and Coen P. H. Elemans. 2016. “Semicircular Canals Circumvent Brownian Motion Overload of Mechanoreceptor Hair Cells.” PLoS One 11, no. 7: e0159427.

Tattersall, Ian, and Rob DeSalle. 2015. A Natural History of Wine. Yale University Press.


The medley and menagerie of touch sensor cells are discussed in Lumpkin et al. (2010) and Connor (2006). Gregoire (2015) interviewed David Linden in 2015, and much of the discussion of his work can be found in that publication. Lupski et al. (2013) report on the genomic examination of Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome, and Frenzel et al. (2012) report on twin studies of the same syndrome. Mathur and Yang (2015) have examined Usher syndrome and its associated phenotypes.

Connor, Steven. 2006. “The Menagerie of the Senses.” Senses and Society 1, no. 1: 9—26.

Frenzel, Henning, et al. 2012. “A Genetic Basis for Mechanosensory Traits in Humans.” PLoS Biol 10, no. 5: e1001318.

Gregoire, Carolyn. 2015.

Lumpkin, Ellen A., Kara L. Marshall, and Aislyn M. Nelson. 2010. “The Cell Biology of Touch.” Journal of Cell Biology 191, no. 2: 237—248.

Lupski, James R., et al. 2013. “Exome Sequencing Resolves Apparent Incidental Findings and Reveals Further Complexity of SH3TC2 Variant Alleles Causing Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy.” Genome Medicine 5, no. 6: 57.

Mathur, Pranav, and Jun Yang. 2015. “Usher Syndrome: Hearing Loss, Retinal Degeneration and Associated Abnormalities.” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)—Molecular Basis of Disease 1852, no. 3: 406—420.


Visual acuity in baseball players is discussed in Bahill et al. (2005). Shichida and Matsuyama (2009) and Porter et al. (2012) discuss the evolution of opsins in vertebrates, and Surridge et al. (2003) focus on primate opsin evolution. A review of unconventional color vision can be found in Marshall and Arikawa (2014). Anomalous trichromacy is examined in Jordan et al. (2010), and tetrachromacy and artistic ability are addressed in Jameson et al. (2016). Neanderthal opsins are discussed in Taylor and Reimchen (2016).

Bahill, A. Terry, David G. Baldwin, and Jayendran Venkateswaran. 2005. “Predicting a Baseball’s Path.” American Scientist 93, no. 3: 218—225.

Jameson, Kimberly A., Alissa D. Winkler, and Keith Goldfarb. 2016. “Art, Interpersonal Comparisons of Color Experience, and Potential Tetrachromacy.” Electronic Imaging 2016, no. 16: 1—12.

Jordan, Gabriele, Samir S. Deeb, Jenny M. Bosten, and J. D. Mollon. 2010. “The Dimensionality of Color Vision in Carriers of Anomalous Trichromacy.” Journal of Vision 10, no. 8: 1—19.

Marshall, Justin, and Kentaro Arikawa. 2014. “Unconventional Colour Vision.” Current Biology 24, no. 24: R1150—R1154.

Porter, Megan L., et al. 2012. “Shedding New Light on Opsin Evolution.” In Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279, no. 1726: 3—14.

Shichida, Yoshinori, and Take Matsuyama. 2009. “Evolution of Opsins and Phototransduction.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 364, no. 1531: 2881—2895.

Surridge, Alison K., Daniel Osorio, and Nicholas I. Mundy. 2003. “Evolution and Selection of Trichromatic Vision in Primates.” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18, no. 4: 198—205.

Taylor, John S., and Thomas E. Reimchen. 2016. “Opsin Gene Repertoires in Northern Archaic Hominids.” Genome 59, no. 8: 541—549.


Carl Sagan’s (1980) classic book and de Schotten et al.’s (2015) research paper on brain imaging are references at the beginning of this chapter. Schofield et al. (2014) and Frasnelli et al. (2016) summarize the impact of TBI on olfaction, and Xydakis et al. (2015) examine TBI and olfactory disruption in U.S. servicemen. American troops were the subject of Theodoroff et al.’s (2015) meta-analysis of tinnitus and TBI in servicemen. Gourévitch et al. (2014) review the impact of everyday sounds on our hearing. Noreña and Eggermont (2006) discuss the use of acoustic treatments for tinnitus. The table describing H.M.’s response to odors can be found in Eichenbaum et al. (1983).

de Schotten, M. Thiebaut, et al. 2015. “From Phineas Gage and Monsieur Leborgne to HM: Revisiting Disconnection Syndromes.” Cerebral Cortex 25, no. 12: 4812—4827.

Eichenbaum, Howard, Thomas H. Morton, Harry Potter, and Suzanne Corkin. 1983. “Selective Olfactory Deficits in Case HM.” Brain 106, no. 2: 459—472.

Frasnelli, J., et al. 2016. “Olfactory Function in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury.” Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 140: 68—72.

Gourévitch, Boris, Jean-Marc Edeline, Florian Occelli, and Jos J. Eggermont. 2014. “Is the Din Really Harmless? Long-Term Effects of Non-Traumatic Noise on the Adult Auditory System.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15, no. 7: 483—491.

Noreña, Arnaud J., and Jos J. Eggermont. 2006. “Enriched Acoustic Environment after Noise Trauma Abolishes Neural Signs of Tinnitus.” Neuroreport 17, no. 6: 559—563.

Sagan, Carl. 1980. Broca’s Brain: Reflections on the Romance of Science. Presidio Press.

Schofield, Peter William, Tammie Maree Moore, and Andrew Gardner. 2014. “Traumatic Brain Injury and Olfaction: A Systematic Review.” Frontiers in Neurology 5: 5.

Theodoroff, Sarah M., et al. 2015. “Hearing Impairment and Tinnitus: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes in US Service Members and Veterans Deployed to the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars.” Epidemiologic Reviews 37, no. 1: 71—85.

Xydakis, Michael S., et al. 2015. “Olfactory Impairment and Traumatic Brain Injury in Blast-Injured Combat Troops: A Cohort Study.” Neurology 84, no. 15: 1559—1567.


Gourévitch et al. (2014) discuss Leq in detail, and their publication provides the basis for fig. 11.1. Noreña et al. (2006) discuss the potential of enriched acoustic environment to decrease tinnitus.

Gourévitch, Boris, Jean-Marc Edeline, Florian Occelli, and Jos J. Eggermont. 2014. “Is the Din Really Harmless? Long-Term Effects of Non-Traumatic Noise on the Adult Auditory System.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15, no. 7: 483—491.

Noreña, Arnaud J., and Jos J. Eggermont. 2006. “Enriched Acoustic Environment after Noise Trauma Abolishes Neural Signs of Tinnitus.” Neuroreport 17, no. 6: 559—563.


The long-term outcomes of hemispherectomies in children are reported by Moosa et al. (2013). Videos of Jack and Byron being interviewed are available at and, respectively. An excellent review of split brain research can be found in Gazzaniga (2005). Ingalhalikar et al. (2014) discuss the sex differences of the wiring of the brain. The “Mike or me” experiments are described in Turk et al. (2002). The Capgras illusion is described in Hirstein and Ramachandran (1997). AgCC and its impact on language is discussed in Owen et al. (2013) and Hinkley et al. (2016). Video of Peek can be found at

Gazzaniga, Michael S. 2005. “Forty-Five Years of Split-Brain Research and Still Going Strong.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 6, no. 8: 653—659.

Hinkley, Leighton B. N., et al. 2016. “The Contribution of the Corpus Callosum to Language Lateralization.” Journal of Neuroscience 36, no. 16: 4522—4533.

Hirstein, William, and Vilayanur S. Ramachandran. 1997. “Capgras Syndrome: A Novel Probe for Understanding the Neural Representation of the Identity and Familiarity of Persons.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 264, no. 1380: 437—444.

Ingalhalikar, Madhura, et al. 2014. “Sex Differences in the Structural Connectome of the Human Brain.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, no. 2: 823—828.

Moosa, Ahsan N. V., et al. 2013. “Long-Term Functional Outcomes and Their Predictors after Hemispherectomy in 115 Children.” Epilepsia 54, no. 10: 1771—1779.

Owen, Julia P., et al. 2013. “The Structural Connectome of the Human Brain in Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.” Neuroimage 70: 340—355.

Turk, David J., et al. 2002. “Mike or Me? Self-Recognition in a Split-Brain Patient.” Nature Neuroscience 5, no. 9: 841—842.


Books by Marcus (2009) and Eagleman (2013) are listed below. The original Klüver-Bucy experiments can be found in Klüver and Bucy (1939).

Eagleman, David. 2012. Incognito. Robert Laffont.

Klüver, Heinrich, and Paul C. Bucy. 1939. “Preliminary Analysis of Functions of the Temporal Lobes in Monkeys.” Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 42, no. 6: 979—1000.

Marcus, Gary. 2009. Kluge: The Haphazard Evolution of the Human Mind. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.


Binocular rivalry is discussed in Levelt (1965), auditory rivalry is described in Deutsch (1974), and olfactory rivalry is discussed in Zhou and Chen (2009). Linn and Petersen (1985) describe the rod and frame test and sex differences in spatial acuity. Shams et al. (2002) report on inventing the visual illusion with sound, and Cecere et al. (2015) expand on its workings, while Kerlin and Shapiro (2015) comment on the latter study and discuss the “Bayesian brain.” The role of gloss in visual perception is examined in Adams et al. (2016).

Adams, Wendy J., Iona S. Kerrigan, and Erich W. Graf. 2016. “Touch Influences Perceived Gloss.” Scientific Reports 6: doi:10.1038/srep21866.

Cecere, Roberto, Geraint Rees, and Vincenzo Romei. 2015. “Individual Differences in Alpha Frequency Drive Crossmodal Illusory Perception.” Current Biology 25, no. 2: 231—235.

Deutsch, Diana. 1974. “An Auditory Illusion.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 55, no. S1: S18—S19.

Kerlin, Jess R., and Kimron L. Shapiro. 2015. “Multisensory Integration: How Sound Alters Sight.” Current Biology 25, no. 2: R76—R77.

Levelt, Willem J. M. 1965. “On Binocular Rivalry.” PhD diss., Van Gorcum Assen.

Linn, Marcia C., and Anne C. Petersen. 1985. “Emergence and Characterization of Sex Differences in Spatial Ability: A Meta-Analysis.” Child Development 56, no. 6: 1479—1498.

Shams, Ladan, Yukiyasu Kamitani, and Shinsuke Shimojo. 2002. “Visual Illusion Induced by Sound.” Cognitive Brain Research 14, no. 1: 147—152.

Zhou, Wen, and Denise Chen. 2009. “Binaral Rivalry between the Nostrils and in the Cortex.” Current Biology 19, no. 18: 1561—1565.


Several papers from Charles Spence and his colleagues are discussed in this chapter—Gallace et al. (2011), Ngo et al. (2011), Spence and Gallace (2011), Knöferle and Spence (2012), Carvalho et al. (2016), and Wang and Spence (2016). Sean Day maintains a scholarly website on synesthesia at Fretwell (2011) discusses synesthesia and eugenics. Bosley and Eagleman (2015) report on twin studies of synesthesia, and Graham et al. (2014) discuss GWAS and synesthesia. The meta-analysis of imaging studies is found in Hupé and Dojat (2015). Ferrari et al. (2003) and Caggiano et al. (2009) describe mirror neuron research. Ramachandran and Brang (2008) report on tactile emotional synesthesia.

Bosley, Hannah G., and David M. Eagleman. 2015. “Synesthesia in Twins: Incomplete Concordance in Monozygotes Suggests Extragenic Factors.” Behavioural Brain Research 286: 93—96.

Caggiano, Vittorio, et al. 2009. “Mirror Neurons Differentially Encode the Peripersonal and Extrapersonal Space of Monkeys.” Science 324, no. 5925: 403—406.

Carvalho, Felipe Reinoso, Qian Janice Wang, Raymond Van Ee, and Charles Spence. 2016. “The Influence of Soundscapes on the Perception and Evaluation of Beers.” Food Quality and Preference 52: 32—41.

Ferrari, Pier Francesco, Vittorio Gallese, Giacomo Rizzolatti, and Leonardo Fogassi. 2003. “Mirror Neurons Responding to the Observation of Ingestive and Communicative Mouth Actions in the Monkey Ventral Premotor Cortex.” European Journal of Neuroscience 17, no. 8: 1703—1714.

Fretwell, Erica. 2011. “Senses of Belonging: The Synaesthetics of Citizenship in American Literature, 1862—1903.” PhD diss., Duke University.

Gallace, Alberto, Erica Boschin, and Charles Spence. 2011. “On the taste of ’Bouba’ and ’Kiki’: An Exploration of Word-Food Associations in Neurologically Normal Participants.” Cognitive Neuroscience 2, no. 1: 34—46.

Graham, Sarah A., et al. 2014. “Decoding the Genetics of Synaesthesia Using State-of-the-Art Genomics.” Paper presented at symposium, “Synaesthesia in Perspective: Development, Networks, and Multisensory Processing,” Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, February 28—March 1.

Hupé, Jean-Michel, and Michel Dojat. 2015. “A Critical Review of the Neuroimaging Literature on Synesthesia.” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9: 103.

Knöferle, Klemens, and Charles Spence. 2012. “Crossmodal Correspondences between Sounds and Tastes.” Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 19, no. 6: 992—1006.

Ngo, Mary Kim, Reeva Misra, and Charles Spence. 2011. “Assessing the Shapes and Speech Sounds That People Associate with Chocolate Samples Varying in Cocoa Content.” Food Quality and Preference 22, no. 6: 567—572.

Ramachandran, Vilayanur S., and David Brang. 2008. “Tactile-Emotion Synesthesia.” Neurocase 14, no. 5: 390—399.

Spence, Charles, and Alberto Gallace. 2011. “Tasting Shapes and Words.” Food Quality and Preference 22, no. 3: 290—295.

Wang, Qian Janice, and Charles Spence. 2016. “’Striking a Sour Note’: Assessing the Influence of Consonant and Dissonant Music on Taste Perception.” Multisensory Research 29, no. 1—3: 195—208.


The match-to-do tests using the sea lion Rio are reported in Schusterman and Kastak (1998), and African lion individual recognition is discussed in Gilfillan et al. (2016). Ludwig et al. (2011) describe chimpanzee pitch behavior, and Deroy and Spence (2013) discuss the results of that study. The original C. elegans neural map can be found in White et al. (1986), and Izquierdo and Beer (2016) discuss the connectome of this nematode. Van den Heuvel et al. (2016) review comparative connectomes, and Hecht et al. (2012) discuss DTI imaging and the connectome.

Deroy, Ophelia, and Charles Spence. 2013. “Training, Hypnosis, and Drugs: Artificial Synaesthesia, or Artificial Paradises?” Frontiers in Psychology 4: doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00660.

Gilfillan, Geoffrey, Jessica Vitale, John Weldon McNutt, and Karen McComb. 2016. “Cross-Modal Individual Recognition in Wild African Lions.” Biology Letters 12, no. 8: 20160323.

Hecht, Erin E., et al. 2012. “Process versus Product in Social Learning: Comparative Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Neural Systems for Action Execution—Observation Matching in Macaques, Chimpanzees, and Humans.” Cerebral Cortex 23, no. 5: 1014—1024.

Izquierdo, Eduardo J., and Randall D. Beer. 2016. “The Whole Worm: Brain-Body-Environment Models of C. elegans.” Current Opinion in Neurobiology 40: 23—30.

Ludwig, Vera U., Ikuma Adachi, and Tetsuro Matsuzawa. 2011. “Visuoauditory Mappings between High Luminance and High Pitch Are Shared by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Humans.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, no. 51: 20661—20665.

Schusterman, Ronald J., and David Kastak. 1998. “Functional Equivalence in a California Sea Lion: Relevance to Animal Social and Communicative Interactions.” Animal Behaviour 55, no. 5: 1087—1095.

Van den Heuvel, Martijn P., Edward T. Bullmore, and Olaf Sporns. 2016. “Comparative Connectomics.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20, no. 5: 345—361.

White, John G., Eileen Southgate, J. Nichol Thomson, and Sydney Brenner. 1986. “The Structure of the Nervous System of the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 314, no. 1165: 1—340.


Taubert and Parr (2012) use Mooney objects to examine chimpanzee facial recognition. Dog rear Jesus can be viewed at Biello (2007) discusses the “God helmet,” and Oliver Sacks’s book on hallucinations is also listed below. Ffytche (2005) describes Bonnet syndrome, and he discusses the taxonomy of hallucination in ffytche (2013). Allen et al. (2008) use neuroimaging to study hallucinations. Blakemore et al. (2000) explain why you can’t tickle yourself, and Carhart-Harris et al. (2016) discuss fMRI studies of people on LSD.

Allen, Paul, Frank Larøi, Philip K. McGuire, and Andrè Aleman. 2008. “The Hallucinating Brain: A Review of Structural and Functional Neuroimaging Studies of Hallucinations.” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 32, no. 1: 175—191.

Biello, David. 2007. “Searching for God in the Brain.” Scientific American Mind 18, no. 5: 38—45.

Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne, Daniel Wolpert, and Chris Frith. 2000. “Why Can’t You Tickle Yourself?” NeuroReport 11: 11—16.

Carhart-Harris, et al. 2016. “Neural Correlates of the LSD Experience Revealed by Multimodal Neuroimaging.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113, no. 17: 4853—4858.

ffytche, Dominic H. 2005. “Visual Hallucinations and the Charles Bonnet Syndrome.” Current Psychiatry Reports 7, no. 3: 168—179.

———. 2013. “The Hallucinating Brain: Neurobiological Insights into the Nature of Hallucinations.” In Hallucination, ed. Fiona Macpherson and Dimitris Platchias, 45—64. MIT Press.

Sacks, Oliver. 2012. Hallucinations. Pan Macmillan.

Taubert, Jessica, and Lisa A. Parr. 2012. “The Perception of Two-Tone Mooney Faces in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).” Cognitive Neuroscience 3, no. 1: 21—28.


Dunn (2015) provides a comprehensive analysis of the relations or phylogeny of languages. DeSalle and Tattersall (2012) describe the evolution of hominid brains. Scott et al. (2014), Hublin et al. (2015), and Gunz (2016) discuss the reconstruction of Neanderthal infant skulls. Bolhuis et al. (2014, 2015) describe merging and the evolution of language, and Lieberman (2015) critiques the ideas therein. Dahaene et al. (2015) discuss the emergence of literacy in humans. Lehrer (2008) describes Proust’s inclination to neurobiology.

Bolhuis, Johan J., Ian Tattersall, Noam Chomsky, and Robert C. Berwick. 2014. “How Could Language Have Evolved?” PLoS Biol 12, no. 8: e1001934.

———. 2015. “Language: UG or Not to Be, That Is the Question.” PLoS Biol 13, no. 2: e1002063.

Dehaene, Stanislas, Laurent Cohen, José Morais, and Régine Kolinsky. 2015. “Illiterate to Literate: Behavioural and Cerebral Changes Induced by Reading Acquisition.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 16, no. 4: 234—244.

DeSalle, Rob, and Ian Tattersall. 2012. The Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and Beliefs. Yale University Press.

Dunn, Michael. 2015. “Language Phylogenies.” In The Routledge Handbook of Historical Linguistics, 190—211. Routledge.

Gunz, Philipp. 2016. “Growing Up Fast, Maturing Slowly: The Evolution of a Uniquely Modern Human Pattern of Brain Development.” In Developmental Approaches to Human Evolution, ed. Julia C. Boughner and Campbell Rolian, 261—283. John Wiley and Sons.

Hublin, Jean-Jacques, Simon Neubauer, and Philipp Gunz. 2015. “Brain Ontogeny and Life History in Pleistocene Hominins.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 370, no. 1663: 20140062.

Lehrer, Jonah. 2008. Proust Was a Neuroscientist. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Lieberman, Philip. 2015. “Language Did Not Spring Forth 100,000 Years Ago.” PLoS Biol 13, no. 2: e1002064.

Scott, Nadia, Simon Neubauer, Jean-Jacques Hublin, and Philipp Gunz. 2014. “A Shared Pattern of Postnatal Endocranial Development in Extant Hominoids.” Evolutionary Biology 41, no. 4: 572—594.


Pinker’s cheesecake remark is from his 1999 paper, and Sacks’s brainworm statement is from his 2010 book. Hou et al. (2016) review the neural correlates for perfect pitch, and Seesjärvi et al. (2016) examine the genetic basis of pitch. Chanda and Levitin (2013) look at the neurobiology of music, and Peretz (2016) reviews the neurobiology of amusia. Genome studies of musical traits are discussed in Oikkonen et al. (2016), and Oikkonen and Järvelä (2014), Tan et al. (2014), and Gingras et al. (2015). Bonneville-Roussy et al. (2013), Ter Bogt et al. (2013), Clark and Giacomantonio (2015), Pantev et al. (2015), Savage et al. (2015), Schäfer et al. (2013), and Schäfer (2016) explore social correlates to music. Thoma et al. (2013) discuss the role of music in relieving stress, and Sievers et al. (2013) describe the Mr. Ball experiments with music and emotion. Patrick Cavanagh’s art and neuroscience paper (2005) is also listed below. Huang (2009) discusses Ramachandran’s take on art. Colton (2012) describes Painting Fool, and Berov and Kühnberger (2016) discuss the hallucinogenic capacity of Painting Fool.

Berov, Leonid, and Kai—Uwe Kühnberger. 2016. “Visual Hallucination for Computational Creation.” In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Computational Creativity, 107—114.

Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle, Peter J. Rentfrow, Man K. Xu, and Jeff Potter. 2013. “Music through the Ages: Trends in Musical Engagement and Preferences from Adolescence through Middle Adulthood.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 105, no. 4: 703.

Cavanagh, Patrick. 2005. “The Artist as Neuroscientist.” Nature 434, no. 7031: 301—307.

Chanda, Mona Lisa, and Daniel J. Levitin. 2013. “The Neurochemistry of Music.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17, no. 4: 179—193.

Clark, Shannon Scott, and S. Giac Giacomantonio. 2015. “Toward Predicting Prosocial Behavior: Music Preference and Empathy Differences between Adolescents and Adults.” Empirical Musicology Review 10, no. 1—2: 50—65.

Colton, Simon. 2012. “The Painting Fool: Stories from Building an Automated Painter.” In Computers and Creativity, 3—38. Springer.

Gingras, Bruno, et al. 2015. “Defining the Biological Bases of Individual Differences in Musicality.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 370, no. 1664: 20140092.

Hou, Jiancheng, et al. 2016. “Neural Correlates of Absolute Pitch: A Review.” Musicae Scientia doi 10.1177/1029864916662903.

Huang, Mengfei. 2009. “The Neuroscience of Art.” Stanford Journal of Neuroscience 2, no. 1: 24—26.

Oikkonen, Jaana, and Irma Järvelä. 2014. “Genomics Approaches to Study Musical Aptitude.” Bioessays 36, no. 11: 1102—1108.

Oikkonen, Jaana, Päivi Onkamo, Irma Järvelä, and Chakravarthi Kanduri. 2016. “Convergent Evidence for the Molecular Basis of Musical Traits.” Scientific Reports 6: 39707.

Pantev, Christo, et al. 2015. “Musical Expertise Is Related to Neuroplastic Changes of Multisensory Nature within the Auditory Cortex.” European Journal of Neuroscience 41, no. 5: 709—717.

Peretz, Isabelle. 2016. “Neurobiology of Congenital Amusia.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20, no. 11: 857—867.

Pinker, Steven. 1999. “How the Mind Works.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 882, no. 1: 119—127.

Sacks, Oliver. 2010. Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain. Vintage.

Savage, Patrick E., Steven Brown, Emi Sakai, and Thomas E. Currie. 2015. “Statistical Universals Reveal the Structures and Functions of Human Music.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112, no. 29: 8987—8992.

Schäfer, Thomas. 2016. “The Goals and Effects of Music Listening and Their Relationship to the Strength of Music Preference.” PloS One 11, no. 3: e0151634.

Schäfer, Thomas, Peter Sedlmeier, Christine Städtler, and David Huron. 2013. “The Psychological Functions of Music Listening.” Frontiers in Psychology 4: 511.

Seesjärvi, Erik, et al. 2016. “The Nature and Nurture of Melody: A Twin Study of Musical Pitch and Rhythm Perception.” Behavior Genetics 46, no. 4: 506—515.

Sievers, Beau, Larry Polansky, Michael Casey, and Thalia Wheatley. 2013. “Music and Movement Share a Dynamic Structure That Supports Universal Expressions of Emotion.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 1: 70—75.

Tan, Yi Ting, Gary E. McPherson, Isabelle Peretz, Samuel F. Berkovic, and Sarah J. Wilson. 2014. “The Genetic Basis of Music Ability.” Frontiers in Psychology 5: 658.

Ter Bogt, Tom F. M., Loes Keijsers, and Wim H. J. Meeus. 2013. “Early Adolescent Music Preferences and Minor Delinquency.” Pediatrics 131, no. 2: e380—e389.

Thoma, Myriam V., et al. 2013. “The Effect of Music on the Human Stress Response.” PloS One 8, no. 8: e70156.


The study of reading comprehension on the computer screen versus hard copy was accomplished by Mangen et al. (2013). Ortiz De Gortari (2016) explains the Game Transfer Phenomena (GTP) in detail. The impact on tactile and sensory aspects of perception and homuncular flexibility in a virtual reality world is discussed in Won et al. (2015). My colleague and I discuss Antonio Damasio’s views on emotions in DeSalle and Tattersall (2012), and Tattersall (2016) discusses the role of language in human cognition.

DeSalle, Rob, and Ian Tattersall. 2012. The Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and Beliefs. Yale University Press.

Mangen, Anne, Bente R. Walgermo, and Kolbjørn Brønnick. 2013. “Reading Linear Texts on Paper versus Computer Screen: Effects on Reading Comprehension.” International Journal of Educational Research 58: 61—68.

Ortiz De Gortari, Angelica B. 2016. “The Game Transfer Phenomena Framework: Investigating Altered Perceptions, Automatic Mental Processes and Behaviors Induced by Virtual Immersion.” Annual Review of Cybertherapy and Telemedicine 14: 9—15.

Tattersall, Ian. 2016. “The Thinking Primate: Establishing a Context for the Emergence of Modern Human Cognition.” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 160, no. 3: 254—265.

Won, Andrea Stevenson, Jeremy Bailenson, Jimmy Lee, and Jaron Lanier. 2015. “Homuncular Flexibility in Virtual Reality.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 20, no. 3: 241—259.